7 5. Ecosystem

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chapter 5 Grade 7 Even Semester

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<ul><li> 1. ECOSYSTEMCreated by Alfi_MSK, a Biology teacher of GIS JH</li></ul> <p> 2. What is ecosystem? Ecosystem is interaction betweenorganism or indivuals and the abioticenvironment. Created by Alfi_MSK, a Biology teacher ofGIS JH 3. According to the process of itsestablishment, there are 2 types ofecosystem ;1. Natural ecosystem made by nature ex. Forest, oceans, lakes, swamps, etc2. Artificial ecosystem made by human ex. Rice fields, aquarium, etcCreated by Alfi_MSK, a Biology teacher of GIS JH 4. 2 kinds of ecosystem components1. The biotic components consist of all organism such as plants, animals, and microorganisms grouped into 3 kinds ; producers, consumers, decomposers2. The abiotic components consist of physical or non-living factors ex. Sunlight, air, water, temperature, etcCreated by Alfi_MSK, a Biology teacher of GIS JH 5. Producers Producers are organisms that produce foodfor both themselves and other organisms Producers are all plants and photosyntheticorganisms, becausetheycanphotosynthesize During the photosynthesis, HO and COare converted into CHO and O Due to their ability to manufacture theirown food, plants are called autotrophorganismCreated by Alfi_MSK, a Biology teacher of GIS JH 6. Consumers Consumers are organisms that eat other organisms,because they cant manufacture their own food Consumers are categorized into primary consumer,secondary consumer, tertiary consumer, etc The primary consumers directly eat the producers The organisms that indirectly depend on producersand eat other consumers are called secondary andtertiary consumers Base on their foods, animals in ecosystem arecategorized into 3 groups namely herbivore,carnivore, and omnivore a Biology teacher of Created by Alfi_MSK, GIS JH 7. Decomposers Decomposers are organisms that decomposeorganic materials of dead organism intoinorganic ones The inorganic materials resulted from thisprocess fertilize the land since they are richof nutrients necessary for the soil The decomposers include bacteria and fungi If there were no decomposers, the earthwould be full of stocks of garbage andremnants of organismsCreated by Alfi_MSK, a Biology teacher of GIS JH 8. Sunlight Sunlight is the main source of energy for allorganisms on earth HO and CO are transformed into CHOand O during photosynthesis by usingsunlightCreated by Alfi_MSK, a Biology teacher of GIS JH 9. Air Air is composed of different types of gases suchas oxygen, hydrogen, carbon dioxide, andnitrogen All organisms need air for their activities, forex. Oxygen is required during the respirationthat oxides (burn) carbohydrate to generateenergy Plants use carbon dioxide as the raw materialto produce carbohydrate and nitrogen toproduce proteinCreated by Alfi_MSK, a Biology teacher of GIS JH 10. Water All organisms on earth need water to survive Plants will dehydrate and die if they lack ofwater In human body, water functions as dissolverdissolving all the materials eaten by organisms Water is also a habitat for fish and frogsCreated by Alfi_MSK, a Biology teacher of GIS JH 11. Temperature Temperatureis oneof importantcomponents for the organisms to survive onearth Each organism needs a certain range oftemperature to survive Therefore, plants living in hot area as cactuswill die or grow poorly if they are planted incold area and vice-versaCreated by Alfi_MSK, a Biology teacher of GIS JH 12. Interaction between abiotic and biotic components All organisms on earth need water for their survivals The water on earth will form a water cycle On a clear day, seawater evaporates and forms a mass ofcondensed water in the atmosphere The condensed water form clouds which also condense andresult in rain The rain-water is absorbed by the soil Then, the water accumulates into water springs and flows to therivers and ends up in seas This process is called water cycle Created by Alfi_MSK, a Biology teacher of GIS JH 13. Water CycleCreated by Alfi_MSK, a Biology teacher of GIS JH 14. Carbon CycleCreated by Alfi_MSK, a Biology teacher of GIS JH 15. Interactions within biotic components The interaction within biotic components in the ecosystem canbe seen in the rank of food consumption in the organism, whichis called food chain For ex. the plants are eaten by the herbivores, then theherbivores are eaten by the 1st carnivores which are finally eatenby other carnivores In the end, all producers and consumers will die and they will bedecomposed by the decomposers The plants will use the decomposed materials as nutrients fortheir growth If an ecosystem has several related food chains, those foodchains will form food web Created by Alfi_MSK, a Biology teacher of GIS JH 16. in food web, one consumer can have more than one role, for example the role as a first level consumer and also as a second level consumer. in food chain, energy in food can be tranferred from one organism to another, but the energy tranferred is only a small amount. in food chain, some of the energy is utilized for growth, some is excreted as residue, and some is released as heat. Only 10% of energy is stored inside the bodyof an organism.Created by Alfi_MSK, a Biology teacher of GIS JH 17. This one tenth energy is available for the organismwhich becomes a predator. The 90% reduction of energy at every trophic levelis the answer to the question why are there moreplants compared to herbivores, and moreherbivores compared to carnivores? in other words, in order for a food chain to last, the number of producers have to be higher than the number of 1st level consumers, the number of 1st consumers have to be higher than the 2nd consumers, and so on.Created by Alfi_MSK, a Biology teacher of GIS JH 18. Food ChainCreated by Alfi_MSK, a Biology teacher of GIS JH 19. Food WebCreated by Alfi_MSK, a Biology teacher of GIS JH 20. Food Pyramid Created by Alfi_MSK, a Biology teacher ofGIS JH 21. The interaction within biotic components can occur in several formA. Symbiosis symbiosis is a close relation between 2 different types of organisms.symbiosis classified into;1. Mutualism is an association that benefits all theparticipants.ex. An association between the wasp and flower2. Commensalism is an association of organisms of differenttypes where one organisms gains benefit without causingloss to the other.ex. An association between sharks and remora fish3. Parasitism is an association between 2 organisms ofdifferent species where one organism gains benefit and theother suffers losses.ex. An association between bacteria and the human body Created by Alfi_MSK, a Biology teacher ofGIS JH 22. Mutualism Symbiosis Commensalism Symbiosis Created by Alfi_MSK, a Biology teacher ofGIS JH 23. Parasitism SymbiosisCreated by Alfi_MSK, a Biology teacher of GIS JH 24. B. Competition organisms in an ecosystem compete with each other to gain things they need to survive. ex. The competition between zebra, horse, buffalo, and deer to obtain grass in savannah ecosystemC. Predation predation is an association between the eater and the eaten. ex. The association between deer and lionD. Antibiotic antibiotic is an association of 2 organisms where one organism resists the growth of the other one. ex. The association between penicillium notatum and pathogenic bacteriaCreated by Alfi_MSK, a Biology teacher of GIS JH 25. CompetitionPredationCreated by Alfi_MSK, a Biology teacher of GIS JH 26. Anti biosisNetralCreated by Alfi_MSK, a Biology teacher of GIS JH 27. Material Cycle and Energy Flow Material Cycle it is a continual cycle of material from abiotic componentto biotic one and then back to the biotic one. Material cycle starts from abiotic component, for ex. thewater and mineral cycles On land ecosystem, matrials such as water and mineralfrom the ground go through plant body, then the plantstransform the water and the minerals into differentsubstances such as glucose, protein, and fat, which isconsumed by herbivores to biotic component by Alfi_MSK, athen going back to abioticCreatedand Biology teacher ofcomponents GIS JH 28. Then the herbivores are eaten by the carnivores. Finally , the plants, herbivores, and carnivores are decomposed by the decomposers.The materials in those bodies are transformed into water and nutrients which then return to the soils.The materials will keep cycling from abiotic component Created by Alfi_MSK, a Biology teacher ofGIS JH 29. Energy Flow In nature the energy flows from the outside of the ecosysteminto the ecosystem and then exits from the ecosystem. Energy flow starts from outside, for example from the sunenergy The source of energy on the Earth is the Sun. It enters theecosystem through the plants. The plants capture sunlight energy and convert it intochemical energy. Chemical energy from the plant flows into the body ofherbivores in the forms of food such as leaves, fruits, andseeds.Created by Alfi_MSK, a Biology teacher of GIS JH 30. where do living organisms obtain their energy to live from? Through photosynthesis, green plants use energy from sunlightto produce energy stored in the form of food or nutrients. if plants are eaten by 1st consumers, the energy stored withinthe plants is transferred into the 1st level consumers. furthermore, if 1st level consumers have been eaten by 2nd levelconsumers, energy from 1st consumer is transferred into thebodies of 2nd level consumers, and so on. this phenomenon is called a transfer of energy.Created by Alfi_MSK, a Biology teacher of GIS JH 31. Chemical energy in herbivores flows to the body ofcarnivores in the form of food such as meat. The chemical energy in the plants, herbivores, andcarnivores then flow into the microorganisms. Beside flowing from one organism to other organisms, someenergy is transformed into heat that in the end exits fromthe ecosystem. Each level of the energy flow in an ecosystem is calledtrophic level. The producers are in the 1st trophic level, the herbivores arein the 2nd trophic level, the carnivores eating herbivores arein the 3rd trophic level, and the carnivores eating othercarnivores are in the 4th trophic level.Created by Alfi_MSK, a Biology teacher of GIS JH 32. You can download this slide onhttp://www.slideshare.net/alfikesturiOr onhttp://www.authorstream.com/kesturi Created by Alfi_MSK, a Biology teacher ofGIS JH </p>

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