Biological sciences10

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<ul><li> 1. BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES By: MARIA KRISIA FAE DELOS REYES DE ASIS, BSN-RN</li></ul> <p> 2. INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM BURN -Tissue damage caused by excessive heat, electricity, radioactivity, or chemicals that corrode the proteins in the skin cellsFirst-degree burn -Involves only the epidermis -Mild pain and erythema, no blisters -Skin functions remain intact -Flushing with cold water may lessen pain 3. INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM Second-degree burn -Destroys the epidermis and part of the dermis -Some skin functions are lost -Redness, blister formation, edema, severe pain -In a blister, the epidermis separates from the dermis due to the accumulation of tissue fluid between them 4. INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM Third-degree burn -Destroys the epidermis, dermis, and subcutaneous layer -Most skin functions are lost -Vary in appearance from marblewhite to mahogany, to black, dry wounds -There is edema, and the burned region is numb because sensory nerve endings have been destroyed 5. SKELETAL SYSTEM -The entire framework of bones and their cartilages constitutes the skeletal system+ OSTEOLOGY -Study of bone structure and bone disorders 6. SKELETAL SYSTEMFUNCTIONS: 1. Support 2. Protection 3. Assistance in movement 4. Mineral homeostasis 5. Blood cell production a. Red bone marrow connective tissue within bones that produce RBCs, WBCs, and platelets 6. Triglyceride storage a. Yellow bone marrow consists of adipose cells 7. SKELETAL SYSTEM MUSCULOSKELETAL INJURIES (1)Sprain Partial or complete disruption in the continuity of a muscular or ligamentous support of a joint. It is usually caused by a blow, kick or torsion force (2)Dislocation Displacement of the articular surface of bones entering into the formation of a joint (3)Fracture Disruption of continuity of bone resulting from violence or some existing pathology 8. MEDICAL CLASSIFICATION OF WOUNDS (a)Close or Simple Fracture Fracture wherein there is no break in continuity of the overlying skin or where the external air has no point of access to the site of injury (b)Open or Compound Fracture The fracture is complicated by an open wound caused by the broken bone which protruded with other tissues of the broken skin (c)Comminuted Fracture the fractured bone is fragmented into several pieces 9. MEDICAL CLASSIFICATION OF WOUNDS (d)Greenstick Fracture A fracture wherein only one side of the bone is broken while the other side is merely bent (e)Linear Fracture When the fracture forms a crack commonly observed in flat bones (f)Spiral Fracture The break in the bone forms a spiral manner as observed in long bones (g)Pathologic Fracture Fracture caused by weakness of the bone due to disease rather than violence 10. MEDICAL CLASSIFICATION OF WOUNDS (4)Strain The overstretching, instead of an actual tearing or the rupture of a muscle or ligament which may not be associated with the joint (5)Subluxation Incomplete dislocation 11. Please bring out any piece of paper and prepare for a quiz.. 12. QUESTION: 1. A fracture wherein only one side of the bone is broken while the other side is merely bent 13. QUESTION: 2. Study of bone structure and bone disorders 14. QUESTION: 3. Tissue damage caused by excessive heat, electricity, radi oactivity, or chemicals that corrode the proteins in the skin cells 15. QUESTION: 4. This type of burn destroys the epidermis, dermis, and subcutaneous layer 16. QUESTION: 5. Type of burn wherein the epidermis separates from the dermis due to the accumulation of tissue fluid between them 17. QUESTION: 6. This is the connective tissue within bones that produce RBCs, WBCs, and platelets 18. QUESTION: 7. Partial or complete disruption in the continuity of a muscular or ligamentous support of a joint 19. QUESTION: 8. Disruption of continuity of bone resulting from violence or some existing pathology 20. QUESTION: 9. The fracture is complicated by an open wound caused by the broken bone which protruded with other tissues of the broken skin 21. QUESTION: 10. This is also known as the breastbone 22. QUESTION: 11. This is the longest bone in the human body 23. QUESTION: 12. How many bones are there in an adult human? 24. QUESTION: 13. How many bones are there in an infant? 25. QUESTION: 14. This is also known as the skull bone 26. QUESTION: 15. How many vertebrae make up the vertebral column? </p>