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Brain Finger printing

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  • 1.The Brain Fingerprinting Technology1

2. ABSTRACTBrain Fingerprinting is a new computer-based technology to identify the perpetrator of a crime accurately and scientifically by measuring brain-wave responses to crime-relevant words or pictures presented on a computer screen. Brain Fingerprinting has proven 100% accurate in over 120 tests, including tests on FBI agents, tests for a US intelligence agency and for the US Navy, and tests on real-life situations including felony crimes.Why Brain Fingerprinting??? Brain Fingerprinting is based on the principle that the brain is central to all human acts. In a criminal act, there may or may not be many kinds of peripheral evidence, but the brain is always there, planning, executing, and recording the crime. The fundamental difference between a perpetrator and a falsely accused, innocent person is that the perpetrator, having committed the crime, has the details of the crime stored in his brain, and the innocent suspect does not. This is what Brain Fingerprinting detects scientifically. 2 3. CONTENTS: 1. Introduction. 2. MERMER Methodology. 3. Technique. 4. Four phases of Farwell Brain Fingerprinting. 5. Scientificprocedures, Research andApplications. 6. Advantages and Limitations of BrainFingerprinting. 7. Conclusion. 8. References. 3 4. 1.Introduction: Brain Fingerprinting is a Related Multifaceted controversialproposed Electroencephalographic investigative technique thatResponse") response to detect measuresrecognitionof familiarity reaction. One of familiar stimuli by measuring theapplicationsis lie electrical brainwavedetection. Dr. Lawrence A. responses to words, phrases,Farwell hasinvented, or pictures that are presenteddeveloped,proven,and on a computer screen. Brain patented the technique of fingerprinting was invented Farwell Brain Fingerprinting, by Lawrence Farwell. Thea newcomputer-based theory is that the suspect'stechnology to identify the reaction to the details of an perpetratorofacrime event or activity will reflect if accurately and scientifically thesuspecthad prior bymeasuring brain-wave knowledge of the event or responses to crime-relevant activity. This test uses what words or pictures presented Farwell calls the MERMERona computer screen. ("MemoryandEncoding Farwell Brain Fingerprinting4 5. has proven 100% accurate in in situations where over 120 tests, including tests investigators have a sufficient on FBI agents, tests for a US amountofspecific intelligence agency and for information about an event or the US Navy, and tests on activity that would be known real-life situations includingonly to the perpetrator and actual crimes.investigator. In this respect, Brain Fingerprinting is What is Brain considered a type of Guilty Fingerprinting? Knowledge Test, where the BrainFingerprintingis "guilty" party is expected to designedto determinereact strongly to the relevant whether an individual detail of the event of the recognizes specific activity. Existing (polygraph) information related to an procedures for assessing eventoractivity bythe validity of a suspect's measuring electricalbrain "guilty" knowledge rely wave responses to words, on measurementof phrases, or pictures presented autonomic arousal (e.g., on a computer screen. The palm sweating and heart technique can be applied only 5 6. rate),whileBrain of theperpetrator. Brain Fingerprinting measuresFingerprintingprovidesa electrical brain activity via ameans to objectively and fitted headband containing scientificallyconnect special sensors. Brain evidence from thecrime Fingerprinting is said to be scene with evidence stored in more accurate in detecting the brain. (This is similar to "guilty" knowledge distinctthe process of connecting from the false positives ofDNAsamplesfromthe traditionalpolygraph perpetrator with biological methods, but this is hotly evidence found at the scene disputed by specializedof the crime; onlythe researchers. evidence evaluated by BrainFingerprinting is evidence The secrets of Brainstored in the brain.) Brain Fingerprinting:Fingerprinting measures Matching evidence at the electrical brain activity in crime scene with response to crime-relevant evidence in the brainwords or pictures presented When a crime is committed, a on a computer screen, and record is stored in the brainreveals a brain MERMER6 7. (memoryandencodingpresented via computer to the relatedmultifaceted subject for a fraction of a electroencephalographic second each. Each of these response) when, and onlystimuli are organised by the when, the evidence stored intest-giver to be a Target, thebrainmatches the Irrelevant, or a Probe. evidencefromthe crime The Target stimuli are chosen scene. Thus, the guilty can beto be relevant information to identified and the innocent the tested subject, and are can be cleared in an accurate,used to establish a baseline scientific,objective, non-brainresponse for invasive, non-stressful, andinformation that is significant non-testimonial mannerto the subject being tested. The subject is instructed to press on button for Targets, 2.MERMERand another button for all Methodology:other stimuli. Most of the The procedure used is similar non-Targetstimuli are to the Guilty Knowledge Irrelevant, and are totally Test; a series of words,unrelated to the situation that sounds, or pictures are the subject is being tested for. 7 8. The Irrelevant stimuli do not response does not elicit a elicit a MERMER, and so MERMER, indicating that establish a baseline brainthe information is absent response for information that from their mind. Note that is insignificant to the subject there does not have to be an in this context. Some of theemotional response of any non-Target are relevant to thekind to the stimuli- this test is situation that the subject is entirelyreliantupon beingtestedfor. These recognition response to the stimuli, Probes, are relevant stimuli, and relies upon a to the test, and are significantdifferencein recognition- to the subject, and will elicit hence the association with the a MERMER, signifying that Oddball effect the subject has understood that stimuli to be significant. 3.Technique: Asubjectlackingthis The person to be tested wears information in their brain, the a special headbandwith responseto theProbe electronic sensorsthat stimuluswill be measurethe indistinguishablefrom the electroencephalography from irrelevant stimulus. This 8 9. several locations on the scalp.millisecondsafteritis In order to calibrate the brainconfronted with a stimulus of fingerprinting system, the testspecial significance, e.g. a is presented with a series ofrare vs. a common stimulas irrelevant stimuli, words, and or a stimulas the proband is pictures, and a series ofasked to count. The novel relevant stimuli, words, and interpretationinbrain pictures. The test subject's fingerprinting is to look for brain response to these twoP300 as response to stimuli different types of stimuli relatedtothecrimein allow the tester to determinequestione.g.,a murder if the measuredbrain weapon or a victim's face. responses to test stimuli, Because it is based on EEG called probes, are moresignals, the system does not similar to the relevant or require the testee to issue irrelevantresponses.Theverbal responses to questions technique uses the wellor stimuli. Brain known fact that an electricalfingerprinting uses cognitive signal known as P300 isbrainresponses, brain emitted from an individual's fingerprintingdoesnot brainapproximately300depend on the emotions of9 10. the subject, nor is it affectedsuspect is apprehended, is byemotionalresponses.scientifically compared with Brainfingerprintingisevidence on the person of the fundamentally different from suspect to detect a match that the polygraph (lie-detector),would place the suspect at the which measuresemotion- crime scene. Farwell Brain based physiological signalsFingerprintingworks such as heart rate, sweating,similarly, except that the and blood pressure. Also,evidence collected both at the unlike polygraph testing, it crime scene and on the does not attempt to determineperson of the suspect (i.e., in whether or not the subject isthe brain as revealed by lying or telling the truth.electrical brain responses) isinformational evidence rather 4.Four phases of Farwellthan physical evidence. There Brain Fingerprinting:are four stages to Farwell In fingerprinting and DNABrain Fingerprinting, which fingerprinting, evidence are similar to the steps in recognized and collected atfingerprintingandDNA the crime scene,andfingerprinting: preserved properly until a 10 11. 1. Brain Fingerprinting Crime Collection inorder to Scene Evidence Collection;determine whether or not the evidence from thecrime 2. Brain Fingerprinting Brain scenematches evidence Evidence Collection; stored in the brain of the 3.Brain Fingerprintingsuspect. In the Computer Computer Evidence Analysis; EvidenceAnalysis, the and Farwell Brain Fingerprinting system makes a mathematical 4.Brain Fingerprinting determination as to whether Scientific Result. or not this specific evidence In the Crime Scene Evidence is stored in the brain, and Collection, an expert incomputes a statistical Farwell Brain Fingerprintingconfidence for that examines the crime scenedetermination.This and other evidence connecteddetermination and statistical with the crime to identifyconfidence constitute the details of the crime that Scientific Result of Farwell would be known only to theBrain Fingerprinting: either perpetrator. The expert then"information present" the conducts the Brain Evidence details of the crime are stored11 12. in the brain of the suspect Fingerprinting presents a new or "information absent" the paradigm in forensic science. details of the crime are notThisnewsystemdetects stored in the brain of theinformation directly, on the suspect.basisof the electrophysiological 5.Scientific procedures, manifestations of Research and information-processing brain Applic