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Algorithms,graph theory and combinatorics

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  • 1. Appeared in the Proceedings ofConference on Algorithms,Computing,Graph Theory and Combinatorics-April-2011). Mr.Hanumanthappa.J. Dr.Manjaiah.D.H. Dr.Ashok JhunJhunwala. Mr.Ramesh.K.Presented byMr.Ramesh.K. At KU Conference on Algorithms,Computing,Graph Theory and Combinatorics-April-2011) 20 thApril,VTU Campus,Belgaum . 4/20/2011 A Simulation study on the performance of Divide- and-Conquer based IPv6 Address Longest Prefix Matching using a Novel Reduced Segment Table(RST) algorithm in BD-SIIT Translator.

2. 4/20/2011 About the Authors About the AuthorsMr.Hanumanthappa.J. DoS in Computer Science,University of Mysore,Manasagangotri Mysore. Email:[email protected] Dr.Manjaiah.D.H. Dept ofComputer Science,Mangalore University,Mangalagangotri Mangalore. [email_address] . Dr.Ashok Jhunjhunwala Professor,Dept of Electrical Engg,Indian Institute of Technology(IITM). Chennai-600036 . Email:[email_address] Mr.Ramesh.K. Asst.Professor,Dept ofComputer Science,Karnatak University,Dharwad. Email: [email protected] 3. 4/20/2011 Purpose ofThis Paper

  • Anew divide and Conquer based IPv6 Address Longest Prefix matching using reduced segment table inBD-SIITTransition of IPv4 to IPv6.
  • Provide the Simulative evaluation of a Performance Analysis of Divide and Conquer based IPv6 Address Longest Prefix matching using novel RST Algorithm .
  • Divide and conquer based IPv6 based address longest prefix matching using a novel reduced segment table algorithm is a challenging domain for the innovative and creative research scholars due to
  • Increasing routing table size,
  • the increasing link speed, and
  • the increasing network traffic with reduced packet size.

4. Outline

  • Objective.
  • Introduction to Divide and Conquer.
  • - IPv6 Forwarding Table.
  • -Def:IPv6.
  • -Features of IPv6
  • -IPv6 Header Format.
  • -IPv6 Transition Mechanisms.
  • Proposed Methodology.
  • - BD-SIITTranslator .
  • - IPv4 to IPv6 Compatible Address.
  • - IPv4 to IPv6 Mapped Address.
  • - Classification ofIPv6 Packets based on Recursive Flow.
  • -RST based on Divide and Conquer Method.
  • Simulation Results.
  • Performance evaluation metrics.
  • Summary
  • Conclusion
  • References

4/20/2011 Table of Contents 5. Objective

  • In this paper we proposed a new algorithm called BD-SIIT RST which depicts the structure of the algorithm called reduction tree designed based on the entries in the routing table using portion(section)division using an algorithm .
  • As a challenge for future simulations we have identified the design of a Novel reduced segment table usingBD-SIITDivide-and-Conquer based IPv6 Address Longest Prefix Matching .

4/20/2011 Objective 6. 4/20/2011 Background Divide andConquer

  • Divide and Conquer is a New Data structure concept similar to modularization concept to divide the larger address into several modules and again smaller modules are solved separately.
  • Fig.1.Divide and Conquer in IPv6 Address format.
  • it is also expressed by recursive algorithm.

7. 4/20/2011 IPv6 Forwarding Table .

  • Address Lookup.
  • Switching .

Destination address prefix Next-hop Output interface 56.40.32/40 223.47.177.167 2 45.87/16 223.47.177.171 6 112.12.16/20 192.41.177.148 4 8. 4/20/2011 Def:IPv6 .

  • IPv6is the Internets next-generation Protocol.
  • The First name of IPv6 is IPng .
  • The IETF developed the basic Specificationsduring the 1990s to support a
  • migration to a new development .
  • IPv6 is defined in RFC 2460 Internet Protocol version 6 Specification by S.
  • Deering and R.Hinden(December 1998).
  • IPv6 is a 128 bit Addressrepresented by32 Hexadecimaldigits.
  • Supports for Wireless Mobile nodes and Wired Nodes.
  • IPv6 ismainly used to identify the resources connected to the typical
  • networks like
  • WAN,LAN and MAN.
  • IPv6 Addresses are broadly divided into
  • -Anycast
  • -Multicast
  • -Site specific

Def:IPv6 9. Features :IPv6

  • Larger address space.
  • Expanded routing and addressing capabilities.
  • Improved support for extensions and options.
  • Flow labeling(QoS) capability.
  • Server-less Auto-configuration(Plug and Play).
  • Reconfiguration and Neighbor discovery(ND).
  • Authentication and privacy capabilities .
  • Simple transition from IPv4.
  • Built in Strong IP-layer Encryption, Decryption and Authentication .
  • Real time applications like Video & Audio.
  • More efficient and Robust mobility mechanisms.
  • Improved support for options and extensions.
  • Streamed Header format simplification.

4/20/2011 Features : IPv6 10. IPv6 Header Format Traffic Class Flow Label Vers Payload Length Next Header Hop Limit Source Address Destination Address 0 4 12 16 24 31 4/20/2011 11. Types of IPv6 Transition Mechanisms . Fig.1.The IPv6 Transition types . 4/20/2011 12. 4/20/2011 IPv6:Transition Scenarios. 13. 4/20/2011 Proposed Methodology . Fig.1.BD-SIIT Translator. 14. 4/20/2011 Fig.2.Translation of IPv6 to IPv4 Header . 15. 4/20/2011 BD-SIITTranslators in IPv4/IPv6 Transition Scenarios . 16. 4/20/2011 BD-SIIT Translation process .

  • IPv6 Packet Transmission.
  • IPv6-to-IPv4 mapping calculation and Address mapping.
  • IPv6-in-IPv4Header Translation.
  • IPv4 Packet Transmission.

17. 4/20/2011 BD-SIIT Data Packet Transmission Process Fig.3.BD-SIIT Data packet Transmission Process . 18. 4/20/2011 Types of IPv6 Addresses in BD-SIIT Translators .

  • IPv4 to IPv6 Compatible Address.
  • IPv4 to IPv6 Mapped Address.

19. 4/20/2011 IPv4-Compatible-IPv6 Address . 096

  • 127

96- bits of zero 32 bits (IPv4 address 20. 4/20/2011 IPv4-mapped-IPv6 Address . 0798095

  • 127

80- bits of zero FFFF(16 bits ) 32 bits (IPv4 address 21. 4/20/2011 Classification ofIPv6 Packets based on Recursive Flow. Fig.4.Recursive Flow Classification . 22. 4/20/2011 Reduced Segment Table based on Divide and Conquer in BD-SIIT . Fig.5.Reduced Segment Table(RST) using Chunk based divide-and-conquer technique . 23. 4/20/2011 Proposed Methodology Chunk Division Algorithm:IPv6BD-SIIT Translator based on Divide and Conquer. 4/13/2011 24. 4/20/2011 Fig.6.The Basic Flowchart of Divide and Conquer based chunk division in BD-SIIT Translator . 25. 4/20/2011 Address Mapping Techniques in BD-SIIT IPv4/IPv6 Transition Algorithm . 26. 4/20/2011 4/13/2011 Table-1: Address Mapping IPv6/IPv4 . Sl.No IPv6 Address IPv4 Address Address mappingvalue 1 ABC2::4321 195.18.231.17 1 2 ABC2::4321 195.18.231.17 2 3 ABC2::4321 223.15.1.3 37 27. 4/20/2011 Table-2: DNS46 corresponding toIPv4 and IPv6 .4/13/2011 Sl.No IPv4 Address IPv6 Address DNS Address mapping value 1 212.17.1.5 ---- B 4 2` 223.15.1.3. 1C::DACF Y 37 28. 4/20/2011 Table-3: Address mapping IPv4/IPv6 . 4/13/2011 Sl.No IPv4 Address IPv6 Address Address mappingvalue 1 195.18.231.17 ABC2::4321 1 2 210.154.76.91 ABC2::4321 2 3 223.15.1.3. ABC2::4321 37 29. 4/20/2011 Table-4: V4-V6 enabled Gateway . 4/13/2011 IPv4 IPv6 P_IPv4 P_IPv6 TTL M_ value-1 M value-2 223.15.1.3 1C::DACF IPv4-1 IPv6-1 60s G1 F1 30. 4/20/2011 Table-5: IPv4 mapped IPv6 Address . 4/13/2011 Sl.No IPv4 Address IPv6 Address Address mappingvalue 1 195.18.231.17 ABC2::4321 1 2 210.154.76.91 ABC2::4321 2 3 223.15.1.3. ABC2::4321 37 31. 4/20/2011 Simulation Environment .

  • 7 nodes in a500 Meters * 500 Meters space.
  • ns-2 network simulator with modifications.

32. 4/20/2011 4/13/2011 4/13/2011 NS-2 Simulation parameters . Table-5: Simulations Parameters in NS-2 environment. Sl.No Description Name/Values 1 IFQ Length 50 Packets. 2 Number of Nodes 7 3 Grid Size 500 Meters * 500 Meters. 4 Very traffic Loads 6~240 Nodes. 5 IFQ Drop tail 6 Simulation Time 200 Seconds. 7 Propagation Model TwoRayGround 33. 4/20/2011 Performance Evaluation metricsand Simulation parameters of BD-SIIT. In this Paper we have calculated three performance evaluation metrics. 1.End to End delay 2.Throughput 3.Round trip time(RTT)N rec 1.Mean End to End delay= i=1EEDi/Nrec whereEEDi =Tdi- Tsi where EEDi is the end to end delay of ith packet. Tsi is theSource packet i created and Tdi is the Destination packet which is created at Destination. Nrec is the total number of packets received at Dest host and Mean EED is the mean value of each communication session 34. 4/20/2011 The mean throughput for a sequence of packets of specific size is calculated by using equations 1 and 2. MeanThr = Nj =1Thrj /N-------------(1) whereThr=Packetsreceived(Pr)/Packets generated(Pg)*100%.--------------(2) WhereThrj is the value of the throughput when the packet j is received at intermediate device like DSTM gateway,BD-SIIT Gateway,v4/v6 Router and N is the number of received packets at intermediate device,Pr is the no of packets received at intermediate device and

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