Get out your amendments workWe will quickly go over the rest of the Amendments then start on the court cases.
11th Amendment-Places limits on suits against states
12th Amendment-Changes procedure for electing President and Vice-PresidentPresident and Vice President must come from the same party and are elected on the same ticketBefore the 12th Amendment, the person who received the most electoral votes would become President, while the second place vote-getter would become Vice President. Sometimes, this led to ties in the Electoral College, or a President/Vice President team that were from different political parties.
The 12th Amendment established that the President and Vice President must come from the same political party and run on the same ticket.
13th Amendment-Bans Slavery and forced laborCivil War Amendment
The 13th Amendment, passed in 1864 just before the end of the Civil War, abolished all slavery in the United States.Limit: Forced Labor of Prisoners is allowed.
14th Amendment-defines citizenship-guarantees due process and equal protection of the lawCivil War AmendmentThe 14th Amendment, which guaranteed citizenship and equal protection of the law to all citizens. With this amendment, Congress attempted to try to get every person in America treated fairly in the eyes of the government.
Limit: States still have power over certain aspects of their citizens lives
15th Amendment-Allows voting to all men regardless of raceCivil War AmendmentWomen still cannot voteThe 15th Amendment, which guaranteed all men, regardless of race or previous condition of servitude, the right to vote.
Limit: citizenship, and voter id laws
16th Amendment-Gives the authority to levy an income taxGovernment makes every working American pay taxes on the money they make (usually about 30%)During the Progressive Era (around 1900s), people wanted to make a lot of changes to American society, and they wanted the federal government to pay for them. To do so, the federal government began a graduated income tax, forcing all American citizens to pay a portion of their profits to the federal government every year.
17th Amendment-Establishes the direct election of SenatorsPeople themselves vote for their senators, not the state legislatureBefore the 17th Amendment, the state legislatures, rather than the individual voters, would choose who the Senators from each state would be. Voters did not like this because sometimes people who wanted to be Senators would bribe people to choose them. This led to a lot of political corruption over the years.Limit: Citizen of voting age
18th Amendment-Prohibition of AlcoholIllegal to make, sell, buy, or consume alcohol in AmericaLed to organized crime (smuggling alcohol in)During the 1800s, women and other reformers wanted to completely rid the U.S. of alcohol. They got their wish on January 16, 1920, when the federal government passed the 18th Amendment, prohibiting all use of alcohol.
19th Amendment-Womens right to voteAlso in 1920, women gained the right to vote in all state and federal elections, mostly because of their help in American society during WWI.
Limit: citizen of voting age
20th Amendment-Changes the beginning of Presidential and Congressional terms.Lame Duck amendment, says the President and the new Congress will be inaugurated in January instead of MarchPrior to the 20th Amendment, the President would be elected in November, but he would not officially take his new office (be inaugurated) until March. This meant that the old President ruled with no real power for a period of 4 months, while the new President just waited to take his job. The 20th Amendment changed that, allowing the President to be inaugurated (officially take office) in January rather than March.
21st Amendment-Repeals ProhibitionCongress took back the 18th Amendment, and they said it was okay to have alcohol again (too much crime)During Prohibition, organized crime rose to an all-time high as criminals such as Al Capone would smuggle alcohol into American towns and cities.
Because Prohibition was not accomplishing its goals, and because it was causing more problems than it was fixing, the federal government repealed the 18th Amendment with the 21st Amendment, making alcohol legal again.
22nd Amendment-Establishes a two term limit for PresidentThe President can only be elected to two 4-year terms, or they can serve a total of 10 yearsThroughout the 1930s, American citizens were in a Great Depression. Franklin Roosevelt helped the people through this Depression with a plan he called the New Deal. He also ushered the U.S. into WWII after the attack on Pearl Harbor. Because of his actions as President, he was elected to the Presidency 4 times. After his death in 1945, the federal government passed the 22nd Amendment, which limits the President to two terms or a total of 10 years.
23rd Amendment-Gives residents of Washington D.C. the right to vote in national electionsGives D.C. electoral votesLimit: D.C. has no voting members in Congress
24th Amendment-Abolishes the use of poll taxes in votingCannot charge people money to vote in elections (South) The 24th Amendment was passed during the Civil Rights Movement, which made it illegal for any state to require voters to pay a poll tax to vote.
Limit: Voter id laws
25th Amendment-Defines the succession of the office of PresidentEstablishes who becomes President if he dies
26th Amendment-Lowers the voting age to 18 years old.After being drafted to fight in the Vietnam War, the federal government extended the right to vote to 18-year-olds.
Limit: citizen, be at least 18
27th Amendment-Places limits on Congressional pay raises until the beginning of the next term.Congress can vote themselves a raise, but they do not get it until the next Congress starts.