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Energy Transformations

Energy Transformations

Some Types of EnergyS.H.E.L.P.A.C.K.E. Sound, Heat, Electrical, Light, Potential, Atomic, Chemical, Kinetic, ElasticPotential: the energy stored up before it is usedExample: Gravitational Potential energy when you lift something upKinetic: movement energyExample: falling, moving, speeding upChemical: energy stored in chemical bondsExample: Food, petrol, muscles before they do workLight: Electromagnetic radiation of a wavelength that can be seen by the human eye. OTHERS: heat, sound, electrical, atomic, elastic

Warm Up!What does the word cycle mean?Tell your partner an example.2. What does the word, recycle mean?Tell your partner about a time you recycled3. Draw your story in the form of a cycle

Learning Objectives1. Define and identify autotrophs(producers) and heterotrophs(consumers)2. Give examples of how energy is recycled in the environment, in ecosystems, between organisms, and within an organism.

Energy Transfers (Cycles)Within the environment

Within an ecosystem

Between organisms

Within an organism

Group Task1. You will be working in groups of 4. The groups will be made for you.2. Each member of the group will be in charge of one type of energy transfer (previous slide)3. Your job is to find examples of each energy transfer. For example, if you are doing transfers in the environment, you can discuss the water cycle. 4. Identify the reactants and products in the cycle.5. Record your answers on the chart paper.

Obtaining FoodAll organisms need food for energy and building materials. Biologists classify organisms according to how they obtain food.

Autotrophs are organisms such as a plant that makes its own food. For example, during photosynthesis plants use the sun's energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into sugars. Autotrophs are also called producers.

Heterotrophs are organisms that cannot make their own food, such as humans, meaning "other eaters." Heterotrophs are also called consumers.

Autotrophs and HeterotrophsIdentify the autotrophs and heterotrophs in your cycles! Thinking ahead. Can you identify the type of energy that the autotrophs and heterotrophs use?Were there other forms of energy within your cycles? (think back to our last lesson on types of energy)

Organic molecules are a source of energy and building materials for organismsHow do organisms harvest (get/obtain) the energy from foods?They use cellular respirationDefinitionCellular respiration is a chemical process that uses oxygen to convert the chemical energy stored in organic molecules into another form of chemical energyIt produces a molecule called.ATP or adenosine triphosphateHarvesting the energy in food

Cells in plant and animals use ATP as their main energy supplyThe process of cellular respiration produces Co2 as waste product.In cellular processes there is a constant cycling of chemical ingredients.Cycling, in this case, means that the ingredients are used to make a product and the product is used to make the ingredients. Harvesting the energy in food


Energy flow occurs through the ecosystem.Sun is the primary source of energy for all living thing.The products of photosynthesis are the reactants for cellular respiration, while the products of cellular respiration are the reactants for photosynthesis. Principles of Energy Harvest

Cycling of chemicals

Energy is the ability to do work. Two basic types of energy are

Kinetic energy2. Potential energy

Kinetic energy is the energy of moving thingsexamples: running, walking, cyclingPotential energy is energy that is stored due to a bodys position or arrangement e.g. standing poised on top of a ski slope, diving board, standing on top of stairs Energy types

Warm Up!Think Back to your unit on Biomolecules: Lipids, Proteins, Carbs, and Nucleic Acids

What were the monomers/building blocks for each group?

What process breaks down biomolecules in the body into their monomers?

When you read the label on a food item, what is the unit used to measure energy?

ObjectivesDefine calorieList the ingredients(reactants) and products needed for Cellular Respiration to occurExplain how the energy obtained from food drives cellular respiration to occur

Calories: Units of Energy calorie: amount of energy required to raise the temperature of 1 g of water 1 oC.The "calories" shown on a food label are actually kilocalories. One kilocalorie (kcal) equals 1000 calories.

What factors contribute to the energy (calorie) needs of a person?

Chemical EnergyJust like the molecules in gasoline and other fuels, organic compounds have a form of potential energy called chemical energy.

The stored chemical energy of foods such as peanuts can be released through cellular respiration.

The chemical energy stored in peanuts


Respiration in Mitochondria

In your cells, molecules such as glucose react with oxygen during cellular respirationThey produce waste in the form of carbon dioxide and waterCells convert about 40% of the energy found in food into useful work.Where does the rest go?It is converted to thermal energy.This is lost from your body as heatHow do we use the energy found in food?

Respiration in Mitochondria

Journal #1

Questions:1. Identify the types of energy you have at the top of a staircase and as you go down the stairs.2. How does you body use chemical energy during exercise? 3. If a food has 10kcal of energy, how much could it increase the temperature of 100g of water?

Warm Up 2!What does ATP stand for?-Write it downWhat is another word for ATP?-Write it downWhere do we get ATP from?-Write it downWhat organelle makes ATP in the cell?-Write it down

ATP has Potential EnergyWhat is ATP made of?

How is this Potential Energy Released?

ATP provides the energy for cellular workATP: (Adenosine triphosphate) main energy source that cells use for most of their work

An ATP molecule contains potential energy, much like a compressed spring. When a phosphate group is pulled away during a chemical reaction, energy is released.

The ATP Cycle

ATP is constantly recycled in your cells. A working muscle cell recycles all of its ATP molecules about once each minute. That's 10 million ATP molecules spent and regenerated per second!

ATP and Cellular Work

Cells perform three main types of work: chemical work mechanical worktransport work

The transfer of the phosphatesfrom ATP forming ADP provides the energy.

Relationship of Cellular Respiration to Breathing Cellular respiration is an aerobic process, meaning that it requires oxygen

Breathing supports cellular respiration by providing the body with oxygen and removing carbon dioxide.

Overall Equation for Cellular Respiration

In cellular respiration, the atoms in glucose and oxygen are rearranged, forming carbon dioxide and water. The cell uses the energy released to produce ATP.

Cellular respiration breaks down organic molecules to yield energy.Energy stored in organic compounds is released in a series of enzymes controlled reactions.

Word equation for respiration :

Glucose + Oxygen Carbon dioxide + Water + Energy Chemical Equation

Journal #2

Questions:In what way is ATP like a compressed spring?List 3 main types of cellular workWhat is the source of energy for regenerating ATP from ADP?How is breathing similar and different to cellular respiration?Write the equation for cellular respiration. What are the reactants? What are the products?For each sugar molecule that you consume, how many ATP molecules are produced?

Take up Homework: Journal 1 and 231



WARM UP!What is another name for sugar?

Recall the meaning of lysis. What does it stand for?

What comes to mind when you think of respiration?

What organelle is responsible for making energy in the cell?

WHERE DOES IT TAKE PLACE?In Eukaryotic Cells, the reactions of Aerobic Respiration occur Inside MITOCHONDRIA.

Cellular Respiration (CR)There are many chemical reactions taking place in the cellAll the chemical reactions happening in the cell make up the cells metabolismCR is made up of a series of reactionsIt is called a metabolic pathwayAn enzyme acts on each reaction in the pathwayThere are three stages in the metabolic pathway of cellular respiration:1. Glycolysis2. Krebs cycle3. Electron Transport Chain

Respiration involves Glycolysis, the Krebs cycle, and the Electron transport chain:

Structure of Mitochondria Mitochondria are found in almost all eukaryotic cells. Its structure is key to its role in cellular respiration.

Its complex folding pattern of membranes and spaces allows for many sites where reactions can occur.

At the end of Glycolysis90% of energy in glucose still unused!

How do we get the rest of the energy?


Stage 2: The Krebs Cycle The Krebs cycle finishes the breakdown of pyruvic acid molecules to carbon dioxide, releasing more energy in the process. The enzymes for the Krebs cycle are dissolved in the fluid matrix within a mitchondrion's inner membrane.

Stage 3: The Electron Transport Chain

Web resources

From 1 molecule of glucose38 ATPs!!! (as 2 are used, we sometimes say 36)


What happens when you do too much exercise?You get a cramp or sore musclesThis happens because your lungs cant provide oxygen to your muscles quick enoughThis process is called fermentationThis process makes ATP without using oxygenIn fermentation a waste product called lactic acid is produced.This type is Lactic acid fermentation.Therefore, the soreness is caused by an accumulation of lactic acid in the muscle cells. Anaerobic Respiration: Some cells harvest energy without Oxygen

Like muscle cells, YEAST is able to carry out cellular respiration and fermentationWhen yeast is kept in an anaerobic environment they ferment sugar.This produces alcohol instead of lactic acid as a waste product.This is called alcoholic fermentationIt also produces Co2 as a waste productUsed to make beer and wineBacteria are also used to make cheese and yogurtFermentation in microorganisms

Journal #3Summary 32 - 46Questions:1. What is the 3rd stage of cellular respiration?2. Why are electrons important in cellular respiration?3. Falling Electrons release_______________4. An accumulation of electrons are used to produce _________5. The 3rd Stage produces _________and ________6. What is the total amount of ATP molecules formed from 1 glucose molecule?7. If there is a lack of oxygen when harvesting energy, what process occurs?8. Explain why you may feel sore after physical activity.9. Beer, wine and cheese are all examples of? Why?

Photosynthesis is the process by which plants convert the energy of sunlight into organic molecules such as glucoseThis takes place in the chloroplastChloroplasts contain a green pigment called chlorophyllIn a plant most chloroplasts are found in a layer called the mesophyllPores on the underside of the leaf called stomata allow Co2 to enter and.Oxygen to leavePhotosynthesis

Like a mitochondria, a chloroplast has an inner and outer membraneInside is a thick fluid called stromaIn the stroma are disk-shaped sacs called thylakoidsThese thylakoids are stacked into granaChloroplasts

What is the equation for photosynthesis?6CO2 + 6H2O C6H1206 + 6O2

There are 2 main stages in photosynthesisThe light reactions and the Calvin cycle


Light &Chlorophyll

These reactions convert sunlight into chemical energyMolecules in the membranes of the thylakoids are very importantFirst of all chlorophyll captures the lightIt uses this energy to split water into.Hydrogen and oxygenOxygen is a waste product of photosynthesisIt escapes into the atmosphere through the stomataThe light reactions

The hydrogen and electrons are used to make NADPH an electron carrier. Light is also used to make ATP

The light reactions

Journal #4Summarize Slides 48 - 52

Are plants autotrophs or heterotrophs?What are the two stages of photosynthesis?What are the reactants of photosynthesis?What are the products of photosynthesis?How is photosynthesis similar to cellular respiration?What is the role of glucose in photosynthesis and respiration?