Behavioral Change for Improved Nutrition among pastoralists in Ethiopia (BCIN)

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Behavioral Change for Improved Nutrition among pastoralists in Ethiopia (BCIN)

Behavioral Change for Improved Nutrition among pastoralists in Ethiopia (BCIN)VTRINAIRESSANS FRONTIRESSUISSE1

Preliminary findings on the Baseline Study forBarriers to optimal Maternal, Infant and Young Child Feeding Practices

Lensse Gobu (BSc, MPH)May 16, 20162


Outline of the PresentationSummaryBackgroundThe existing platforms Objectives and research questionsStudy design and methods usedMajor Preliminary findingsConclusion



Project Summary 4TitleBehavioural Change for Improved Nutrition among Pastoralists (BCIN)The ResearchAction research on Maternal, Infant and Young child-feeding practices in pastoral households of Somali Region, EthiopiaThematic CategoryHow can agriculture and the wider agri-food systems become more nutrition-sensitive and have a greater impact on nutrition outcomes?Lead InstitutionVSF Suisse DonorIFPRIProposed end dateAugust 2016Partners & collaborationsJigjiga University, Woreda Livestock Crop and Rural Development Office; Woreda Health Offices in Moyale, Mubarek, Gode and Hargelle Woredas, FAO

Background Ethiopia towards achieving the nutrition targets of MDG1But still holds one of the highest stunting rates in the world

Somali region of Ethiopia is one of the pastoralist areas frequently affected by Emergency nutrition situation. 5

Status of malnutrition in Somali Region of EthiopiaStunting (chronic malnutrition) prevalence is 33%

Wasting (acute malnutrition)- 22% (the highest from all regions)

Underweight- 33.5% (third highest from all regions of Ethiopia)

Source EDHS 2011


Current Status of Nutrition in Liben ZoneAccording to the Deyr 2015 seasonal needs assessment report (conducted 24/10/201512/11/2015);there have been recurrent trend of malnutrition in most of the woredas of Liban zone due to poor livestock production (Dolo Ado) 501 cases of SAM in Dolo ado woreda 81 SAM without complication cases in Moyale,80 SAM without complication from Filtu woreda, 55 SAM without complication from Hudet woreda.


Current situation , Liben ZonecontdMalnutrition is among the top 5 causes of morbidity in Children 100 cattle& > 200 shoats*2.Bulti Qaba/ JiraataaMedium- 10-50 camels, 20-50 cattle, 20-100 shoats. 3.MiskiinaPoor- Up to 10 camels, 10 cattle and 20 shoats. 4Qole/ FeqirVery PoorNo livestock at all


* If someone has only shoats (even >200), hes not called Tajira. They mentioned a Geri proverb where the goat herself says to someone having only shoats,Naaf jette intala biyyaa hin fuudhin, gadi lakkisuuf jirta!meaning Dont get married to a (our) woman depending on me; lest youll leave her

This was mentioned to show that shoats are not considered as a sustainable asset, as they are vulnerable to loss.


Proportional piling method used for wealth ranking


Wealth ranking exercise in Daresalam Kebele of Moyale Woreda

Barriers to Optimal Maternal, Infant an Young Child PracticesFindings from the Focus Group Discussions25

Exclusive breastfeeding rateGroupTotalStudy GroupComparison groupExclusive breastfeedingNoCount86130216% within Group72.3%85.5%79.7%YesCount332255% within Group27.7%14.5%20.3%TotalCount119152271% within Group100.0%100.0%100.0%


Focus Group Discussions FGD was conducted with mothers having children less than 5 years of age (excluded from the quantitative survey).4 kebeles in Moyale WoredaEl-DherEl-GofKatamaMaleb1 kebele in Mubarek WoredaMubarek 0227

Barriers to optimal feeding practices of pregnant WomenEconomic Problems++++Feeding with family/ as usual +++++Loss of appetite+++Not feeling comfortable++No space to eat+

28+++++ Majority++++ Average+++ Some++ Few+ Very few

Barriers, pregnant womencontdOne FGD Participant in Mubarek 02 Kebele said.even if I know and believe that when Im pregnant taking additional meal is important for me and the growing baby inside my womb, but I couldnt afford to do so. So what do I have to do? no food no habitno time!


Barriers to optimal feeding practices of lactating mothersEconomic Problems++Feeding with family / Feeding as usual+++++Heavy workload on women and no time+++We are pastoral Women. (misconception)++


FGD participant in El-dher mentionedWe are pastoral and we do not have a good practice of feeding ourselves, and our baby. We spend our time in fetching water, and bush for collecting woods. (W1) I remember one time I was far from home leaving my two week old baby a the whole day to fetch water and wood.

Barriers, lactating motherscontdOne FGD Participant in Mubarek 02 Kebele saidWe have a problem to afford food and a breastfeeding mother receives a meal that is prepared for the whole family, and it might be twice or once per day.

Another participant mentioned,Previously, a goat will slaughtered for a mother in the first 40 days of her delivery. But now I get a cup of milk for survival. 31

Barriers to optimal feeding practices of Infant and young childrenProblem on the availability of food in the house++Insufficient breastmilk+++++Inaccessibility of water++++Time constraint++++Lack of support from men++MisconceptionWe are pastoral Women....The Child is unable to digestthe stomach is small++++++


Barriers, feeding infants and young children.contd Early initiation of BreastfeedingFGD in Mubarek 02 Kebele;In our community, if the mothers breast couldnt produce milk immediately after she gives birth, the newborn receives water or camel milk. Another participant mentioned;I usually give my newborn water or camel milk on the first day and breast milk on the next day.33

Barriers, feeding infants and young children.contd Feeding the colostrumGiven to the child +++ (El-gof, Mubarek 02, Katama Kebeles) FGD participants in El-Dher kebelewe remove first drop of colostrum to the ground. I never give my child this (colostrum). Another participant mentioned for this child, I gave the first milk since I came to know that first milk is important and nutritious for newborns.34

Barriers, feeding infants and young children.contd Feeding children > 6 monthsThe young child receives additional food which is prepared for the whole family, more frequently tea, or sugar with water, or camel milk till lunch or dinner time. 35

Barriers, feeding infants and young children.contd Feeding young children (6-23 years old);FGD participant in El-dher Kebele we feed our children rice, animal milk, maize and tea twice in a day. . the babys stomach is small and not have ability to digest frequently and therefore it is enough for the baby to get once or twice per day with whole family we will not prepare a meal for a child alone.36

Cultural beliefs related to feeding and nutrition (From the intervention)It is not good that a pregnant woman feeds frequently because her baby will grow in her belly and make her labor difficult.Feeding organ meatIt is not good for a man to eat the heart of an animal because it will affect his braveness. Feeding on poultryThere is a mixed type of belief; in pure pastoral Kebeles like Katama it is taboo, whereas in agro-pastoral ones like El-dher and Arda-ola it is well accepted37

KAP on Food Safety and Personal HygienePart of the quantitative survey38

KAP on Food Safety and Personal HygieneVariables Response Respondents by groupStudyComparisonFrequency Percentage Frequency Percentage Had proper practice of food safety Yes 35174.541287.5No 12025.55912.5Had proper practice of hand washing Yes 18839.923850.5No 28360.123349.5Ever heard about food safety Yes 14831.420443.3No 32368.626756.7Proper knowledge of hand washing [k607M]Yes 9921122.6No 3727945997.4Perceived of susceptibility related to food safety Yes 36677.742389.9No 10522.34810.1Perceived of barriers related to Food Safety and Personnel Hygiene Yes 306.4102.1No 44193.646197.9Perceived of benefits related to Food Safety and Personnel Hygiene Yes 41588.141387.7No 5611.95812.3


ConclusionMajority (> 70%) of the respondents depend on sales of animal and animal products sale as a major source of income.Wealth classification in Moyale and Mubarek Woredas depend on ownership of livestock.Low EBF rate (