of 33 /33
Microorganisms and Their Effects on Living Things

Chapter 1 form5

Embed Size (px)

Citation preview

Page 1: Chapter 1 form5

Microorganisms and Their Effects on Living Things

Page 2: Chapter 1 form5

1.1 The Classification of Microorganisms

Microorganisms are tiny organisms which can only be seen under a microscope.

The characteristics include their appearance, shape, size, method of reproduction, nutrition and habitat

Page 3: Chapter 1 form5




Fungi Bacteria


Page 4: Chapter 1 form5

VIRUSES Viruses are the smallest microorganisms Structure: consist of strands of nuclei

acid (DNA) They are 2 types of shape:

Helical Polyhedral

Page 5: Chapter 1 form5

Viruses do not make their own food.

They obtain food from animals, plants and some bacteria

They are parasites

They attached to host cell.

Page 6: Chapter 1 form5
Page 7: Chapter 1 form5

Bacteria Microscopic organisms that can be

found everywhere Simplest single-celled organisms Bacteria are surrounded by tough cell

wall Cell wall support the cell and maintains

its shape

Page 8: Chapter 1 form5

Bacteria have hundreds of pilli Pilli enable bacteria to stick to certain

surfaces Some bacteria also have a tail called

flagellum that help them to remove Shapes of bacteria

Spherical: cocci Long chain: streptococci Bunches of grapes: staphylococci

Page 9: Chapter 1 form5

Comma shape: vibrios Spiral shape: spirilla

Some bacteria carry out photosynthesis, some live as parasites and some live as saprotrophs

Reproduce asexually: Binary fission budding

Page 10: Chapter 1 form5
Page 11: Chapter 1 form5

Fungi Various sizes Plant that do not have chlorophyll Various shapes such as filament and

sphere Reproduce through:

budding – yeast Spore formation - mucor

Page 12: Chapter 1 form5

Live as parasite or saprophytes

Can be found in dark and damp places

Page 13: Chapter 1 form5

Protozoa Various sizes ad shapes Unicellular animals Reproduce through binary fission Live as :

saprophytes : Amoeba and Paramecium Parasites : Plasmodium

Can be found in fresh water and damp places

Page 14: Chapter 1 form5
Page 15: Chapter 1 form5

Algae Various sizes and shapes Unicellular or multicellular Reproduce through binary fission Live as autotrophs Can be found in damp areas that

receive sunlight

Page 16: Chapter 1 form5
Page 17: Chapter 1 form5
Page 18: Chapter 1 form5

Factors that affect the growth of microorganisms

Nutrition Temperature Humidity Light pH

Page 19: Chapter 1 form5

Useful microorganisms

Use of microorgans


Digestion animals


Making bread

Purifying water

Making cheese

Making antibioti


Page 20: Chapter 1 form5

Disease caused by bacteria

Tuberculosis Cholera Gonorrhea syphilis

Page 21: Chapter 1 form5


Caused by bacilli bacteria

Affect other organ such as lymph nodes, bones and joints

Symptoms: chest pain, fever, sweating at night, weight loss


Caused by vibrios bacteria

Transmitted by water or food that has been contaminated with the faeces

Symptoms: diarrhoea, vomitting and fatigue

Page 22: Chapter 1 form5
Page 23: Chapter 1 form5


Sexual transmitted disease caused by cocci bacteria

(in 1 to 14 days after infection) burning sensation when urinating accompanied by some discharge


Sexual transmitted disease caused by spirilla bacteria

Red pimples, rashes, fever, headache, hair loss.

Page 24: Chapter 1 form5
Page 25: Chapter 1 form5

Disease caused by viruses

Common cold Dengue fever Hepatitis AIDS

Page 26: Chapter 1 form5

Common cold

Caused by viral infection of the mucous membrane, air passage or lungs.

May spread to the ears, sinuses and eyes

Spread to the lung that cause bronchitis and pneumonia

Dengue fever

Caused by distinct virus carried by mosquitoes

Causes fever, efes aches, pain in the muscle and joints

Sometime causes very low blood pressure and weak pulse

Page 27: Chapter 1 form5
Page 28: Chapter 1 form5


Caused by HIV viruses

Symptoms: tiredness, fever, loss of appetite and weight

Infected by pneumonia, tuberculosis, Kaposi’s sarcoma


Disease of the liver

Caused by alcohol and drugs

Symptoms: urine become dark, jaundice.

Live failed to function

Page 29: Chapter 1 form5
Page 30: Chapter 1 form5

Disease caused by fungi Tinea Ringworm

Page 31: Chapter 1 form5


White spot on facial, body, hand and feet


Red area on the body

Skin become red and scaly

Page 32: Chapter 1 form5
Page 33: Chapter 1 form5

Disease caused by protozoa Malaria

Caused by Plasmodium Transmitted by female Anopheles

mospuito Fever with reach 410C Attack in 2 or more hours Symptoms: headache, muscle pain,

nausea and feeling chill