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Classificatio n The Librarians’ Numbers Game or Doing the Dewey Thing Spring 2013 LIB 630 Classification and Cataloging

Classification: The Librarians' Numbers Game or, Doing the Dewey Thing

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ClassificationThe Librarians Numbers Gameor Doing the Dewey ThingSpring 2013LIB 630 Classification and Cataloging

12What is Classification?ClassificationThe process of dividing objects or concepts into logically hierarchical classes, subclasses, and sub-subclasses based on the characteristics they have in common and those that distinguish them. Also used as a shortened form of the term classification system or classification scheme. See also: Cataloging and Classification Section and cross-classification. Online Dictionary of Library and Information Science

23Classification system? classification system A list of classes arranged according to a set of pre-established principles for the purpose of organizing items in a collection, or entries in an index, bibliography, or catalog, into groups based on their similarities and differences, to facilitate access and retrieval. In the United States, most library collections are classified by subject. Classification systems can be enumerative or hierarchical, broad or close. In the United States, most public libraries use Dewey Decimal Classification, but academic and research libraries prefer Library of Congress Classification. See also: Classification Society of North America, Colon Classification, and notation.

34The Wikipedia versionLibrary classificationA library classification is system of coding, assorting and organizing documents, library materials or any information (books, serials, audiovisual materials, computer files, maps, manuscripts, realia) according to their subject and allocating a call number[clarification needed] to that information resource. Bibliographic classification systems group entities together that are relevant to the same subject, typically arranged in a hierarchical tree structure (like classification systems used in biology).

45More of the Wikipedia definitionLibrary classification (cont.)

In terms of functionality, classification systems are often described asenumerative: produce an alphabetical list of subject headings, assign numbers to each heading in alphabetical order hierarchical: divides subjects hierarchically, from most general to most specific faceted or analytico-synthetic: divides subjects into mutually exclusive orthogonal facets

56Dewey Decimal and Library of CongressWhere do these systems fit?

The most common classification systems, LC and DDC, are essentially enumerative, though with some hierarchical and faceted elements, (more so for DDC), especially at the broadest and most general level. The first true faceted system was the Colon classification of S. R. Ranganathan.


Library of Congress classificationLibrary of Congress classificationThe Library of Congress Classification (LCC) is a system of library classification developed by the Library of Congress. It is used by most research and academic libraries in the U.S. and several other countries, including Taiwan, ROC[1].

78More about LCCLibrary of Congress Classification (LCC) A system of classifying books and other library materials developed and maintained over the last 200 years by the Library of Congress in Washington, D.C. In LCC, human knowledge is divided into 20 broad categories indicated by single letters of the roman alphabet, with major subdivisions indicated by a second letter, and narrower subdivisions by decimal numbers and further alphabetic notation. Example: LC call number: PE 3727.N4 M34 1994

89LCC example explainedLC call number: PE 3727.N4 M34 1994In the example given above (assigned to the book Juba to Jive: A Dictionary of African-American Slang edited by Clarence Major), P represents the main class Language and literature, PE the class English language, 3727 the subclass English slang, and N4 African Americans as a special group. M34 is the Cutter number for the editors surname and 1994 is the year of publication.

910More about LCC Understanding Call Numbers

For an overview of the Library of Congress classification system, see the Library of Congress Classification outline, which shows the letters and titles of main classification classes and is offered online by the Library of Congress Cataloging Policy and Support Office.1011Is LCC just used by LC?Used by most other academic and research libraries in North AmericaThis system is in use at the Library of Congress and at many academic and research libraries in Canada and the United States. Few, if any, K-12 schools use LCC, except perhaps college prep schools, like Riverside Military Academy (grades 7-12, with about 100% college acceptance)

1112Any other common systems?SuDocsThe Superintendent of Documents Classification System (a system for government documents)SuDocs call numbers begin with letters which stand for the issuing government agency For a list of classes in the SuDoc department classification system, click HERE. After the department, other codes are added which represent agencies, the specific item, and date. E.g. C 3.134/2 : C 83/2/994 C=Dept. of Commerce, 3=Census Bureau, 134/2 : means Statistical Abstract Supplement, C 83/2/994 shows this is the County and City Data Book, 1994

Adelaide R. HasseDeveloper of the Superintendent of Documents Classification System in (1895)

12Another commonly used system13

Universal Decimal ClassificationThe Universal Decimal Classification (UDC) is the worlds foremost multilingual classification scheme for all fields of knowledge, a sophisticated indexing and retrieval tool. It was adapted by Paul Otlet (Raywards Otlet page; Wikipedia entry ) and Nobel Prizewinner Henri La Fontaine from the Decimal Classification of Melvil Dewey, and first published (in French) between 1904 and 1907. Since then, it has been extensively revised and developed, and has become a highly flexible and effective system for organizing bibliographic records for all kinds of information in any medium (it is well suited to multi-media information collections). [Used mostly in Europe or Anglophone countries outside North America]What is the UDC? See also UDC Flyer 2001(Word document) 1314What do we do with Dewey?Who is Dewey?

1415No, the dead oneMelville Dewey (1851-1931) invented the Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC) while he was working as a student-assistant in the library of Amherst College in 1873. He published the Dewey Decimal Classification system in 1876. His original name was Melville Louis Kossuth Dewey. He dropped his middle names and changed the spelling of his first name, and he even spelled his last name Dui! Biography of Melville DeweyDewey Decimal in the UIUC Bookstacks

Melville Dewey, founder of the Lake Placid Club1516Other accomplishments of DeweySpelling reformerIn 1876 Dewey was involved in the foundation of the Spelling Reform Association of which he was Secretary for almost all his life. About the English language Dewey writes:Speling Skolars agree that we hav the most unsyentifik, unskolarli, illojikal & wasteful speling ani languaj ever ataind. http://www.childrenofthecode.org/code-history/dewey.htm

1617Lets Do Dewey Click on the appropriate Dewey to begin the Library exercise on the Dewey Decimal Classification System

From a tutorial by Middle Tennessee State University James E. Walker LibraryMurfreesboro, TN 37132

1718Dewey Call numbers vs. LCCWhat Is a Call Number? A unique identification numberEach book (or other item) has its own unique call number which is taped to the lower outside edge of the book's spine. The call number is also written or taped inside the book, usually on the reverse side (verso) of the title page. A miniature subject formulaBooks written about the same subject have similar call numbers, which groups them together on the shelf, making it easier for you to browse the library's holdings on a specific topic. A location code From a Research Guide by Joan Reitz, Instruction Librarian,Ruth Haas Library, Western Connecticut State University

1819There are 2 basic parts to a call numberThe SUBJECT part and the AUTHOR part.In the Library of Congress Classification...Subject - This part is made up of 2 letters plus 1 to 4 (or more) digits.Author - This part begins with a letter that corresponds to the first letter of the author's last name, followed by a series of numbers.For example, if you had a book by Jeffrey Pfeffer entitled The Human Equation: Building Profits by Putting People First, The Library of Congress call number might be HF 5386 .P5468

1920In the Dewey Decimal Classification...Subject This part is made up of all numbers, ranging from 3 to 10 or more digits (depending on how narrowly focused the topic of the book). Author This part begins with a letter that matches the first letter of the author's last name, followed by 2 or 3 numbers, and then usually another letter that matches the first letter of the first word of the title. For the book by Jeffrey Pfeffer entitled The Human Equation: Building Profits by Putting People First:The Dewey call number might be 658.314 P524h http://www.emu.edu/library/tutorials/Tutorial_dist/Mod1Bdewey.htm

2021How do these numbers work?Library of Congress: HF = The section for books about commerce 5386 = Books about success in business.P5468 = Represents the authors last name [This is the Cutter number]Dewey: 658.314 = The number for books about motivating employeesP524h = P524 stands for the author's last name (Pfeffer); h for the first word of the title (Human) [This is the Cutter number]Adapted from Making Call Numbers Work For You

600=Technology,650=Management & auxiliary services658=General management658.3=Personnel management (Human resource management)2122How DDC worksOrganization of knowledgeThe DDC attempts to organize all knowledge into ten main classes that, excluding the first class (000 Computers, information and general reference), proceed from the divine (philosophy & religion) to the mundane (history & geography). DDCs cleverness is in choosing decimals for its categories; this allows it to be both purely numerical and infinitely hierarchical. Older version of Dewey Decimal Classification article, section 1 Design

2223Deweys main classesThe system is made of up ten categories:

2324Subdividing from the main classesFrom the general to the specific:Each of the above classes each have ten divisions. These divisions are further divided--and then further divided. Each division becomes more specific. The more numbers, the more specific the subject. In this way, the Dewey classification system progresses from the general to the specific. For a detailed summary for each number see the Dewey Decimal Classification System. The decimal place is used to make the number even more specific. Dewey Decimal Classification System, Lets do Dewey

2425Try catching a butterfly with Dewey!Start with the class for natural sciences, the 500s This means that the first number of the call number will be a 5 The 10 divisions of the 500 class are:510 Mathematics 520 Astronomy 530 Physics 540 Chemistry 550 Earth Sciences 560 Paleontology 570 Life Sciences 580 Botanical Sciences 590 Zoological Sciences FromLets Do Dewey, Dewey Decimal Classification System

2526Butterflies in DeweyButterflies will be classified under the Zoological Sciences 590 Now we know that the second number of the call number will be a 9 Let's see the divisions of the 590s to find the next number. The Zoological Sciences, the 590s, are divided into ten divisions also Insects, including butterflies would be under 595. The 595s are further divided by the use of decimals to specify what type of insects From Lets Do Dewey, Dewey Decimal Classification System

2627Begin to get the picture?

From Lets Do Dewey, Dewey Decimal Classification System 2728Ways to remember the main Dewey classes1.


A STORY ABOUT THE DEWEY DECIMAL SYSTEM OF CLASSIFICATION Who made me? RELIGION AND MYTHOLOGY (Man thinks about God.)More . . . 200's Who am I? PHILOSOPHY AND PSYCHOLOGY (Man thinks about himself.)100's

One day, while Melvil Dewey was walking in Central Park, he saw a UFO. He became terrified of it, and ran to take cover.More . . .

2829What does the call number mean?

http://tln.lib.mi.us/searchpath/glossary/callnumber.html 2930Cutter numbersCutter? Among his other contributions to the wonderful world of librarianship, Charles Ammi Cutter devised a way to assign an alpha-numeric code for authors last names. Use of this system allows all books within a particular Dewey Decimal number to be arranged alphabetically on the shelf, usually by title. The Cutter Number from Dewey Decimal in the UIUC Bookstacks

3031Lets go Cuttering!Cutter numbers The cutter number for a book usually consists of the first letter of the author's last name and a series of numbers. This series of numbers comes from a table that is designed to help maintain an alphabetical arrangement of names.Conley, EllenC767 Conley, Robert C768 Cook, Robin C77 Cook, Thomas C773What if the library has several works by the same author? How do we keep the call number unique? To do that a work mark or work letter is used to distinguish the various works of a single author. Cook, Robin Acceptable Risk 813.54 C77a Cook, Robin Fever 813.54 C77f

http://library.mtsu.edu/dewey/index.php#Cutter 31Several books by the same author32

Be aware that cutter numbers can differ from library to library! Some use 3 numbers as here, others (especially school libraries) may only use the first letter of the authors last name3233How do you create a Dewey number?Classifying a work properly depends first upon determining the subject of the work in hand. A key element in determining the subject is the authors intent.The title is often a clue to the subject, but should never be the sole source of analysis. For example, Who Moved My Cheese? is a work on coping with change, not a work related to the culinary arts.The table of contents; chapter headings or subheadingsPreface, introduction and/or forewordScanning the text (i.e. skimming through the book)Book jacket blurbsBibliographic references, index entriesOutside sources, such as reviews, reference works and subject experts

Modified from DDC 23 Introduction, paragraphs 5.1 and 5.2

33A PowerPoint about creating DDC numbers34

Download from or read on

35ExampleSaltwater Fishing in the Gulf of Mexico by James Ferguson This book is about fishing, which is included as a part of the 700 class. In fact, the class subdivision 799 is designated as Fishing, Hunting, and Shooting. Within this class, there are more decimal subclasses that provide a very detailed Dewey description of this book. The Dewey number 799.166 describes the subject matter of the book. Major Dewey Class700 The Arts Dewey SubClass: 790Recreational & Perf. Arts Dewey SubClass: 799 Fishing, Hunting, Shooting Subdivision 799.1 Fishing Subdivision 799.16 Saltwater Fishing Subdivision 799.166 Saltwater Fishing in Specific Bodies of Water

Where does the Dewey Decimal Number come from?No longer available online

35How do you create the number?You build it!Determine what the book is aboutDecide which main class it fits underi.e. is it General (000-099), Philosophy (100-199), Religion (200-299), etc.?Does it fit into one of the subdivisions in the main class?e.g. if its religion (200s), is it related to the Bible (220-229), or is it the Koran (290-299 Other religions and sects)Decide the more specific area its related to (i.e. the third number before the decimale.g. Weve decided its related to the Bible (220s). Is it a general Bible reference or encyclopedia? Then its 220. something. Is it related to the Old Testament? Then its 222. something. The New Testament is 225 and up. If its from the Gospels, its 226. something. Matthews gospel is 226.2 See this list of Bible-related call numbers.If you need additional detail, to indicate more specific aspects, like geographical, historical, or other details, use the Subdivision tablesSee the following slides!3637Additional additions to Dewey NumbersStandard subdivisionsA standard subdivision represents a recurring physical form (such as a dictionary, periodical, or index) or approach (such as history or research) and thus is applicable to any subject or discipline that covers or approximates the whole of the meaning of the number.Introduction to Dewey Decimal Classification, para. 8.3For example, if the item being cataloged is a magazine, the Standard Subdivision 05 could be used with the notation for the subject to indicate this. Or an agricultural dictionary can be indicated by using the correct notation for the subject from the schedules, and adding the notation 03 from Table 1 to indicate a dictionary. Examples from http://www.lili.org/forlibs/ce/able/course7/34subdivisions.htm3738Other examples of Standard Subdivisions150.5 Periodical on psychology230.003 Dictionary of Christianity340.02573 Directory of lawyers in the U.S.401 Philosophy of language507.8 Use of apparatus and equipment in the study and teaching of science, e.g., science fair projects624.0285 Computer applications in civil engineering796.912092 Biography of a figure skater808.0071 Teaching of rhetoricSome examples have added a 0 after the decimal, because of instructions in schedules

Introduction to DDC, para. 8.33839Where do you find these subdivisions?In schedules or Table 1 of the Dewey schedules (book or series of books that are the Dewey reference)Standard subdivisions may be listed in the schedules when the subdivisions have extended or narrowed meanings. . . . Standard subdivisions may also be listed to introduce an expansion featuring special notation (the subdivisions in the expansion are not standard subdivisions). Such standard subdivisions are accompanied by a special note.DDC Introduction, para. 8.4

3940Other subdivisionsTable 2: Geographic Areas, Historical Periods, BiographyThe major use of Table 2 is with notation 09 from Table 1, where it can be added to every number in the schedule unless there are specific instructions to the contrary.For example, reading instruction in the primary schools of Australia is 372.40994 (372.4 reading instruction in primary schools + 09 History, geography treatment, biography from Table 1 + 94 Australia from Table 2).DDC Intro, para.8.14

4041Tables 3-6Table 3 Subdivisions for the Arts, for Individual Literatures, for Specific Literary FormsThese subdivisions are used in class 800 as instructedTable 4 Subdivisions of Individual Languages and Language FamiliesThese subdivisions are used as instructed in class 400, following numbers for designated specific languages or language families in 420 490Table 5 Ethnic and National GroupsMay only be added when specified in a noteTable 6 LanguagesThe major uses of Table 6 notation are to provide the basis for building a specific language number in 490 . . . and to provide the basis for building a specific literature number in 890.DDC Intro, paras 8.16-8.2041What about letters BEFORE the numbers?PrefixesLibraries sometimes add letters before the numbers to indicate if the item belongs to specific collection (like R or REF for reference) or a particular size (some libraries might use OS for oversized), or the level ( J or JUV for juvenile, for example, or E for easy or early reader), or type of material (VIDEO or DVD, etc.).42

A complete call number could look like this:See Anatomy of a Call NumberPrefix4243Where should we get the schedules?Recommendation:Dewey, Melvil and J. S. Mitchell. Abridged Dewey Decimal Classification and Relative Index. 15th ed. Albany, NY: Forest Press, 2012. For libraries with collections of 20,000 titles or fewer, the abridged edition of the Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC) system provides the level of detail needed to classify the materials in those collections. Dewey services : Latest versions : Abridged


43If youre a bigger library?Four printed volumes help keep your collections organizedDDC 23, the four-volume unabridged edition of the Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC) system, reflects the many changes to the body of human knowledge that have occurred since DDC 22 was published in 2003. Published in mid-2011, DDC 23 includes helpful tools that make the classification easier to use. 44

45Is it available online?WebDewey 2.0Access the Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC) and related informationSearch or browse Dewey numbers, Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH), Mapped MeSH, and BISAC headingsAccess authority records from links in the WebDewey recordsAdd your own notes and display them in context

Abridged 15 and Abridged WebDewey 2.0 will be available later in 2012. (Latest info on the webearlier announcements had said later in 2011 and then late 2011 or early 2012.)

45Websites to learn Dewey46