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AP Biology Archaebacteria & Bacteria Classification Old 5 Kingdom system Monera , Protists, Plants, Fungi, Animals New 3 Domain system reflects a greater understanding of evolution & molecular evidence Prokaryote: Bacteria Prokaryote: Archaebacteria Eukaryotes Protists Plants Fungi Animals Prokaryote Eukaryote

Chapter 27 - Bacteria and Archaea

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Text of Chapter 27 - Bacteria and Archaea

  • 1.EukaryoteClassification Old 5 Kingdom system Prokaryote Monera, Protists, Plants,Fungi, Animals New 3 Domain system reflects a greaterunderstanding of evolution& molecular evidence Prokaryote: Bacteria Prokaryote: Archaebacteria Eukaryotes Protists Plants Fungi Archaebacteria& AP Biology AnimalsBacteria

2. KingdomKingdom Kingdom BacteriaArchaebacteriaProtist Kingdom KingdomKingdom FungiAP Biology Plant Animal 3. Prokaryotes Domain Bacteria Domain Archaebacteria Domain DomainDomain Bacteria Archaea EukaryaAP Biology2007-2008Common ancestor 4. Bacteria live EVERYWHERE! Bacteria live in all ecosystems on plants & animals in plants & animals in the soil in depths of the oceans in extreme coldMicrobes always find a way to in extreme hotmake a living! in extreme salt on the living on the deadAP Biology 5. Bacterial diversityrods and spheres and spirals Oh My!AP Biology 6. eukaryote cell Prokaryote Structure prokaryote cell Unicellular bacilli, cocci, spirilli Size 1/10 size of eukaryote cell 1 micron (1um) Internal structure no internal compartments no membrane-bound organelles only ribosomes circular chromosome, naked DNAAP Biology not wrapped around proteins 7. Prokaryote vs. Eukaryote ChromosomeProkaryoteEukaryote double helixAP Biology 8. mitochondriaVariations in Cell Interiorcyanobacterium(photosythetic) bacterium aerobic bacteriumchloroplast interes na for p l membm bran hotor na l me tion likesynt anes inter respira drion a chh forlorop esisto chon(thylakoi lasta mi stae) ds)like(cri AP Biology 9. Prokaryote Cell Wall StructureGram-positive bacteriapeptide side chainscell wallpeptidoglycan plasma membraneprotein Thatsimportant forpeptidoglycan = polysaccharides + amino acid chains your doctor lipopolysaccharides = lipids + polysaccharidesto know!Gram-negative bacteriaouter membrane oflipopolysaccharides outercell wall membranepeptidoglycanplasmaAP Biologymembrane 10. Prokaryotic metabolism How do bacteria acquire their energy & nutrients?photoautotrophs photosynthetic bacteriachemoautotrophs oxidize inorganic compounds nitrogen, sulfur, hydrogenheterotrophs live on plant & animal matter decomposers & pathogensAP Biology 11. Genetic variation in bacteria Mutations bacteria can reproduce every 20 minutes binary fission error rate in copying DNA 1 in every 200 bacteria has a mutation you have billions of E. coli in your gut! lots of mutation potential! Genetic recombination bacteria swap genes plasmids small supplementalcircles of DNA conjugationAP Biology direct transfer of DNAconjugation 12. Bacteria as pathogens Disease-causing microbes plant diseases wilts, fruit rot, blights animal diseases tooth decay, ulcers anthrax, botulism plague, leprosy, flesh-eating disease STDs: gonorrhea, chlamydia typhoid, cholera TB, pneumonia lyme diseaseAP Biology 13. Bacteria as beneficial (& necessary) Life on Earth is dependent on bacteriadecomposers recycling of nutrients from dead to livingnitrogen fixation only organisms that can fix N from atmosphere needed for synthesis of proteins & nucleic acids plant root noduleshelp in digestion (E. coli) digest cellulose for herbivores cellulase enzyme produce vitamins K & B12 for humansproduce foods & medicines from yogurt to insulinAP Biology 14. Got any Questions?? Ask da Boss! QuickTime and aTIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.AP Biology 2007-2008