Some Types of EnergyS.H.E.L.P.A.C.K.E. Sound, Heat, Electrical,
Light, Potential, Atomic, Chemical, Kinetic, ElasticPotential: the
energy stored up before it is usedExample: Gravitational Potential
energy when you lift something upKinetic: movement energyExample:
falling, moving, speeding upChemical: energy stored in chemical
bondsExample: Food, petrol, muscles before they do workLight:
Electromagnetic radiation of a wavelength that can be seen by the
human eye. OTHERS: heat, sound, electrical, atomic, elastic
Warm Up!What does the word cycle mean?Tell your partner an
example.2. What does the word, recycle mean?Tell your partner about
a time you recycled3. Draw your story in the form of a cycle
Learning Objectives1. Define and identify autotrophs(producers)
and heterotrophs(consumers)2. Give examples of how energy is
recycled in the environment, in ecosystems, between organisms, and
within an organism.
Energy Transfers (Cycles)Within the environment
Within an ecosystem
Within an organism
Group Task1. You will be working in groups of 4. The groups will
be made for you.2. Each member of the group will be in charge of
one type of energy transfer (previous slide)3. Your job is to find
examples of each energy transfer. For example, if you are doing
transfers in the environment, you can discuss the water cycle. 4.
Identify the reactants and products in the cycle.5. Record your
answers on the chart paper.
Obtaining FoodAll organisms need food for energy and building
materials. Biologists classify organisms according to how they
Autotrophs are organisms such as a plant that makes its own
food. For example, during photosynthesis plants use the sun's
energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into sugars. Autotrophs
are also called producers.
Heterotrophs are organisms that cannot make their own food, such
as humans, meaning "other eaters." Heterotrophs are also called
Autotrophs and HeterotrophsIdentify the autotrophs and
heterotrophs in your cycles! Thinking ahead. Can you identify the
type of energy that the autotrophs and heterotrophs use?Were there
other forms of energy within your cycles? (think back to our last
lesson on types of energy)
Organic molecules are a source of energy and building materials
for organismsHow do organisms harvest (get/obtain) the energy from
foods?They use cellular respirationDefinitionCellular respiration
is a chemical process that uses oxygen to convert the chemical
energy stored in organic molecules into another form of chemical
energyIt produces a molecule called.ATP or adenosine
triphosphateHarvesting the energy in food
Cells in plant and animals use ATP as their main energy
supplyThe process of cellular respiration produces Co2 as waste
product.In cellular processes there is a constant cycling of
chemical ingredients.Cycling, in this case, means that the
ingredients are used to make a product and the product is used to
make the ingredients. Harvesting the energy in food
Energy flow occurs through the ecosystem.Sun is the primary
source of energy for all living thing.The products of
photosynthesis are the reactants for cellular respiration, while
the products of cellular respiration are the reactants for
photosynthesis. Principles of Energy Harvest
Cycling of chemicals
Energy is the ability to do work. Two basic types of energy
Kinetic energy2. Potential energy
Kinetic energy is the energy of moving thingsexamples: running,
walking, cyclingPotential energy is energy that is stored due to a
bodys position or arrangement e.g. standing poised on top of a ski
slope, diving board, standing on top of stairs Energy types
Warm Up!Think Back to your unit on Biomolecules: Lipids,
Proteins, Carbs, and Nucleic Acids
What were the monomers/building blocks for each group?
What process breaks down biomolecules in the body into their
When you read the label on a food item, what is the unit used to
ObjectivesDefine calorieList the ingredients(reactants) and
products needed for Cellular Respiration to occurExplain how the
energy obtained from food drives cellular respiration to occur
Calories: Units of Energy calorie: amount of energy required to
raise the temperature of 1 g of water 1 oC.The "calories" shown on
a food label are actually kilocalories. One kilocalorie (kcal)
equals 1000 calories.
What factors contribute to the energy (calorie) needs of a
Chemical EnergyJust like the molecules in gasoline and other
fuels, organic compounds have a form of potential energy called
The stored chemical energy of foods such as peanuts can be
released through cellular respiration.
The chemical energy stored in peanuts
Respiration in Mitochondria
In your cells, molecules such as glucose react with oxygen
during cellular respirationThey produce waste in the form of carbon
dioxide and waterCells convert about 40% of the energy found in
food into useful work.Where does the rest go?It is converted to
thermal energy.This is lost from your body as heatHow do we use the
energy found in food?
Respiration in Mitochondria
Questions:1. Identify the types of energy you have at the top of
a staircase and as you go down the stairs.2. How does you body use
chemical energy during exercise? 3. If a food has 10kcal of energy,
how much could it increase the temperature of 100g of water?
Warm Up 2!What does ATP stand for?-Write it downWhat is another
word for ATP?-Write it downWhere do we get ATP from?-Write it
downWhat organelle makes ATP in the cell?-Write it down
ATP has Potential EnergyWhat is ATP made of?
How is this Potential Energy Released?
ATP provides the energy for cellular workATP: (Adenosine
triphosphate) main energy source that cells use for most of their
An ATP molecule contains potential energy, much like a
compressed spring. When a phosphate group is pulled away during a
chemical reaction, energy is released.
The ATP Cycle
ATP is constantly recycled in your cells. A working muscle cell
recycles all of its ATP molecules about once each minute. That's 10
million ATP molecules spent and regenerated per second!
ATP and Cellular Work
Cells perform three main types of work: chemical work mechanical
The transfer of the phosphatesfrom ATP forming ADP provides the
Relationship of Cellular Respiration to Breathing Cellular
respiration is an aerobic process, meaning that it requires
Breathing supports cellular respiration by providing the body
with oxygen and removing carbon dioxide.
Overall Equation for Cellular Respiration
In cellular respiration, the atoms in glucose and oxygen are
rearranged, forming carbon dioxide and water. The cell uses the
energy released to produce ATP.
Cellular respiration breaks down organic molecules to yield
energy.Energy stored in organic compounds is released in a series
of enzymes controlled reactions.
Word equation for respiration :
Glucose + Oxygen Carbon dioxide + Water + Energy Chemical
Questions:In what way is ATP like a compressed spring?List 3
main types of cellular workWhat is the source of energy for
regenerating ATP from ADP?How is breathing similar and different to
cellular respiration?Write the equation for cellular respiration.
What are the reactants? What are the products?For each sugar
molecule that you consume, how many ATP molecules are produced?
Take up Homework: Journal 1 and 231
CELLULAR RESPIRATIONCONVERTING YOUR FOOD ENERGY TO ATP, ONE
GLUCOSE MOLECULE AT A TIME
TURN THOSE FROWNS UPSIDE DOWN, YOU WILL LOVE THIS TOPIC!
WARM UP!What is another name for sugar?
Recall the meaning of lysis. What does it stand for?
What comes to mind when you think of respiration?
What organelle is responsible for making energy in the cell?
WHERE DOES IT TAKE PLACE?In Eukaryotic Cells, the reactions of
Aerobic Respiration occur Inside MITOCHONDRIA.
Cellular Respiration (CR)There are many chemical reactions
taking place in the cellAll the chemical reactions happening in the
cell make up the cells metabolismCR is made up of a series of
reactionsIt is called a metabolic pathwayAn enzyme acts on each
reaction in the pathwayThere are three stages in the metabolic
pathway of cellular respiration:1. Glycolysis2. Krebs cycle3.
Electron Transport Chain
Respiration involves Glycolysis, the Krebs cycle, and the
Electron transport chain:
Structure of Mitochondria Mitochondria are found in almost all
eukaryotic cells. Its structure is key to its role in cellular
Its complex folding pattern of membranes and spaces allows for
many sites where reactions can occur.
At the end of Glycolysis90% of energy in glucose still
How do we get the rest of the energy?
Stage 2: The Krebs Cycle The Krebs cycle finishes the breakdown
of pyruvic acid molecules to carbon dioxide, releasing more energy
in the process. The enzymes for the Krebs cycle are dissolved in
the fluid matrix within a mitchondrion's inner membrane.
Stage 3: The Electron Transport Chain
From 1 molecule of glucose38 ATPs!!! (as 2 are used, we
sometimes say 36)
What happens when you do too much exercise?You get a cramp or
sore musclesThis happens because your lungs cant provide oxygen to
your muscles quick enoughThis process is called fermentationThis
process makes ATP without using oxygenIn fermentation a waste
product called lactic acid is produced.This type is Lactic acid
fermentation.Therefore, the soreness is caused by an accumulation
of lactic acid in the muscle cells. Anaerobic Respiration: Some
cells harvest energy without Oxygen
Like muscle cells, YEAST is able to carry out cellular
respiration and fermentationWhen yeast is kept in an anaerobic
environment they ferment sugar.This produces alcohol instead of
lactic acid as a waste product.This is called alcoholic
fermentationIt also produces Co2 as a waste productUsed to make
beer and wineBacteria are also used to make cheese and
yogurtFermentation in microorganisms
Journal #3Summary 32 - 46Questions:1. What is the 3rd stage of
cellular respiration?2. Why are electrons important in cellular
respiration?3. Falling Electrons release_______________4. An
accumulation of electrons are used to produce _________5. The 3rd
Stage produces _________and ________6. What is the total amount of
ATP molecules formed from 1 glucose molecule?7. If there is a lack
of oxygen when harvesting energy, what process occurs?8. Explain
why you may feel sore after physical activity.9. Beer, wine and
cheese are all examples of? Why?
Photosynthesis is the process by which plants convert the energy
of sunlight into organic molecules such as glucoseThis takes place
in the chloroplastChloroplasts contain a green pigment called
chlorophyllIn a plant most chloroplasts are found in a layer called
the mesophyllPores on the underside of the leaf called stomata
allow Co2 to enter and.Oxygen to leavePhotosynthesis
Like a mitochondria, a chloroplast has an inner and outer
membraneInside is a thick fluid called stromaIn the stroma are
disk-shaped sacs called thylakoidsThese thylakoids are stacked into
What is the equation for photosynthesis?6CO2 + 6H2O C6H1206 +
There are 2 main stages in photosynthesisThe light reactions and
the Calvin cycle
These reactions convert sunlight into chemical energyMolecules
in the membranes of the thylakoids are very importantFirst of all
chlorophyll captures the lightIt uses this energy to split water
into.Hydrogen and oxygenOxygen is a waste product of
photosynthesisIt escapes into the atmosphere through the stomataThe
The hydrogen and electrons are used to make NADPH an electron
carrier. Light is also used to make ATP
The light reactions
Journal #4Summarize Slides 48 - 52
Are plants autotrophs or heterotrophs?What are the two stages of
photosynthesis?What are the reactants of photosynthesis?What are
the products of photosynthesis?How is photosynthesis similar to
cellular respiration?What is the role of glucose in photosynthesis