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Alfred Adler Individual psychology

Alfred Adler with example

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Alfred Adler

Text of Alfred Adler with example

Page 1: Alfred Adler with example

Alfred AdlerIndividual psychology

Page 2: Alfred Adler with example

Alfred Adler

• Brno: February 7, 1870 near Vienna• Third child in seven children• Apparent physical comfort, but miserably in childhood• Known for his efforts of outdoing his older brother• Received a medical degree in 1895• Influenced by Marx's philosophy• Joined feuds group then decided to leave the group and

formed "the society of individual psychology”

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Individual psychology

• Focuses on uniqueness of each person • Denies universal biological drives and goals• We should see person as a whole rather than a part

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• Feelings of inferiority• Always present as motivating force in behavior• Source of all human striving• Growth results from compensation: attempts to overcome

inferior feeling

Inferiority Complex Inability to overcome inferiority feelings: helpless, poor self-opinion 3 sources

Organic: physical deficits Spoiling: immediate gratification, little regard for needs of others Neglect: lack of love, security, develop feeling of worthlessness

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• Striving for Superiority• Ultimate goal in life• Drive to perfection• Not an attempted to be better than others• Fictional finalism: reach goals set in the future to be

complete, whole potential and guide behavior

Superior complex Overcompensate for feelings of inferiority Exaggerated and opinion of ones ability and accomplishments

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Style of life• Expression of striving superiority to attain goals• Learned from early social interactions• Guiding frameworks for all later behaviors• how people live life, how they handle problems and

interpersonal relation

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Universal Problems and styles of life dealing with problems• Problems:• Involving behavior towards others• Occupational• Relationship/love

• Styles of life: • Dominant – little self-awareness• Getting- Expect to receive satisfactions from others, becomes dependent• Avoiding- avoids life problems• Socially useful- cooperates with others, shows social interests

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Social interests• Innate potential to cooperate with others to reach

personal and societal goals• Individual must cooperate with and contribute to society

to achieve goals• Babies and small children often show sympathy for

others without having been taught to do so.• Being useful to others• lacking in social interest including neurotics,

psychotics ,criminals ,drunkards ,problem, children ,perverts are SOCAIL FAILURES

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• All neurosis is a matter of insufficient social interest.• Three types:• Ruling type• Getting type• Avoiding type

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The rulling type

• From childhood, they are characterized by a tendenct to be rather aggressive and dominant ver others

• The strength of their striving after personal power is so great that they tend to push over anything or anybody who gets in their way.

• These are BUULLIES and SADIST

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The getting type

• They relatively passive: make little effort to solve their own problems

• Instead, they rely on others to take care of them• Frequently use charm to persuade others to help them

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The avoiding type

• These have the lowest level of energy and only survive by essentially avoiding life

• When pushed to the limits, they tend to become psychotic, retreating finally into their own personal words

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Childhood• Like Freud, Adler saw personality or lifestyle s something established

quite early in life• There were three basic childhood situations that most contribute to

faulty lifestyle.

1. Feeling of inferiority: if someone's does not come along to draw their attention to others, these children will remain focused on themselves.

2. Pampering: many children are taught by the actions of others that they can take without giving.• They do not learn to do for themselves• They don’t know of dealing with others than giving of commands

3. neglect: the child who neglected or abused learns what the pampered child learns, but learns it in a far direct manner• They learn selfishness because they are taught to trust no one

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Birth orders

• Alder considered birth order, as another one of those heuristic ideas—useful fictions, that contribute to understanding people but must be not taken too seriously.

• Adler must be credited as the first theorist to include the child's brothers and sisters as an early influence on the child

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Only child• Family situation• Birth is miracle• Parents have no previous experience• Retains 20% percent attention from the parents• Can be over protected and spoiled

• Child’s Characteristic• Likes being the center of attraction• Often has difficulty sharing with siblings and peers• Prefers adult company and uses adult language

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Oldest child• Family situation• Dethroned by next child• Parents expectations are usually high• Often given responsibility and expected to set an example

• Childs characteristics• May become authoritarian or strict• Feels power in his hand• Can become helpful; if encouraged

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Second child• Family situation• He is the peacemaker• There is always someone ahead

• Childs characteristics• Is more competitive, wants to overtake older child• May become a rebel or try to outdo everyone• Competition can deteriorate into rivalry

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Middle child

• Family situation• Is “sandwiched”• May feel squeezed out of a position of privilege and


• Childs Characteristics• May be even tempered, “take it or leave it” attitude

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Youngest child

• Family situation• Has many fathers and mothers• Never dethroned

• Childs Characteristics• Wants to be bigger than others• May have huge plans that never work out• Frequently spoiled

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Assessments: Early recollection and dream analysis

• Early recollection• Personality created in the first 4-5 years• Earliest memories reveals primary interests in life• Ex: attitudes towards achievements to future situations

• Dream analysis• Reveals feelings about current problem and intended

solutions• Oriented to present and future not past• Ex: school exams: unexpected situations