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Cognitive & Language Development By: Deeviya a/p R.Davaraja Kam Hui Min Lavanyaa a/p K.Subramaniam Lee Ho Yan Nurul Aini binti Abdul Halim Nurul Amira binti Wagimin Shernold bin Ag. Salleh

Cognitive & Language development

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Cognitive & Language Development By: Deeviya a/p R.Davaraja

Kam Hui MinLavanyaa a/p K.SubramaniamLee Ho YanNurul Aini binti Abdul HalimNurul Amira binti WagiminShernold bin Ag. Salleh

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Definition of Cognitive

The inner processes of & products of the mind that lead to “knowing.”

Includes all mental activity - attending, remembering, symbolizing, categorizing, planning, reasoning, problem solving, creating & fantasizing.

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Cognitive Development

Language Development

Chomsky’s Theory

Vygotsky’s Theory

Piaget’s Theory

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Cognitive Development (Jean Piaget’s Theory)

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Jean Piaget’s TheoryStage Age (years) Description

Sensorimotor 0-2 Coordination of senses with motor response, sensory curiosity about the world. Object permanence developed.

Preoperational 2-7 Symbolic thinking, use of proper syntax and grammar. Imagination and intuition are strong, but complex abstract. Conservation developed.

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Jean Piaget’s Theory Stage Age (years) Description

Concrete Operational 7-11 Concepts attached to concrete situations. Time, space and quantity are understood and can be applied, but not as independent concepts.

Formal Operational 11 and above Theoretical, hypothetical, and counterfactual thinking. Abstract logic and reasoning. Strategy and planning. Concepts learned in one context can be applied to another.

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Reflexes( 0 - 1 month )

Innate reflexes - he will respond automatically to particular stimuli

Primary Circular Reaction ( 1 - 4 month )

Coordinating sensation and new schemes

Secondary Circular( 4 - 8 months )

Actions aimed at repeating interesting effects in the surrounding world; imitation of familiar behaviors

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Coordination of Secondary Circular Reactions( 8 - 12 months )

Intentional, or goal-directed, behavior; ability to find a hidden object in the first location in which it is hidden (object permanence); improved anticipation of events; imitation of behaviors slightly different from those the infant usually perform

Tertiary Circular Reactions ( 12 - 18 months )

Exploration of the properties of objects by acting on them in novel ways; imitation of novel behaviors; ability to search in several locations from hidden object (accurate A-B search)

Mental Representation( 18 months - 2 years )

Internal depictions of objects & events, as indicated by sudden solutions to problems; ability to find an object that has been moved while out of sight (invisible displacement); deferred imitation; & make believe play

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Preoperational Stage (2-7 yrs)AGE DESCRIPTION

2-4 years ● Shows a dramatic increase in representational activity, as reflected in the development of language make-believe play, drawing and understanding of dual representation.

● Takes the perspective of others in simplified, familiar situations and in everyday, face-to-face communication

● Distinguishes animate beings from inanimate objects● Grasps conservation, notices transformations, reverses thinking and understands

many cause-and-effect relationships in familiar contexts● Sorts familiar objects in hierarchically organized categories● Distinguishes appearance from reality

4-7 years ● Becomes increasingly aware that make-believe are representational activities● Replaces magical beliefs about fairies, goblins, and events that violate

expectations with plausible explanation● Solves verbal appearance-reality problems, signifying a more secure


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Concrete Operational (7-12 yrs) Conservation

The understanding that something stays the same in quantity even though its appearance changes.

To be more technical conservation is the ability to understand that redistributing material does not affect its mass, number, volume or length.

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By around seven years the majority of children can conserve liquid, because they understand that when water is poured into a different shaped glass, the quantity of liquid remains the same, even though its appearance has changed.


➔ Between ages 7 and 10, children pass Piaget’s class inclusion problem. This indicates that they are more aware of classification hierarchies and can focus on relations between a general and two specific categories at the same time that is on 3 relations at once (Hodges & French, 1988; Ni, 1998). Collections such as stamps, coins, rocks, bottle caps, and more become common in middle childhood.

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❏The ability to order items along a quantitative dimension, such as length or weight, is called seriation.

❏The concrete operational child can also seriate mentally, an ability called transitive inference.

Spatial Reasoning

➢ Displays more effective spatial reasoning, as indicated by ability to give clear directions and construct well-organized cognitive maps.

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Formal Operational Stage (12 and above)1. Thoughts become increasingly flexible and abstract2. Able to systematically solve a problem in a logical and methodical way.3. Understand that nothing is absolute; everything is relative.4. Skills such as logical thought, deductive reasoning, and systematic planning

develop inductive and deductive logic.5. Understand that the rules of any games or social system are developed by a

man by mutual agreement and hence could be changed or modified.6. the child's way of thinking is at its most advanced, although the knowledge it

has to work with will change.

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Cognitive Development(Lev Vygotsky’s Theory)

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OBJECTIVES❖ Theorist Background❖ Overview of Theory

a. Social Interaction influences Cognitive Development b. Language influences Cognitive Development

❖ Three Major themes:- a. Social Interaction b. More Knowledgeable Other (MKO) c. Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) i. Actual Developmental Level ii. Potential Development Level iii. Scaffolding

❖ Role of Language in Cognitive Development a. Self-talk b. Private Speech

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THEORIST BACKGROUND★ “The Mozart of Pyshocology”★ Lev Semonovich Vygotsky was born in Western Russia on November 5, 1896.★ He graduated from Moscow University with a degree in law in 1917.★ He completed 270 scientific articles, numerous, lectures and 10 books based on a wide range of Marxist-

based psychological and teaching theories.★ Most of his theories left undeveloped due to his early death although some of his writing being translated

from Russia.★ Lev Vygotsky is considered a seminal thinker in psychology and much of his work is still being discovered

and explored until today.★ He died on June 10, 1934.

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a. Emphasizes the influence that social interaction and language, embedded within a cultural context have on cognitive development. b. Considers learning as a semiotic process where participation in socially-mediated activities is essential. c. Focused on connections between people and sosiocultural context in which they act and interact in Shared experiences.

A. INFLUENCE OF SOCIAL INTERACTION IN COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT a. Vygotsky emphasized that effective learning occurs through participation in social activities. b. According to Vygotsky, human development results from a dynamic and active interaction between indivual and society. B. INFLUENCE OF LANGUAGE IN COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT a. Vygotsky believed that language is an important tool for the children to gain the social knowledge and to learn a lot.

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● Vygotsky felt the same as Jean Piaget about the social learning precedes child development. ● Vygotsky states:-

“Every function in the child’s cultural development appears twice: first, on the social level, and Later, on the individual level; first between people (interpsychological) and then inside the child intrapsychological).” (Vygotsky, 1978)

● Example:- a. Shaffer (1996) gives the example of a young girl who was struggling alone in the making of her jigsaw puzzle without any help. After her father’s explanation, encouragement and demonstration, she managed to finished it.


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● Refers to anyone who has a better understanding/higher ability level than the learner, with respect to a particular task, process or concept.

● Example: -Teacher, coach or older adult -Peers, younger person or computers


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● ZONE OF ACTUAL DEVELOPMENT a. Refers in which a child may perform at a certain level of competency and she/he may not immediately proficient at it. b. Refers to the extend level which a child can perform task independently.

● ZONE OF POTENTIAL DEVELOPMENT a. The level at which the child can perform with a certain portion of assistance.

● ZONE OF PROXIMAL DEVELOPMENT a. Refers to the distance between a student’s ability to perform a task under adult guidance and/or with peer collaboration and the student’s abillity solving the problem independently.

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FIRST STAGE (ASSISTED PERFORMANCE)- A child is learning a new lesson with somebody’s help and guidance.- Child is assisted to learn through some instrumental methods:

a. Lectures b. Q&A c. Problem-solving SECOND STAGE (UNASSISTED PERFORMANCE)

- As a child gains understanding on a lesson, she/he performs on the task given without any guidance from the person who helped he/she.

- A child is confidently work on the task even if he/she makes mistakes on it.

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THIRD STAGE (FULL INTERNALIZATION)- A student’s knowledge reaches the point where performance

is automatic and fully developed.- The student has internalized the skills to perform the task with



- Occurs later in life when the student becomes an adult and loses the ability to perform at a proficient level.

- It is an inevitable occurrence that requires to regress to the beginning of the learning cycle to regain mastery.

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● SCAFFOLDING a. Refers to the support or assistance that lets the child to accomplish a task that he/she cannot accomplish independently.

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ROLE OF LANGUAGE IN COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT❖ Language is the verbal expression of culture.

❖ According to Vygotsky (1962), language plays 2 critical role in cognitive development: a. The main means by which adults transmit info to child. b. Language becomes the powerful tool of intellectual adaptation.

❖ Thought and language are interdependent: a. Self-talk - Children talk themselves out loud. b. Private speech - Means for children to plan their activities. - Children talk to themselves mentally. - Language transformed into inner verbal thought.

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Language Development(Chomsky’s Theory)

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- The child’s mind must be predisposed to process language.

- Language acquisition device(LAD):*innate system that contains universal grammar *set of features common to all human languages / common concept in languages*Children decipher grammatical categories and relationships in exposed languages.*Children infer rules to their language when the child hears words or sentences (=parameter setting)*the rule becomes fixed and is used to interpret further speech.*done when the child has acquired sufficient vocabulary to combine words and understand the meanings

- Children learn babbling, one-word utterances, two-word utterances and master most of grammatical rules by the time they are 4 or 5.

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Implication of Teaching & Learning

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Cognitive Development“Piaget’s theory have had a major impact on the theory and practice of education” (Case, 1998).

Main implications drawn from Piaget’s theory are as follows:

1.A focus on the process of children’s thinking, not just its products.

- In addition to checking the correctness of children’s answers, teachers must understand the processes children use to get to the answer. Appropriate learning experiences build on children’s current level of cognitive functioning, and only when teachers appreciate children’s methods of arriving at particular conclusions are they in a position to provide such experiences.

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2. Recognition of the crucial role of children’s self-initiated, active involvement in learning activities.-In a Piagetian classroom the presentation of ready made knowledge is deemphasised, and children are encouraged to discover for themselves through spontaneous interaction with the environment. Therefore, instead of teaching didactically, teachers provide a rich variety of activities that permit children to act directly on the physical word.3. A deemphasis on practices aimed at making children adultlike in their thinking.-Piaget referred to the question how can we speed up development as the American question. Among many countries in he visited, psychologists and educators in the US seemed most interestedin what techniques could be used to accelerate children’s progress through the stages. Piagetian based educational programmes accept his firm belief that premature teaching could be worse than no teaching at all, because it leads to superficial acceptance of adult formulas rather than true cognitive understanding (May & Kundert, 1997).

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4. Acceptance of individual acceptance differences in developmental progress.-Piaget’s theory assumes that all children go through the same development sequence but that they do so at different rates. therefore , teachers must make a special effort to arrange classroom activities for individuals and small groups of children rather than for the total class group. In addition, because individual differences are expected, assessment of children’s educational progress should be made in terms of each child’s own previous course of development, not in terms of normative standards provided by performances of same age peers.

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❖ Assisted learning - Providing stategic help in the intial stages of learning. - Diminishing as students gain independence.

❖ Teaching in the Zone - Not too hard, not too easy but JUST RIGHT.

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Language DevelopmentNoam Chomsky argues that the human brain contains a limited set of rules for organising language.

In turn, there is an assumption that all languages have common structural basis. This set of rules is known as universal grammar.

In linguistics, a transformational grammar, or transformational generative grammar, is a generative grammar, especially of a natural language, that has been developed in a Chomskian tradition.

Additionally, transformational grammar is the Chomskian tradition that gives rise to specific transformational grammars.

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