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©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism, 4th edition Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Kotler, Bowen, and Makens Chapter 4 Chapter 4 The The Marketing Marketing Environment Environment Dr. John V. Dr. John V. Padua Padua

Chapter 4 Marketing Environment

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Chapter 4 Marketing Environment

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Page 1: Chapter 4 Marketing Environment

©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism, 4th editionUpper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Kotler, Bowen, and Makens

Chapter 4Chapter 4

The Marketing The Marketing EnvironmentEnvironment

Dr. John V. PaduaDr. John V. Padua

Page 2: Chapter 4 Marketing Environment

©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism, 4th editionUpper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Kotler, Bowen, and Makens

Chapter ObjectivesChapter Objectives• List and discuss the importance of the List and discuss the importance of the

elements of the company’s microenvironment elements of the company’s microenvironment • Describe the macroenvironmental forces that Describe the macroenvironmental forces that

affect the company’s ability to serve its affect the company’s ability to serve its customerscustomers

• Explain how changes in demographic and Explain how changes in demographic and

economic environments affect marketing and economic environments affect marketing and describe the levels of competitiondescribe the levels of competition

©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism, 4th editionUpper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Kotler, Bowen, and Makens

Page 3: Chapter 4 Marketing Environment

©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism, 4th editionUpper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Kotler, Bowen, and Makens

Chapter ObjectivesChapter Objectives

• Identify the major trends in the firm’s natural Identify the major trends in the firm’s natural and technological environmentsand technological environments

• Explain the key changes that occur in the Explain the key changes that occur in the political and cultural environmentspolitical and cultural environments

• Discuss how companies can be proactive Discuss how companies can be proactive rather than reactive when responding to rather than reactive when responding to environmental trendsenvironmental trends

©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism, 4th editionUpper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Kotler, Bowen, and Makens

Page 4: Chapter 4 Marketing Environment

©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism, 4th editionUpper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Kotler, Bowen, and Makens

The Company’s MicroenvironmentThe Company’s Microenvironment

• The CompanyThe Company

• SuppliersSuppliers

• Marketing IntermediariesMarketing Intermediaries

©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism, 4th editionUpper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Kotler, Bowen, and Makens

Page 5: Chapter 4 Marketing Environment

©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism, 4th editionUpper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Kotler, Bowen, and Makens

The Company’s MicroenvironmentThe Company’s Microenvironment

©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism, 4th editionUpper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Kotler, Bowen, and Makens

Page 6: Chapter 4 Marketing Environment

©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism, 4th editionUpper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Kotler, Bowen, and Makens

The CompanyThe Company• Marketing managers must work with all Marketing managers must work with all

departments of a companydepartments of a company

• All Departments have an impact on the All Departments have an impact on the marketing department’s plans and marketing department’s plans and actionsactions

• ““Think Consumer”Think Consumer”

©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism, 4th editionUpper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Kotler, Bowen, and Makens

Page 7: Chapter 4 Marketing Environment

©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism, 4th editionUpper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Kotler, Bowen, and Makens

SuppliersSuppliers

• Suppliers are firms and individuals that Suppliers are firms and individuals that provide the resources needed by the provide the resources needed by the company to produce its goods and company to produce its goods and servicesservices

• Suppliers can seriously affect marketing Suppliers can seriously affect marketing plansplans

©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism, 4th editionUpper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Kotler, Bowen, and Makens

Page 8: Chapter 4 Marketing Environment

©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism, 4th editionUpper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Kotler, Bowen, and Makens

Marketing IntermediariesMarketing Intermediaries• Marketing intermediaries help the Marketing intermediaries help the

company promote, sell, and distribute its company promote, sell, and distribute its goods to the final buyersgoods to the final buyers

• Marketing service agencies help formulate Marketing service agencies help formulate and implement marketing strategiesand implement marketing strategies

• Financial intermediaries help hospitality Financial intermediaries help hospitality companies finance their transactionscompanies finance their transactions

©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism, 4th editionUpper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Kotler, Bowen, and Makens

Page 9: Chapter 4 Marketing Environment

©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism, 4th editionUpper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Kotler, Bowen, and Makens

The Company’s MacroenvironmentThe Company’s Macroenvironment

(Adapted from Analysis for Market Planning, Donald R. Lehmann and Russell S. Winer, p. 22, 1994 by Richard D. Irwin.)

©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism, 4th editionUpper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Kotler, Bowen, and Makens

Page 10: Chapter 4 Marketing Environment

©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism, 4th editionUpper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Kotler, Bowen, and Makens

CompetitorsCompetitors

• To be successful, a company must satisfy To be successful, a company must satisfy needs and wants of consumers better than needs and wants of consumers better than competitorscompetitors

• A company should monitor three variables A company should monitor three variables when analyzing each of its competitorswhen analyzing each of its competitors

– Share of MarketShare of Market– Share of MindShare of Mind– Share of HeartShare of Heart

©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism, 4th editionUpper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Kotler, Bowen, and Makens

Page 11: Chapter 4 Marketing Environment

©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism, 4th editionUpper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Kotler, Bowen, and Makens

Demographic EnvironmentDemographic Environment

• Demography is the study of human Demography is the study of human populations in terms of size, density, populations in terms of size, density, location, age, gender, race, occupation, location, age, gender, race, occupation, and other statisticsand other statistics

• Demographics change over time and Demographics change over time and companies must keep up with themcompanies must keep up with them

©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism, 4th editionUpper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Kotler, Bowen, and Makens

Page 12: Chapter 4 Marketing Environment

©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism, 4th editionUpper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Kotler, Bowen, and Makens

Demographic EnvironmentDemographic Environment

• Baby boomers Baby boomers – 77 Million post-World War II babies born between 1946-1964

• Generation X Generation X – 45 million born between 1965-1976, the “birth dearth”

• Generation YGeneration Y (echo boomers) – 72 million born between 1977-1994

• Generation Generation ZZ (techno boomers) – born after -1996

©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism, 4th editionUpper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Kotler, Bowen, and Makens

Page 13: Chapter 4 Marketing Environment

©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism, 4th editionUpper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Kotler, Bowen, and Makens

Economic EnvironmentEconomic Environment

• The economic environment consists of The economic environment consists of factors that affect consumer purchasing factors that affect consumer purchasing power and spending patternspower and spending patterns

• It is not enough to have people, the It is not enough to have people, the people must have buying powerpeople must have buying power

©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism, 4th editionUpper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Kotler, Bowen, and Makens

Page 14: Chapter 4 Marketing Environment

©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism, 4th editionUpper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Kotler, Bowen, and Makens

The Global EconomyThe Global Economy

Global economic dealings, such as Global economic dealings, such as currency exchange rates, have a currency exchange rates, have a large impact on travel and tourism large impact on travel and tourism across the worldacross the world

©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism, 4th editionUpper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Kotler, Bowen, and Makens

Page 15: Chapter 4 Marketing Environment

©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism, 4th editionUpper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Kotler, Bowen, and Makens

Natural EnvironmentNatural Environment

• The natural environment consists of The natural environment consists of natural resources required by marketers natural resources required by marketers or affected by marketing activitiesor affected by marketing activities

• Anyone involved in tourism is Anyone involved in tourism is responsible for protecting the responsible for protecting the environment and ensuring sustainabilityenvironment and ensuring sustainability

©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism, 4th editionUpper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Kotler, Bowen, and Makens

Page 16: Chapter 4 Marketing Environment

©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism, 4th editionUpper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Kotler, Bowen, and Makens

Technological EnvironmentTechnological Environment• The hospitality industry is greatly The hospitality industry is greatly

affected by changes in technologyaffected by changes in technology– The Internet, computerized systems, key The Internet, computerized systems, key

cards, etc. cards, etc.

• Faces opposition by those who believe Faces opposition by those who believe it threatens privacy, simplicity, and even it threatens privacy, simplicity, and even the human racethe human race

• The most dramatic force affecting The most dramatic force affecting tourismtourism

©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism, 4th editionUpper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Kotler, Bowen, and Makens

Page 17: Chapter 4 Marketing Environment

©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism, 4th editionUpper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Kotler, Bowen, and Makens

Political EnvironmentPolitical Environment

The political environment is made The political environment is made up of laws, government agencies, up of laws, government agencies, and pressure groups that influence and pressure groups that influence and limit the activities of various and limit the activities of various organizations and individuals in organizations and individuals in societysociety

©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism, 4th editionUpper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Kotler, Bowen, and Makens

Page 18: Chapter 4 Marketing Environment

©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism, 4th editionUpper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Kotler, Bowen, and Makens

Political TrendsPolitical Trends• Increased legislation and regulation Increased legislation and regulation

affecting businessaffecting business

• Changing government Agency Changing government Agency EnforcementEnforcement

• Increased emphasis on socially Increased emphasis on socially responsible actions and ethicsresponsible actions and ethics

©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism, 4th editionUpper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Kotler, Bowen, and Makens

Page 19: Chapter 4 Marketing Environment

©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism, 4th editionUpper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Kotler, Bowen, and Makens

Cultural EnvironmentCultural Environment• The cultural environment includes The cultural environment includes

institutions and other forces that institutions and other forces that affect society’s basic values, affect society’s basic values, perceptions, preferences, and perceptions, preferences, and behaviorsbehaviors

– Persistence of cultural valuesPersistence of cultural values

– SubculturesSubcultures

©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism, 4th editionUpper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Kotler, Bowen, and Makens

Page 20: Chapter 4 Marketing Environment

©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism, 4th editionUpper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Kotler, Bowen, and Makens

Environmental ScanningEnvironmental Scanning

1.1. Determine environmental areas Determine environmental areas that require monitoring that require monitoring

2.2. Determine how the information Determine how the information will be collectedwill be collected

3.3. Implement data collection planImplement data collection plan4.4. Analyze data and use in market Analyze data and use in market

planning processplanning process

©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism, 4th editionUpper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Kotler, Bowen, and Makens