Complimentary Roles of Quantitative & Qualitative Research Methods 2015.2.25

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<ul><li><p>(Quantitative &amp; Qualitative Research Methods)</p><p>.. RACM3012: </p><p>25 .. 58Pix source: www.facebook.com/pmac2015worldartcontest/photos/ </p></li><li><p>1. (learning) (knowledge creation): Implementation gap vs. Knowledge gap</p><p>2. : (Philosophy of Science)! </p><p>3. : </p><p>Presentation Outline</p><p>Pix!source:!online.wsj.com!</p></li><li><p>Learning &amp; Knowledge Creation!</p><p>Pix!source:!online.wsj.com!</p></li><li><p>Implementation Gap vs. Knowledge Gap</p><p>41"</p><p> Deming Cycle</p><p>Pix"source:"courtesy"of"Akarin"Nimmamit,"MD"</p><p>PDCA &amp; R2R !</p><p> () </p><p> ()</p></li><li><p>/. ?</p></li><li><p>/. ?</p></li><li><p>Research, Learning, Knowledge Creation!</p><p>Pix!source:!online.wsj.com!</p></li><li>Source:!www.nasa.gov/audience/foreducators/plantgrowth/reference/Scien</li><li><p>1) Problem Identification ()2) Research Questions ():</p><p> What, Who, When, Where, How, Why, etc.3) Study Design ():</p><p> Cross-sectional, Retrospective Cohort, Prospective Case-Control, Clinical Trial, etc.4) Data Collection ():</p><p> Primary vs. Secondary Data Quantitative (Sampling) vs. Qualitative Data (Selection of Key Informants) </p><p>5) Data Analysis/Synthesis (/): QUAN: Statistical Analysis, etc. QUAL: Content Analysis, Thematic Analysis, etc. MMR: Mixed-methods Research</p><p>Research Methods</p></li><li><p>Philosophy of Science!We learn by so many ways: observation, experiment, etc.!But, how we learn what is true and what is not, </p><p>depends on our paradigm ().!!And, our paradigm depends on: Our ontology (): how we see the nature of truth. Our epistemology (): how we see the nature of </p><p>knowledge.</p><p>Very confusing? </p></li><li><p>Philosophy of Science</p><p>Objectivity (/) Subjectivity () (Truth already exists somewhere out there and is waiting for our discovery.) (knowledge) </p><p> (Truth is being constructed)</p><p> (knowledge) </p><p>Even more confusing? </p></li><li><p>The!Milkmaid,!!Johannes!Vermeer!(c.!1660)!</p></li><li><p>Source:!hLp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Palace_of_Westminster!</p></li><li><p>Source:!Claude!Monets!Le!Parlement!de!Londres!(1900Q1905)!</p></li><li><p>Vincent van Goghs Vase with Twelve Sunflowers (1888); The Starry Night (1889)</p></li><li><p>Philosophy of Science!Our paradigm () leads to our methodology</p><p>() and our methods (): how we find the truth and the knowledge: Study design Type of data &amp; data collection methodsData analytic/synthetic methods</p></li><li><p>1) Problem Identification ()2) Research Questions ():</p><p> What, Who, When, Where, How, Why, etc.3) Study Design ():</p><p> Cross-sectional, Retrospective Cohort, Prospective Case-Control, Clinical Trial, etc.4) Data Collection ():</p><p> Primary vs. Secondary Data Quantitative (Sampling) vs. Qualitative Data (Selection of Key Informants) </p><p>5) Data Analysis/Synthesis (/): QUAN: Statistical Analysis, etc. QUAL: Content Analysis, Thematic Analysis, etc. MMR: Mixed-methods Research</p><p>Design, Data Collection, Data Analysis</p></li><li><p> Aekplakorn, et al. Diabetes Care, 2011. </p></li><li><p> Aekplakorn, et al. Diabetes Care, 2011. </p></li><li><p> Aekplakorn, et al. Diabetes Care, 2011. </p></li><li><p> Christakis &amp; Fowler (2007). NEJM.</p></li><li><p> Christakis &amp; Fowler (2007). NEJM.</p></li><li><p> Christakis &amp; Fowler (2007). NEJM.</p></li><li><p> Gomes, et al. PLOS Currents Outbreaks. 2014.</p></li><li><p> Gomes, et al. PLOS Currents Outbreaks. 2014.</p></li><li><p> Gomes, et al. PLOS Currents Outbreaks. 2014.</p></li><li><p> Riewpaiboon et al. Social Science and Medicine, 2005.</p></li><li><p> Riewpaiboon et al. Social Science and Medicine, 2005.</p></li><li><p> Riewpaiboon et al. Social Science and Medicine, 2005.</p></li><li><p> Riewpaiboon et al. (2005). Social Science and Medicine.</p></li><li><p> Leerapan &amp; Namtatsanee (2013). Rama Med J.</p></li><li><p> Leerapan &amp; Namtatsanee (2013). Rama Med J.</p></li><li><p> Leerapan &amp; Namtatsanee (2013). Rama Med J.</p></li><li><p>Quantitative Study vs. Qualitative Study!</p><p>Pix!source:!online.wsj.com!</p></li><li><p>?</p></li><li><p>Type of Research Questions</p><p>Source: Gilson, editor (2012). Health Policy and Systems Research: A Methodology Reader.</p></li><li><p>The Dictatorship of the Research Question</p><p>Pix!source: hLp://news.mthai.com/worldQnews/244643.html!</p><p>Research!Paradigms!&amp;!Methods!</p><p>Research!Ques</p></li><li><p>Quantitative Study Qualitative Study Objective Test theory; driven by hypothesis </p><p> Measurable; report statistical analysis; basic element of analysis is numbers; establishes relationships, causation </p><p> Reasoning is logistic and deductive Uses instruments; researcher is </p><p>separate Strives for generalization; facts are </p><p>context-free and value-free Sample size is a concern: n </p><p> Subjective Develops theory; driven by </p><p>research questions Interpretive; report rich narrative, </p><p>individual interpretation; basic element of analysis is words/ideas; describes meaning, discovery </p><p> Reasoning is dialectic and inductive Uses communications/observation; </p><p>researcher is a part of process Strives for uniqueness; facts are </p><p>context-specific and value-laden Sample size is not a concern; seeks </p><p>informal-rich informants </p><p>Source: Adapated from Anderson (2006): www.icoe.org/webfm_send/1936</p></li><li><p>Research Skills for Physicians!</p><p>Pix!source:!online.wsj.com!</p></li><li><p>Physician vs. Researcher</p><p>Pix source: www.wamathai.com/listened/dilemma</p></li><li><p> ..2555: (epidemiological study) (descriptive statistics) (inferential statistics)</p><p> (economic analysis) (cost-effectiveness analysis) (cost-utility analysis) !</p><p>QUAN Study for Physicians</p></li><li><p> (Mathematical modeling): (Epidemic Models) (Econometrics Models) (Social Network Analysis)</p><p>QUAN Study for Physicians</p></li><li><p> .. 2555 . () (Health management)/ (Strategies in health promotion: empowerment at individual and social level, advocacy, health communication, public health policy) </p><p>QUAL Study for Physicians</p></li><li><p> : (medical anthropological study) 7 *</p><p>* (phenomenological study)* (action research) (qualitative case study) (ethonographic study) (grounded theory study)</p><p>QUAL Study for Physicians</p><p>*. .</p></li><li><p>Skills for QUAN Study</p><p> (Epidemiological study) (Descriptive statistics) (Inferential statistics)</p><p>. (Epidemiology), (Biostatistics) (Evidence-based medicine: EBM)</p></li><li><p>Skills for QUAL Study</p><p> (Observation):: ()</p><p>o (deep listening) (Participation): </p><p>o (Participant observation)o (Non-participant observation)</p><p> (Synthesis): (Theme synthesis)</p></li><li><p> (Observation)!</p><p>Pix!source:!online.wsj.com!</p></li><li><p>Probably not this kind of observation!</p><p>Source: www.blueflashgames.net!!!</p></li><li><p>Exercise I: </p></li><li><p>Exercise II: A &amp; B</p></li><li><p>Deep Listening &amp; Learning</p><p>Source: Senge, P., Scharmer, C.O., Jaworski, J. &amp; Flowers, B.S. (2004). Presence- Exploring Profound Change in People, Organizations and Society.!!</p><p> (Downloading) (Judging)!</p></li><li><p>Deep Listening &amp; Learning</p><p>Source: Senge, P., Scharmer, C.O., Jaworski, J. &amp; Flowers, B.S. (2004). Presence- Exploring Profound Change in People, Organizations and Society.!!</p><p>!</p><p>!</p><p>, </p></li><li><p>Deep Listening &amp; Learning Multiple levels of how we can learn from listening:</p><p> Downloading (, ): e.g. to test our knowledge, to test our hypotheses Observing, Open Mind ():</p><p>e.g. to understand and gain new knowledge of why and how do people think or behave in a certain way Sensing, Open Heart (, ):</p><p>e.g. to empathize people we met Presencing, Open Will (, ):</p><p>e.g to create our own insight or knowledge</p></li><li><p>Deep Listening &amp; Learning</p><p>!//</p></li><li><p> (Synthesis)!</p><p>Pix!source:!online.wsj.com!</p></li><li><p>Exercise III: </p></li><li>Pix!source: www.dekQd.com/educa</li><li>Pix!source: www.</li><li>Pix!source: www.mindsta</li><li><p>Exercise IV: </p></li><li><p> : (Le Petit Prince): Antoine De Saint-Exupery</p><p> : </p></li><li><p> ..."</p><p> 5 2552</p></li><li><p>Research Practice in the Fieldwork of RACM 302!</p><p>Pix!source:!online.wsj.com!</p></li><li><p>Research Skills for the FieldworkLearning Objectives of RACM302:1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. []</p><p>Source: www.facebook.com/pages/-7--/341466792618644 </p><p> QUAN: (Cross-sectional Survey)</p><p> QUAL: 7 </p></li><li><p>Research Skills for the Fieldwork 7 RACM302:1. : (), , </p><p> 2. : (, ), </p><p> 3. : , , </p><p>, , 4. :, </p><p>, , , 5. : () </p><p>Source: www.facebook.com/pages/-7--/341466792618644 </p><p>http://bit.ly/1Gl8VzZ</p></li><li><p>Source: influxentrepreneur.com/wendyelwell/</p><p>Up and Down the Ladder of Abstraction</p><p> (Abstract): (concepts) (theories) (principles) (strategies) (Concrete): (problem identification) (data management) (data analysis) (interpretation) (presentation) </p></li><li><p>What Level of Our Learning?</p><p> Why Wisdom</p><p> HowKnowledge</p><p> What, Who, When, Where Information</p><p> Number, Text, Picture, Sound, etc.</p><p>Data</p></li><li><p>Pix source: www.theguardian.com/science/2012/aug/31/neil-armstrong-modest-memorial</p><p>In much of society, research means to investigate something you do not know or understand.!!! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !-Neil Armstrong</p><p>! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !!</p></li><li><p>Q &amp; A!</p><p>Pix!source:!online.wsj.com!</p></li></ul>