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    Automotive industryFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    This article is about production of automobiles. For sales, seeAutomotive market.

    The automotive industry designs, develops, manufactures, markets, and sellsmotor vehicles, and is one of

    the world's most importanteconomic sectorsbyrevenue.

    The term automotive industryusually does not include industries dedicated to automobiles after delivery to the

    customer, such asrepair shopsandmotor fuelfilling stations.



    1 History

    2 Economy

    3 World motor vehicle production

    o 3.1 By year

    o 3.2 By country

    o 3.3 By manufacturer

    4 Company relationships

    5 Top vehicle manufacturing groups (by volume)

    o 5.1 Notes

    6 Minor automotive manufacturers

    7 See also

    8 References

    9 External links


    The first practical automobile with apetrol enginewas built byKarl Benzin 1885 inMannheim, Germany. Benz

    was granted a patent for his automobile on 29 January 1886, and began the first production of automobiles in

    1888, afterBertha Benz, his wife, had proved with the first long-distance trip in August 1888

    (fromMannheimtoPforzheimand back) that the horseless coach was absolutely suitable for daily use. Since

    2008 aBertha Benz Memorial Routecommemorates this event.

    Soon after,Gottlieb DaimlerandWilhelm MaybachinStuttgartin 1889 designed a vehicle from scratch to be

    an automobile, rather than ahorse-drawn carriagefitted with an engine. They also are usually credited as

    inventors of the firstmotorcycle, theDaimler Reitwagen, in 1885, butItaly'sEnrico Bernardi, of theUniversity of
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    Padua, in 1882, patented a 0.024horsepower(17.9 W) 122cc(7.4cu in) one-cylinder petrol motor, fitting it into

    his son'stricycle, making it at least a candidate for the first automobile, and first motorcycle;.[1]:p.26


    enlarged the tricycle in 1892 to carry two adults.[1]:p.26

    Until 2005, the U.S.A. was leading the world in total automobile production. In 1929 before the Great

    Depression, the world had 32,028,500 automobiles in use, and the US automobile industry produced over 90%

    of the automobiles in the world, ie 28,551,500. And over one half the cars in foreign lands were of U.S. make.

    At that time the U.S. had one car per 4.87 persons.[2]

    In 2006, Japan narrowly passed the U.S. in production

    and held this rank until 2008. In 2009, China took the top spot with 13.78 million units produced. With 18.3

    million units produced 2010, China produced nearly twice the amount of second place Japan (9.6 million units),

    the U.S. trailed in place 3 with 7.8 million units.[3]

    Main article:Automotive industry by country


    About 250 million vehicles are in use in the United States. Around the world, there were about 806 million cars

    and light trucks on the road in 2007, consuming over 260 billion US gallons (980,000,000 m3) of gasoline and

    diesel fuel yearly.[4]

    The automobile is a primary mode of transportation for many developed economies. The

    Detroit branch ofBoston Consulting Grouppredicts that, by 2014, one-third of world demand will be in the

    fourBRICmarkets (Brazil, Russia, India and China). Other potentially powerful automotive markets are Iran

    and Indonesia.[5]

    Emerging auto markets already buy more cars than established markets. According to a J.D.

    Power study, emerging markets accounted for 51 percent of the global light-vehicle sales in 2010. The study

    expects this trend to accelerate.[6][7]

    [edit]World motor vehicle production

    See also:List of countries by motor vehicle production

    [edit]By year

    Global production of motorvehicles

    (cars and commercial vehicles)

    Year Production Change Source

    1997 54,434,000[8]
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    1998 52,987,000 -2.7% [8]

    1999 56,258,892 6.2%[9]

    2000 58,374,162 3.8%[10]

    2001 56,304,925 -3.5%[11]

    2002 58,994,318 4.8%[12]

    2003 60,663,225 2.8%[13]

    2004 64,496,220 6.3%[14]

    2005 66,482,439 3.1%[15]

    2006 69,222,975 4.1%[16]

    2007 73,266,061 5.8% [17]

    2008 70,520,493 -3.7%[18]

    2009 61,791,868 -12.4%[19]

    2010 77,857,705 26.0%[20]

    [edit]By country

    Main article:List of countries by motor vehicle production

    [hide]v d e previous yearTop 20 motor vehicle producing countries 2010next year

    Motor vehicle production (units)
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    Country 1,000,000 2,000,000 3,000,000 4,000,000 5,000,000 6,000,000 7,000,000 8,000,000 9,000,000 10,000,000 11


    Japan 9,605,985

    United States 7,761,443

    Germany 5,905,985

    South Korea 4,271,941

    Brazil 3,648,358

    India 3,536,783

    Spain 2,387,900

    Mexico 2,345,124

    France 2,227,742

    Canada 2,071,026

    Thailand 1,644,513

    Iran 1,599,454

    Russia 1,403,244

    UK 1,393,463

    Turkey 1,097,554

    Czech Rep. 1,076,385

    Poland 869,736

    Italy 857,359

    Reference:"Production Statistics".OICA. Retrieved 2011-04-07.

    [edit]By manufacturer

    [hide]v d e previous yearTop motor vehicle manufacturing companies by volume 2010next y

    Total motor vehicle production

    Group 1,000,000 2,000,000 3,000,000 4,0

    Key Cars




    Hyundai Motor






    Suzuki 2,892,945

    Renault 2,716,286



    Daimler AG


    Chrysler 1,578,488







    Chana Automobile

    1,102,683 2,378,052


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    896,060 2,572,260





    Fuji 649,954

    Dongfeng Motor 649,559 2,769,883

    Beijing Automotive 617,725 1,504,083





    Key Cars

    Total: 77,743,862 Cars: 60,343,756

    Numbers in italics are including joint ventures

    Reference:"World motor vehicle production by manufacturer: World ranking of manufacturers 2010" . OICA. August 2011.

    [edit]Company relationships

    It is common for automobile manufacturers to hold stakes in other automobile manufacturers. These

    ownerships can be explored under the detail for the individual companies.

    Notable current relationships include:[citation needed]

    Daimler AGholds a 20% stake inEicher Motors, a 10.0% stake inKAMAZ, a 10% stake inTesla Motors, a

    6.75% stake inTata Motorsand a 3.1% in theRenault-Nissan Motorsalliance. They are in the process of

    selling back their 40% stake (11% remaining) inMcLaren Group. This process will be finalized in 2011.

    Dongfeng Motor Corporationis involved in joint ventures with several companies around the world,

    including:Honda(Japan),Hyundai(South Korea),Nissan(Japan),Nissan Diesel(Sweden), andPSA

    Peugeot Citroen(France).

    Fiatholds a 90% stake inFerrariand a 53.5% stake inChrysler.

    Ford Motor Companyholds a 3% stake inMazdaand an 8.3% share inAston Martin.

    Geely Automobileholds a 23% stake inManganese Bronze Holdings.

    General MotorsandShanghai Automotive Industry Corporation(SAIC) have two joint ventures inShanghai

    General MotorsandSAIC-GM-Wuling Automobile.

    Hyundai Kia Automotive Groupholds a 38.67% stake inKia Motors, down from the 51% that it acquired in


    MAN SEholds a 17.01% voting stake inScania.

    Porsche Automobil Holding SEhas a 50.74% stake inVolkswagen Group. Due to liquidity problems,

    Volkswagen Group is now in the process of acquiring Porsche.

    RenaultandNissan Motorshave an alliance involving two global companies linked by cross-shareholding,

    with Renault holding 44.3% of Nissan shares, and Nissan holding 15% of (non-voting) Renault shares. The

    alliance holds a 3.1% share inDaimler AG.
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    Renaultholds a 25% stake inAvtoVAZand 20.5% of the voting stakes inVolvo Group.

    Toyotaholds a 51% stake inDaihatsu, and 16.5% inFuji Heavy Industries, parent company ofSubaru.

    Volkswagen Groupholds a 37.73% stake inScania(68.6% voting rights), and a 53.7% stake inMAN

    SE(55.9% voting rights). Volkswagen is integrating Scania, MAN and its own truck division into one


    Volkswagen Grouphas a 49.9% stake inPorsche AG. Volkswagen is in the process of acquiring Porsche,

    which will be completed in late 2011.

    Volkswagen Grouphas a 19.9% stake inSuzuki, and Suzuki has a 5% stake in Volkswagen.

    [edit]Top vehicle manufacturing groups (by volume)

    The table below shows the world's largest motor vehicle manufacturing groups, along with

    themarquesproduced by each one. The table is ranked by 2010 end of yearproduction figures from

    theInternational Organization of Motor Vehicle Manufacturers(OICA)[21]

    for the parent group, and then

    alphabetically by marque. Joint ventures are not reflected in this table. Production figures of joint ventures are

    typically included in OICA rankings, which can become a source of controversy.[22][23]

    MarqueCountry of

    originOwnership Markets

    1.Toyota Motor Corporation( Japan)

    Daihatsu Subsidiary Global, except North America and Australia


    Subsidiary Asia Pacific, North America and South America

    Lexus Division Global


    Division North America


    Division Global

    2.General Motors Company( United States)
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    Division North America, China, Israel, Taiwan


    Division North America, Europe, Asia, Middle East, Africa

    Chevrolet Division Global, except Australia, New Zealand

    GMC Division North America, Middle East


    Subsidiary Australia, New Zealand

    Opel Subsidiary Global, except North America, United Kingdom


    Subsidiary United Kingdom

    3.Volkswagen Group AG( Germany)

    Audi Subsidiary Global


    Subsidiary Global

    Bugatti Subsidiary Global

    Lamborghini Subsidiary Global


    Subsidiary Global

    SEAT Subsidiary Europe, South America, North Africa, Middle East


    Subsidiary Global, except North America, Japan and South Africa

    Volkswagen Subsidiary Global
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    Volkswagen CommercialVehicles

    Subsidiary Global

    4.Hyundai Motor Group( South Korea)


    Division Global


    Division Global, except Mexico

    5.Ford Motor Company( United States)


    Division Global


    Division North America, Middle East, Japan, South Korea

    6.Nissan( Japan)


    Division Global, except Japan, South America and Africa

    Nissan Division Global

    7.Honda Motor Company( Japan)

    Acura Division North America, China


    Division Global

    8.PSA Peugeot Citron S.A.( France)


    Subsidiary Global, except North America, South Asia
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    Subsidiary Global, except North America, South Asia

    9.Suzuki Motor Corporation( Japan)

    Maruti Suzuki

    Subsidiary India, Middle East, South America


    Division Global

    10.Renault( France)


    Subsidiary Europe, Latin America, Africa, Asia, except Japan


    Division Global, except North America, South Korea

    Renault Samsung

    Subsidiary South America, Asia, except Japan and China

    11.Fiat S.p.A.( Italy)

    Abarth Subsidiary Global

    Alfa Romeo Subsidiary Global

    Ferrari Subsidiary Global

    Fiat Subsidiary Global

    Fiat Professional

    Subsidiary Global, except North America and Japan

    Lancia Subsidiary Europe and Japan (except UK and Republic of Ireland)
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    Maserati Subsidiary Global

    12.Daimler AG( Germany)


    Division North America, South Africa, Australia, New Zealand

    Master Subsidiary Pakistan

    Maybach Division Global

    Mercedes-Benz Division Global

    Mitsubishi Fuso

    Subsidiary Global


    Subsidiary North America


    Subsidiary Europe


    Division North America, Europe, Japan, South East Asia, South Africa

    Thomas Built

    Subsidiary North America

    Western Star Subsidiary North America, Australia, New Zealand

    13.Chrysler Group, LLC( United States)

    Chrysler Division Global, UK and Republic of Ireland, except Europe


    Division Global, except Europe

    Jeep Division Global