Britain 1066 1485

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Leelo Kaskmann: history

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<ul><li> 1. TheNormanConquest</li></ul> <p> 2. </p> <ul><li>The Norman king William I crosses the channel </li></ul> <ul><li>TheBattleofHastings</li></ul> <ul><li>Anglo-Saxons are defeated, king Harold II dies </li></ul> <ul><li>The Normans crush resistance in the rest of the country </li></ul> <p> 3. </p> <ul><li>tells the story of the Norman Conquest </li></ul> <ul><li>is 231 feet long </li></ul> <ul><li>commissioned by bishop Odo for the Bayeux Cathedral </li></ul> <p> 4. </p> <ul><li>French and Latin elements predominate in aristocratic circles </li></ul> <ul><li>Anglo-Saxon elements among lower classes </li></ul> <ul><li>French spoken at court </li></ul> <ul><li>Latin in the church </li></ul> <p> 5. </p> <ul><li>Their fellow countrymen in France </li></ul> <ul><li>England &amp; France almost one country </li></ul> <ul><li>Numerous wars esp. the Hundred Years War (1337-1431)</li></ul> <ul><li>The battle of Agincourt </li></ul> <ul><li>Joan of Arc </li></ul> <ul><li>England -- separate from France </li></ul> <p> 6. </p> <ul><li>2.Their Scottish, Irish, Welsh neighbours </li></ul> <ul><li>Attempts to conquer Scotland unsuccessful </li></ul> <ul><li>11th century Henry II sends an army to Ireland not very successful </li></ul> <ul><li>End of 13th century resistance in Wales broken </li></ul> <p> 7. </p> <ul><li>FEUDALSYSTEMstrict distinction between classes </li></ul> <ul><li>KING most powerful </li></ul> <ul><li>Ownsland, leads the army, makes laws </li></ul> <ul><li>ARISTOCRACY :</li></ul> <ul><li>BARONS AND LORDS have absolute power in their territories </li></ul> <p> 8. </p> <ul><li>MIDDLECLASSES : </li></ul> <ul><li>KNIGHTSsoldiers who fought for the lords </li></ul> <ul><li>MERCHANTS Britains first businessmen, lived in towns </li></ul> <ul><li>YEOMEN farmers, owned small pieces of land </li></ul> <p> 9. </p> <ul><li>LOWERCLASS: </li></ul> <ul><li>VILLEINSor SERFS are given land to work, but dont own any; most produce goes to the lord </li></ul> <ul><li>SLAVES 1/10th of the population, are owned by the lord </li></ul> <p> 10. </p> <ul><li>POLITICALPOWERbelongsto theKING : </li></ul> <ul><li>gives land, grants privileges, levies taxes </li></ul> <ul><li>Domesday Book (1086) the first census lists names of landownersand their land </li></ul> <p> 11. </p> <ul><li>MAGNACARTA 1215. King John agrees to consult a council of the aristocracy. </li></ul> <ul><li>In 1240, the council is called a parliament </li></ul> <ul><li>In 1349, the Council of the Commoners is formed </li></ul> <ul><li>Dynastic conflicts Wars of the Roses end in 1471 the House of York winning the war </li></ul> <p> 12. </p> <ul><li>The greatest power after the king and the nobles </li></ul> <ul><li>11th century king controls the Church, appoints bishops </li></ul> <ul><li>12th century conflict between Church and State </li></ul> <ul><li>The murder ofThomas Becket , the Archbishop of Canterbury </li></ul> <p> 13. </p> <ul><li>Majority of peopleilliterate </li></ul> <ul><li>11th century -- the Church set up schools</li></ul> <ul><li>Monasteries leading centres of culture </li></ul> <ul><li>13th century -- Oxford and Cambridge Universities </li></ul> <p> 14. </p> <ul><li>Economically -- adevelopingcountry</li></ul> <ul><li>Merchants traded in wool and textiles </li></ul> <ul><li>Lived in towns </li></ul> <ul><li>London a busy trading centre</li></ul> <ul><li>Many Anglo-Saxon laws in force </li></ul> <ul><li>New laws by Normans Common Law </li></ul> <p> 15. </p> <ul><li>Life very hard </li></ul> <ul><li>95% of people live in the country </li></ul> <ul><li>Land major source of food </li></ul> <ul><li>Increasing population not enough food </li></ul> <ul><li>Disease widespread </li></ul> <ul><li>Black Death bubonic plague 1348 </li></ul> <ul><li>1/3 of the population dies </li></ul>

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