- 1. Communication Presentation - Public speaking
Adapted from materials provided by Allyn and Bacon 2. What if communication were not possible? 3. Frustration and Chaos! 4. Public Speaking Produces Anxiety in Most People
- 80% of Speakers Feel Nervous
Peoples Biggest Fears 5. Most common ways to communicate Speaking Visual Images Writing Body Language 6. Communication SENDER RECEIVER Feedback receiver sender Communication is theprocess of sending and receiving information among people Source: CGAP Direct 7. Speaking Opportunities
- Customer Presentations and Reviews
- Town Zoning Board Meetings
- Boy and Girl Scout Meetings
8. Messages not delivered due to distortion Sender Receiver Feedback Distortion 9.
- 30% of you arent paying attention right now!
10. Clues that you are not listening
- Are you simply waiting for your turn to talk?
- Are you thinking about your reply before the other person has finished talking?
- During presentation/public speaking???
11. Listening and speaking require energy
- curiosity and open-mindedness
- analysis and understanding
12. Communication Goals To change behavior To get action To ensure understanding To persuade To get and give Information Source: CGAP Direct 13. Critical success factor for life
- The majority of your perceived ability comes from how you communicate
70% How you communicate it 30% What you know Source: CGAP Direct 14. Listening and Speaking are used a lot 15. But not taught enough Amount taught 16. Public Speaking & Conversation
- Organizing thoughts logically
- Tailoring message to audience
- Telling story for maximum impact
17. Public Speaking & Conversation
- Public speaking more highly structured
- Public speaking requires moreformal language
- Public speaking requiresdifferent method of delivery
18. Speech Communication Process 19. Speech Communication Process
20. The Speech Communication Process
- Speaker - speech communication starts here
- Message - whatever is communicated
- Channel means by which a message is communicated
- Listener the receiver of the communicated message
- Feedback comes in many forms and must be understood
- Interference - anything impeding the communication of the message
- Situation the time and place of occurrance
21. Vocal Expression
- There are five dimensions of voice that can be
- manipulated for greater effect.
- Volume- Speak louder or softer for emphasis.
- Pitch- Stay at an appropriate mid-range level.
- Rate- Accelerate for a few sentences to excite,
- Slow down and pause to emphasize some words.
- Articulation- Speak clearly with full voice.
- Quality- The personality of your voice, resonant,
22. What makes a good presentation? 23. What makes a good presentation?
24. Vocal Expression
- *Be appropriate in tone .Sometimes when we get nervous we laugh inappropriately during serious moments.We may even become self-satirizing when nervous, playing as if it werent important.
- * While you dont want to take yourself so seriously that you pressure yourself into errors, you shouldtreat the process with respect.
25. Vocalization 4P
- Volume loudness or softness
- adjust to the situation (electronically if necessary, dont yell)
- Pitch highness or lowness of the voice
- use inflections in your voice to avoid monotone
- Rate speed at which you speak
- 120-150 wpm is normal, too slow leaves people hanging on your words, too fast and they get confused and miss information
26. Vocalization contd
- Pauses momentary breaks in your speaking
- takes experience to know when to pause, pause at the end of thought units
- avoid vocalized pauses (uh, er, um...)
- vary the loudness, pitch and rate to make the speech sound more natural and interesting
- Pronunciation use correct pronunciation of common words
- genuine, arctic, theater, err, nuclear, February, library
- Articulation physical production of speech sounds
- we habitually chop, slur and mumble, rather than vocalizing
- ought to, didnt, for, dont know, ask
- Dialect variety of language distinguished by variations of accent, grammar or vocabulary
27. Nonverbal Expression
- The nonverbal frames the verbalin this sense:Whichever behavior interrupts the other is the one that takes audience focus.
- If I move to draw their attention - gesture or take a step - then speak, theyll hear me.
- If I start to speak, then move aimlessly, theyll watch but not hear.
28. Body Language
29. Things You Shouldnt Do
- Read directly from screen
30. Organizing a Speech Main Points
- It is better to be remembered for covering 3 or 4 points well than to leave the audience confused and sorting out 7 or 8 points you made.
- Strategic Order of Main Points
31. Understand the Speech Making Process
- Choosing/Narrowing a Topic
32. Choosing an Appropriate Topic
- Is It Important to Your Audience?
- Will It Hold Audiences Attention?
- Is It Manageable in the Time Available?
- Is It Appropriate for Oral Presentation?
33. Develop Central Idea
- Write a one sentence summary of speech.
I want to be a good leader 34. Generate Main Idea
- Does It Have Logical Divisions?
- Are There Reasons Why It Is True?
A... B... C... Because... 35. Narrowing a Topic - Example
- Protecting the Environment
- Water Quality in My State
- Utilizing Home Well Assessments to Reduce Contamination Risk
36. Getting Topic Feedback
- From Members of Potential Audience
37. Researching Topic and Finding Supporting Material
- Sources of Supporting Material
- Types of Supporting Material
- Tests of Supporting Material
38. Sources of Supporting Material
39. Sources of Supporting Material (cont)
- The Internet/World Wide Web
40. Tests of Supporting Material
41. Tests of Supporting Material (cont)
- Is Information Relevant to Point Made?
- Does Information Support the Point?
42. Types of Outlines
- Preliminary Outline (Rough-Draft)
43. Types of Outlines
44. Overcoming Speech Anxiety
45. Improving Your Confidence as a Speaker
- Being the Center of Attention
46. Overcoming Speech Anxiety (cont)
- Practice, Practice, Practice
- Ask Friends to Be Practice Audience
47. Overcoming Speech Anxiety (cont)
- Use Deep-breathing Techniques
- Focus on Message, not Fear
- Give Yourself a Mental Pep Talk
48. Understand Audience and Listening
- People Think Faster Than Hear
- Have Short Attention Span
49. Understand Audience Memory Time Amount of Speech Remembered + + - 50. Understand The Speech Context
51. Context 52. The Audience
53. Context - The Setting
54. Understand & Define Your Purpose
55. The Psychology of Audiences
- Its up to the speaker to make the audience choose to pay attention.
- Every speech contains two messages:
- One received by the listener
- People hear what they want to hear and disregard the rest. Paul SimonsThe Boxer
- Egocentrism the tendency for people to be most interested in themselves, their own problems and the way to solve them.
- They pay closest attention to what affects their own values, beliefs and well being.
56. Demographic Audience Analysis
- Look for observable audience traits
- Identify the general features
- Gauge their importance to the situation
- Whatever your age, youre a product of your world
- Old stereotypes no longer apply
- Avoid sexist language and references
- Racial, Ethnic or Cultural Background
- Be aware of differences and be able to adapt
- Highly charged emotional issue, be sure to consider the religious orientation or you might end up being embarassed.
- Guilt by association people judge you by the company you keep
57. Situational Audience Analysis
- Builds on demographic analysis ; identifies traits unique to the speaking situation
- Disposition toward the Topic
- Disposition toward the Speaker
- Disposition towards the Occasion
58. Adapting to the Audience
- Assess how the audience is likely to respond
- Adjust what you say to make it
- Things may/will not go exactly as you plan
- Dont panic, remain calm and adapt
- What do I want them to know, believe or do?
- What is the best way to accomplish this?
- Practice, practice, practice
59. Ethics in Speech Preparation - Researching
- Take Accurate Notes When Researching
- Record Complete Source Citations
- When in Doubt, Cite Source
60. Dont Use Someone Elses Speech! 61. Rehearsing Speech
- Practice Without Memorizing
62. Rehearsing Speech
63. Rehearsing Speech
64. Plan, Prepare, Polish, Practice, Present
- The better you know your material the less anxious youll be about presenting it.
- Smile and act natural. Dont apologize for being nervous. No one will know youre nervous unless you call attention to it.
- Write the general purpose, specific purpose and central idea of your chosen topic/s.
66. Organize Your Speech 67. Things You Should Do
- Rhetorical questions to involve audience
68. Ten Successful Tips Control the Butterflies
- Know the room- become familiar with the place of presentation
- Know the audience- greet or chat with the audience before hand.Its easier to speak to friends than to strangers
- Know your material-increased nervousness is due to un-preparedness
69. Control the Butterflies
- Relaxation- relax entire body by stretching and breathing so as to ease the tension
- Visualize giving your speech-Visualize yourself giving your speech from start to