- 1. Chapter 4 Conflict inMulti-ethnic Societies
- Case Study of Northern Ireland
2. Chapter Breakdown
- Introduction on N. Ireland and Conflict
- 4.1Causesof Conflict in Northern Ireland
- 4.2Consequencesof Conflict in Northern Ireland
- You have looked at the case study ofSri Lankawhere theTamils and Sinhalesewere in conflict for decades due to the differences in ethnic groups.
- In the case-study ofN. Ireland , you will be looking at another example of conflicts between two groups of people theProtestants and Catholics .
- They were in conflict for over 30 years due to thedifferences in religious beliefs .
- The war in Northern Ireland is another example of a civil war (war between groups of people within a country) that lasted for over 30 years.
- Over 3600 people died and more than 40 000 people have been injured due to this conflict.
5. Where is Northern Ireland? 6. History of Northern Ireland
- Before 12thC : 1 country Ireland
- 12thC : Ireland conquered by England English Protestant settlers push out Irish Catholics
- Northern part of Ireland mainly Protestant
Movement of British Protestants into N. Ireland, 1654-1801 7. History of Northern Ireland
- Protestants implemented Penal Laws against Catholics
- No access to higher education
- 1800 : Ireland became part of UK
- Local Irish Catholics sought limited self-government, did not want to be part of UK
8. History of Northern Ireland
- 1900s : British government lost control of Southern Ireland
- 1921 : Ireland divided into 2
- South Irish Free state largely Catholic
- North largely Protestant Catholics still treated unfairly
- 1949 : Irish Free StateRepublic of Ireland
9. Northern Ireland
- Britain handles foreign affairs & defence matters
- N.Ireland handles commerce, health & education
- Majority of ministers are Protestants
10. Conflict in Northern Ireland
- The Protestants are mostly Scottish and English while the Catholics are mostly descendents of the local Irish inhabitants.
- This lack of common identity has prevented understanding and cooperation between the Protestants and Catholics.
- The religious differences between the two groups have also created tension between them.
11. 4.3 Causes of Conflict in N. Ireland
- Unequal allocation of housing
- Unequal employment opportunities
- Lack of opportunities for social interaction
12. 1. Divided Loyalties
- The difference inpolitical beliefsbetween the Protestants and Catholics has contributed to the conflict in N. Ireland.
- MostProtestants see themselves as Britishand wish to see the country remain as part of UK.
- Many of them do not want a union with the Republic of Ireland, a Catholic country. They fear that a Catholic government may not be tolerant of their Protestant beliefs.
13. 1. Divided Loyalties
- TheCatholics see themselves as Irish , and want to be reunited with the Republic of Ireland.
- They still resent the history of English conquest where Catholics were either killed or treated harshly.
- Thisloyalty to different countriesmakes the Protestants and Catholics intolerant of each other.
14. 2. Unequal allocation of housing
- Theunfair allocation of public housingby the city councils has contributed to the conflict in N. Ireland. The city councils consist largely of Protestants.
- TheCatholicsfind the allocation of public housing by the government to beunfair .
- Very often, the largeCatholics familiesin need of housing have towait a long timeto get the house. In some towns,more houses would be given to the Protestantsthan the Catholics.
15. 3. Unequal employment opportunities
- Another cause of conflict between the Protestants and Catholics in N. Ireland is thecompetition for jobs .
- It isgenerally more difficultforCatholicsin N. Irelandto find jobs , especially in the government sector.
- The Catholics feel that although they may have thesame qualificationsas the Protestants, theydo not have the same opportunitiesin getting the job they want.
16. 4. Lack of voting rights
- Before 1969,voting rightswas an issue between the Protestants and the Catholic.
- At that time, only those who owned houses and businesses were entitled to vote in the local government elections.
- Each household is entitled 2 votes while companies were entitled to more votes depending on their size. Since many companies were owned bythe richer Protestants , theyended up with more votes .
17. 4. Lack of voting rights
- The voting system wasunfair to the poorer Catholics .
- Since 1969, everyone is entitled to one voteas long as he/she is a British citizen above 18 years old. He/she has to be born in N. Ireland or has lived in the UK for 7 years.
- In the education system of N. Ireland, the Protestants and Catholicsdo not study together in the same schools .
- Protestants attend the fully-funded public schools while the Catholics attend the private schools. The private schools for the Catholics are partly funded by the government.
5. Lack of Opportunities forSocial Interaction 19.
- Since the 17th century, the Protestants and Catholics have beenliving in separate residential areas .
- The 1991 census showed that in Belfast, 63% of the population lived in areas that are either mainly Protestants or Catholics. By 2001, this has risen to 66% (worsening the segregation). This has greatlyreduced the opportunity for social interaction .
5. Lack of Opportunities forSocial Interaction 20. How conflicts lead to violence in N. Ireland?
- In 1967, the Catholics set upN. Ireland Civil Rights Association (NICRA)to bring about changes within N. Ireland.
- It was formed by a group of well-educated, middle-class Catholics in N. Ireland who wanted to end discrimination against Catholics.
- NICRA adoptsnon-violent methodsto protest against discrimination against Catholics.
21. Civil Rights Marches to Violence
- 1968 marked the beginning of a period known as The Troubles in N. Ireland.
- It was during these peaceful marches that fighting first broke out between the Protestants, Catholics and police.
- In 1969, the British government sent troops to keep order, welcome by Catholics initially.
22. Civil rights marches and violence
- In 1971, the N. Ireland government introduced theInternment Laws . This gave the British army the power toarrest, interrogate and detain anyone without trial . The Catholics lose faith in the British Army when the army began searching their homes and arresting those suspected of terrorist activities.
23. Bloody Sunday
- On 30 January 1972 Bloody Sunday
- 15 000 people participated in an illegal, peaceful civil rights march in the Catholic-dominated area of Londonderry.
- The march was organized by NICRA and was a protest against internment & the ban on the right to march.
- The British soldiers shot at protestors, leaving 13 civilians dead and many wounded.
- The deaths on Bloody Sunday led to a great outburst of catholic anger.
24. More Violence
- After 1972, the country sawmore violence between Protestants, Catholics and British Army . Catholic homes & businesses are targeted by Protestants & British army.
- The Catholics turned toIrish Republican Army (IRA)for help. The IRA attacked British soldiers and bombed Protestants properties.
- Between 1969 and 1993, more than 3500 people were killed in the conflict in the country. The IRA was responsible for two-thirds of the deaths.
25. 4.4 Consequences of Conflict inNorthern Ireland
- Beside human casualties, the violence in N.Ireland has also affected the country socially economically and politically.
- Social Consequence: Social Segregation
- Economic Consequences:Declining Economy
- Political Consequences:Political Reform
- Social Consequences:Social Segregation
- The Protestants and Catholics have beensegregated socially , in the way they live, work and play. This has led to the lack of understanding between the two groups.
- In the education system of N. Ireland, theProtestants and Catholics do not st