of rats where food supplies are accessible ; inoculation, theone successful and scientific means of combating the disease,has not been accepted by the people ; evacuation is notcarried out for a long enough time, the people returning totheir infected houses only to become victims of the disease ;he has more hope from the travelling dispensaries. Someidea of the work done in the hospitals and dispensaries ofthis province may be gained from these figures : 4,543,746cases were treated : 196,759 operations were performed.
Ccnt1’al Provinces and Berar.Lieutenant-Colonel A. Buchanan in his report mentions a
severe and unusual outbreak of guinea-worm disease in a
village near Nagpur ; over 100 persons were affected, all ofwhom drank water from one well, while the people who usedthe other four wells in the village were entirely free from thedisease ; a few persons drank water from the infected well,but filtered it through cloth ; none of these were affected. Thecyclops, which is the host of the guinea-worm (but which isnot a small insect" " as described in the report), was removedfrom the water by straining through the cloth. Another
interesting point is the mention of the occurrence of 25cases of enteric fever at Ohindwara among Indianswith symptoms nearly the same as in Europeans ; it isnot stated to what native race these patients belonged.
The principal item of interest in the report on Burma is theopening of the new general hospital at Rangoon, which, how-ever, is not yet finished, though patients are now accom-modated there. It is gratifying to note the large increase inwomen and female children treated ; the numbers have risenfrom 8852 in 1908 to 14,586 in 1910. A considerable increasein syphilis admissions in Burma is noted, especially inRangoon ; venereal diseases are also prevalent at Mandalay ;these points are deserving of the particular attention of theGovernment. Scientific work in the laboratory is carried onunder difficulties in the climate of Rangoon ; bacteriologicalinvestigations are, however, now conducted with success ;one of considerable importance to the public health of thecity was the detection of cases of glanders among men livingin close contact with cab-horses.
III. JAILS.These reports refer to the year 1910.
Bengal.In this province a reduction in the average numbers in jail
took place in 1910 from 15,065 to 13,163, due mainly to thegood season of 1909-10, in which the petty thefts and minoroffences of a population affected by scarcity and high priceswere less numerous. Lieutenant-Colonel W. J. Buchanan,inspector of prisons, writes strongly against the presentsystem of the employment of convicts as warders, manybeing appointed to positions of trust, even to be nightguards, who were not eligible, but had to be employedowing to insufficiency of the regular warders. The questionof alterations in the prison dietary is now under considera-tion, consequent on Major D. McCay’s recent investigations.1The death-rate of prisoners was only 18’6 per 1000, thelowest yet recorded (except 17’ 5 in 1907). The improvementthat has taken place has been extraordinary; in the quin-quennium 1875-79 the death-rate was 65. The chief causefor this good result in 1910 was absence of overcrowding inthe jails, owing to the prosperity of the province consequenton the excellent harvests. Dysentery was much less prevalent,also tuberculosis. Lieutenant-Colonel Buchanan alludes tothe effects of the unrest in Bengal during the last few years ;the prisoners are not so manageable as formerly, and thework of the jail officers has been rendered more difficult andharassing.
Eastern Bengal and Assam.Lieutenant-Colonel B. J. Singh reports a steady increase
in the number of prisoners since the formation of the newprovince in 1905, the daily average being now 8136. He com-
plains that magistrates continue to commit juvenile offendersof 10 to 12 years of age to jail for short periods, in spite ofrecent orders by the Government. No suitable accommoda-tion exists for these juveniles, and the risk of their contami-nation by the older criminals is very great ; moreover, thejails were constantly overcrowded. The death-rate was 32-57per 1000, a higher ratio than in any year of the decennium ;
1 See THE LANCET, Oct. 22nd, 1910, p. 1217.
dysentery and tubercle of the lungs were the chief causes ofthe increase. Lieutenant-Colonel Singh believes that thereis a close connexion between the former disease and oralsepsis, and states that wherever medical officers had interestedthemselves in the proper care of the prisoners’ gums and dis-infection of their mouths the results were satisfactory.Forster’s vaccine was not found to be effective as a dysenteryprophylactic. Tubercle of the lungs was in many casesacquired before admission to jail, but the overcrowding andwant of separate accommodation were largely responsible forits spread.
United Provinces.In the United Provinces the jail death-rate was only 15’ 6
per 1000, compared with 23’7 in the previous year. Thisdenotes a return to normal health after the famine andmalarial epidemic of 1908-09. Dysentery was less frequentand fatal. Lieutenant-Colonel C. Mactaggart believes thatthis was because the prisoners were in better health andcondition when received into jail. Tubercle of the lungs wasalso less severe; malaria was much less prevalent. It is
interesting to learn that a female prisoner escaped from theprison at Benares by climbing over the wall, though she was70 years of age. In her youth she had been an acrobat. Buteven so, the vigilance does not seem to have been up to themark.
Central Pr01.Jinees.At Raipur jail dysentery caused 195 admissions and 49
deaths. Lieutenant-Colonel W. B. Lane states that thedisease was introduced into the jail by a batch of prisonersfrom the Bastar State, and that it spread rapidly. At
Nagpur jail, also, there was an epidemic of 90 cases with11 deaths. In Lieuoenant-Colonel Lane’s opinion the diseaseis due to excess of food, the " unaccustomed plenty " of thejail.
Bombay.In the Bombay Presidency the jail death-rate was 14.5 per
1000, a very satisfactory figure. No epidemic disease occurredof any importance.
.2?w?’m.In the jails here the death-rate was only 11 - 98 per 1000,
the lowest but one on record. An unfortunate misadventureoccurred at one jail where a prisoner surreptitiously took adose of concentrated solution of quinine, stated to have beenat least 300 grains (!) ; he died in two hours.
IV. LUNATIC ASYLUIS.
In Bengal the rate of mortality among asylum patients wasvery low, being only 6’58 per cent. of the inmates, a lowerfigure than that obtaining in the county and borough asylumsin England for 1909, which was 9’96. There were no deathsat all from fever. In Eastern Bengal and Assam the
mortality rate was 11.81, tubercular disease having causedmore than half the deaths at Tezpur Asylum ; this wasattributed to overcrowding, and the construction of a tubercleward will be carried out during the current financial year.With the increased accommodation provided in the new hos-pital of the Punjab Asylum, by which all cases of tubercle,ankylostomiasis (from mud eating), and bowel affections aresegregated, there has been considerable improvement inhealth. The majority of cases in the Indian asylums, ofwhich reports have been received, were, as usual, cases ofmaniacal insanity.
HEALTH OF ENGLISH TOWNS.
IN 77 of the largest English towns, having an estimatedpopulation of 16,157.797 persons in the middle of this year,7472 births and 4869 deaths were registered during theweek ending Dec. 2nd. The annual rate of mortality inthese towns, which had risen from 13’1 to 14’2 in thethree preceding weeks, further rose to 15 - per 1000 in theweek under notice. During the first nine weeks of thecurrent quarter the mean annual rate of mortality in thesetowns averaged 14’ 2 per 1000, and was O. 3 per 1000higher than that recorded in London during the same
period. The annual death-rates in the 77 towns lastweek ranged from 7’5 in Walthamstow, 8-7 in North-ampton, 10-2 in King’s Norton, and 10’6 in Tyne-mouth to 21-4 in Sunderland, 21-6 in Wigan, 225 5
in Burnley, and 23 1 in Bootle. The 4869 deaths cfrom all causes in the 77 towns were 481 in excess 2of the number in the previous week, and included 276 a
which were referred to the principal epidemic diseases, t
against numbers steadily declining from 2900 to 259 in the I14 preceding weeks. Of these 276 deaths, 68 resulted from tinfantile diarrhoea, 66 from measles, 57 from diphtheria, 38 Bfrom whooping-cough, 25 from scarlet fever, and 22 from i
enteric fever, but not one from small-pox. The mean annual ideath-rate from these epidemic diseases last week was equal 5to 0. 9, against 0’9 9 and 0 -8 per 1000 in the two preceding ‘weeks. The deaths of infants under two years of age attri- abuted to diarrhoeal diseases, which had steadily declined from (2714 to 73 in the 14 preceding weeks, further fell to 68 lastweek. and included 29 in London and its suburban districts, 4 in Nottingham, and 3 each in Burnley, Leeds, and Sheffield. iThe deaths referred to measles, which had been 37, 51, and 44in the three preceding weeks, rose to 66 last week; 11 deathswere recorded in Burnley, 9 in London, 8 in Nottingham, 5 iin Norwich, and 4 in Manchester. The fatal cases of diph-theria, which bad been 55. 64, and 61 in the three previous i
weeks, again declined to 57 last week, and of this number i
15 were registered in London and its suburban districts, 5 in iLiverpool, 4 in Manchester, and 3 each in Bristol, Stoke-on-Trent, Sheffield, and Cardiff. The deaths assigned towhooping-cough, which had increased from 16 to 32 inthe four preceding weeks, further rose last week to 38,and included 7 in London, 5 in Birmingham, 5 in Sunder-land, and 3 each in Walsall, Manchester, and Leeds. The25 fatal cases of scarlet fever were equal to theaverage in the two previous weeks ; 4 deaths occurredin Manchester, and 2 each in Stoke-on-Trent, Birmingham,Salford, Preston, Halifax, and Leeds. The deaths attributedto enteric fever, which had declined from 35 to 20 in thefour preceding weeks, slightly rose to 22 last week, and ofthese 9 were recorded in London and its suburban districtsand 3 in Bolton. The number of scarlet fever patients undertreatment in the Metropolitan Asylums and in the LondonFever Hospital, which had been 2203, 2213, and 2166 at theclose of the three preceding weeks, declined again to 2141on Saturday last; 248 new cases of this disease wereadmitted to these hospitals during the week, against 292, 291,and 203 in the three preceding weeks. These hospitals alsocontained on Saturday last 1342 cases of diphtheria, 177 ofwhooping-cough, 86 of enteric fever, and 72 of measles, butnot one of small-pox. The 1307 deaths from all causes inLondon last week were 161 in excess of the number recordedin the previous week, and included 297 which were referred todiseases of the respiratory system, against numbers risingfrom 170 to 243 in the four preceding weeks. The deathsattributed to different forms of violence in the 77 towns,which had been 167 and 158 in the two preceding weeks, roseto 188 last week, and 437 inquest cases were registered. Thecauses of 39, or 0-8 per cent., of the deaths registeredin the 77 towns last week were not certified either by aregistered medical practitioner or by a coroner after inquest.All the causes of death were duly certified in Manchester,Leeds, Bristol, West Ham, Bradford, Newcastle-on-Tyne,Nottingham, Stoke-on-Trent, and in 51 other smaller towns.The 39 uncertified causes of death in the week under noticeincluded 8 in Liverpool, 6 in Sunderland, 5 in Birmingham,3 in London, and 3 in Coventry.
HEALTH OF SCOTCH TOWNS.
In eight of the principal Scotch towns, having an estimatedpopulation of 1,710,291 persons in the middle of this year,742 births and 589 deaths were registered during the weekending Dec. 2nd. The annual rate of mortality in thesetowns, which had been 18 6 and 16’ 7 in the two pre-ceding weeks, rose to 18-0 per 1000 in the week undernotice. During the first nine weeks of the current
quarter the mean annual death-rate in these Scotchtowns averaged 16-6, and was 2-4 per 1000 above themean rate during the same period in the 77 largeEnglish towns. The annual death-rates in the severalScotch towns last week ranged from 14-5 and 14 9 inPerth and Leith to 18 - 8 in Glasgow and 20-8.in Aberdeen.The 589 deaths from all causes were 41 in excess ofthe number in the preceding week, and included 72 which z,were referred to the principal epidemic diseases, against 65and 63 in the two previous weeks ; of these 72 deaths, 31resulted from measles, 16 from diarrhoeal diseases, 15 from I
liphtheria, 6 from whooping-cough, 2 from scarlet fever, andfrom enteric fever, but not one from small-pox. The meanannual death-rate from these epidemic diseases in the eightowns last week was equal to 2’2 per 1000, and was 1’3)er 1000 above the mean rate from the same diseases inhe 77 large English towns. The deaths referred to measles,Ahich had been 13. 28, and 23 in the three preceding weeks,’ose to 31 last week, and included 18 in Aberdeen and 11n Glasgow. The deaths attributed to diarrhceal diseases,which had been 19 and 16 in the two previous weeks,were again 16 last week, and included 10 of infantsmder two years of age ; 9 deaths were registered in
Glasgow, 3 in Dundee, 2 in Edinburgh, and 2 in Paisley.rhe fatal cases of diphtheria, which had declined from 14 to7 in the three preceding weeks, rose to 15 last week, andincluded 8 in Glasgow and 2 each in Edinburgh, Dundee, andAberdeen. The 6 deaths assigned to whooping-cough, ofwhich 3 were recorded in Glasgow, were equal to the averagein the four preceding weeks. The 2 fatal cases of entericfever, both of which occurred in Glasgow, were equal to thenumber in each of the two preceding weeks. The 2 deathsreferred to scarlet fever were registered in Glasgowand Leith respectively. The deaths referred to diseasesKf the respiratory system, which had been 144 and113 in the two preceding weeks, were again 113 last week,and were 44 below the number recorded in the correspondingweek of last year. Of the 589 deaths from all causes
in the Scotch towns last week, 161, or 27 per cent.,were recorded in public institutions, and 16 were attri-buted to different forms of violence. The causes of 17,or 2-9 per cent., of the deaths in the eight towns in theweek under notice were not certified or not specified ; inthe 77 large English towns the proportion of uncertifiedcauses did not exceed 0 - 8 per cent.
HEALTH OF IRISH TOWNS.
In the 22 town districts of Ireland, having an estimatedpopulation of 1,149,495 persons in the middle of this year,570 births and 403 deaths were registered during the weekending Dec. 2nd. The annual rate of mortality in theetowns, which had been 19.0 0 and 18’0 0 in the two previousweeks, rose to 18’ 3 per 1000 in the week under notice. Duringthe first nine weeks of the current quarter the mean annualdeath-rate in these Irish towns averaged 18 3 per 1000; inthe 77 large English towns the mean annual death-rateduring the same period did not exceed 14’ 2. while in the
eightScotch towns it was equal to 16-6 per 1000. The annualdeath-rate last week was equal to 21 - 6 in Dublin (against15-1 in London), 13-6 in Belfast, 25 in Cork, 12-8 in
Londonderry, 12’2 in Limerick, and 20’9 in Waterford ;in the 16 smallest of these Irish towns the death-rate lastweek was equal to 19-8 per 1000. The 403 deaths fromall causes were 7 in excess of the number in the pre-vious week, and included 40 which were referred to theprincipal epidemic diseases, against 47 and 44 in the twopreceding weeks; of these 40 deaths, 14 resulted fromdiarrhoeal diseases, 11 from whooping-cough, 6 from diph-theria, 4 from measles, 3 from scarlet fever, 1 from entericfever, and 1 from typhus, but not one from small-pox. These40 deaths from the principal epidemic diseases were equalto an annual death-rate of 1.8 per 1000 ; in the 77
English towns the mean annual death-rate from thesediseases last week did not exceed 0-9 per 1000. while inthe eight Scotch towns it was equal to 2 - 2. The deathsattributed to diarrhoeal diseases, which had been 19 ineach of the two preceding weeks, declined last weekto 14, all of which related to children under 2 yearsof age ; 6 deaths were recorded in Dublin, 2 in
Belfast, and 2 in Waterford. The deaths referred to
whooping-cough, which had increased from 1 to 11 inthe four preceding weeks, were again 11 last week,and included 4 in Lurgan, 3 in Dublin, and 3 in Belfast.The fatal cases of diphtheria, which had been 12 and 2 in thetwo preceding weeks, again rose to 6 last week, of which 3 wereregistered in Dublin. The 4 deaths from measles were equalto the number in the previous week, and comprised 3 inDublin and 1 in Cork. The 3 fatal cases of scarlet fever,which were 2 fewer than in the previous week, were regis-tered in Dublin, Belfast, and Sligo respectively. The fatalcases of typhus and enteric fever were recorded in Dublin.The deaths referred to diseases of the respiratory system,which had been 75, 73, and 78 in the three preceding
weeks, were 77 last week. Of the 403 deaths from allcauses in the Irish towns last week, 149, or 37 per cent.,were recorded in public institutions, and 8 were attributedto different forms of violence. The causes of 12, or 3’0 percent., of the deaths in the 22 towns in the week under noticewere not certified either by a registered medical practitioneror by a coroner after inquest; the proportion of uncertifiedcauses last week did not exceed 0.8 per cent. in the 77
English towns, but was equal to 2-9 per cent. in the eightScotch towns.
ROYAL NAVY MEDICAL SERVICE.THE following appointments have been notified :-Staff-
Surgeons : A. La T. Darley to the Hazard ; and H. P.Turnbull to the Vernon, additional, for the burious. Sur-geons : R. A. Rankine and H. White to the Victory ; W. L.Cowardin and Q. H. Richardson to the Vivid ; L. A.Moncrieff and A. C. Paterson to the Pembroke, all additonal,for disposal; and G. D. Bateman to the Tictory, additional,for disposal.
ROYAL ARMY MEDICAL CORPS.
Captain John W. West to be Major (dated Nov. 29th,1911). Captain Edmund S. Worthington, M.V.O.. is secondedfor special extra-regimental employment (dated Sept. 29th,1911).The undermentioned officers are seconded for service
under the Foreign Office :-Captain Ronald E. Todd (datedNov. lst, 1911) Lieutenant Campbell Robb (dated Nov. 14th,1911). Lieutenant Robert Gale (dated Nov. 15th, 1911).Lieutenant Pierce M. J. Brett is confirmed in his rank.
Surgeon-General A. T. Sloggett, C.B., C.M.G., PrincipalMedical Officer of the Sixth (Poona) Division, Southern
Army, has been selected for appointment as PrincipalMedical Officer of the Coronation Durbar at Dalbi.Lieutenant-Colonel H. C. Thurston, C.M.G., on return froma tour of foreign service in Bermuda, has been posted to theAldershot Command. Lieutenant-Colonel W. L. Grey, in
charge of the Military Hospital at Winchester, has beendetailed by the War Office for a tour of service in India..Lieutenant-Colonel R. Kirkpatrick, C.M.G., has taken upduty as Senior Medical 061 oer in Egypt. Lieutenant-ColonelN. C. Ferguson, C.M.G., has left Queen Alexandra’s MilitaryHospital, London, and taken over charge of the MilitaryHospital at York. Lieutenant-Colonel J. S. Green, fromNaini Tal, has been appointed to command the Station Hos-pital at Bangalore, in succession to Lieutenant-Colonel W. C.Beevor, C.M.G., tour expired. Lieutenant-Colonel H. J.Fletcher, commanding the Station Hospital at Sialkot, hasreceived an extension of his command until May, 1913.Lieutenant-Colonel T. Daly has been appointed tocommand the Station Hospital at Peshawar for a period ofthree years. Lieutenant-Colonel A. L. F. Bate, commandingthe Station Hospital at Kuldana, has been appointed Senior Medical Officer on board the troopship s.s. Rewa which left’Karachi for Southampton on Dec. 9th. Major W. E. P. V.Marriott, at present serving in the Dublin District, has beenposted to Mullingar with effect from Dec. 18th, on whichdate he will take over the charge of the Military Hospital atthe latter station, in succession to Major C. S. Smith. MajorR. Tilbury Brown, specialist sanitary officer to the BurmaDivision, has been permitted to extend his tour of servicefor one year. Major L. Way has been transferred fromGolden Hill to Cosham. Major C. W. H. Whitestone, fromPeshawar, has taken up duty at Cherat as Staff Officer forMedical Mobilisation Stores in the First (Peshawar) Division.Major H. S. Anderson, from Moore Park, has been posted toButtevant Camp. Major F. W. Begbie, surgical specialist at
’ Colchester, has taken over Medical Charge at Ipswich duringthe absence on leave of Lieutenant-Colonel H. L. Battersby.Major W. P. Gwynn, on return to India from leave, hastaken up the appointment of Embarkation Medical Officer atKarachi for the current trooping season. Captain S. E.Lewis has been appointed to succeed Captain J. Tobin asMedical Officer in charge of the Military Families Hospitalat Devonport. Captain F. J. Stuart has been transferred’from the Eighth (Lucknow) Division to the Seventh (Meerut)Division for employment as Specialist in Dermatology and
’Venereal Diseases. Captain J. H. Brunskill has been selectedfor appointment as Clinical Pathologist at the Carragh.
Captain S. Boylan-Smith has taken up duty at Belfast as
Specialist Sanitary Officer. Captaln R. P. Lewis has arrivedhome on leave of absence from South Africa. Captain P. G.Hyde, from Dublin, has embarked for a tour of service inCeylon. Captain C. E. W. S. Fawcett, on return from
Thayetmyo, Burma, and Captain M. J. Cromie, from Delhi,have been ordered to join for duty in Ireland, and on arrivalwill be posted to the Dublin District. Captain M.
Keane, from Meerut, has been detailed for duty on
board the troopship s.s. Rewa which left Karachi for
Southampton on Dec. 9th. Captain A. E. B. Woodhas embarked for a tour of service at Hong-Kong.Captain F. A. Stephens has been placed under orders forservice in the Second (Rawal Pindi) Division of the NorthernArmy and will embark during the current trooping season.Captain J. H. Campbell, from Warrington, has joined atBury. Captain H. H. A. Emerson, from Clonmel, has beenappointed to Limerick. Captain D. S. B. Thomson hasarrived home on leave of absence from Egypt. Captain H.Harding, from York, has taken up duty at Leicester. CaptainM. F. Grant, from Aldershot, has joined the London District.Lieutenant J. R. Yourrell has embarked for a tour of servicein Burma. Lieutenant 0. W. McSheehy, from Taunton, hastaken up duty in South Africa. Lieutenant C. M. Finny,from the Curragh, has been posted to the Dublin District.Lieutenant J. Gilmour has been transferred from Cardiff toDevonport. Lieutenant E. T. Gaunt, from Canterbury, hasbeen appointed to the Military Hospital at Shornclifie.Lieutenant G. H. Stack has been posted temporarily to theLondon District and attached to the Guards Depot atCaterham pending embarkation.
INDIAN MEDICAL SERVICE.The King has approved of the retirement of Lieutenant-
Colonel Ernest Gerald Robert Whitcombe (dated Oct. 27th,1911).
Lieutenant-Colonel T. W. Irvine has been appointed toofficiate as Civil Surgeon at Peshawar. Lieutenant-ColonelP. J. Lumsden, Bengal Presidency, has received twomonths’ extension of his leave of absence. Lieutenant-Colonel W. Vost, civil surgeon at Saharanpur, has beentransferred for duty at Lucknow. The services of Lieu-tenant-Colonel J. Crimmin, V.C., C.I.E., have been replacedtemporarily at the disposal of the Government of India byH.E. the Governor of Bombay. Major L. T. R. Hutchinsonhas been selected to hold charge of the office of PresidencySurgeon, Third District, Bombay, pending the arrival ofMajor A. W. Tuke. Major G. P. T. Groube has arrivedhome on leave of absence from India. Major V. H.Roberts has been appointed for duty under the adminis-tration of the Central Provinces as officiating CivilSurgeon at Seoni and to the Executive and Medical Chargeof the Seoni District Jail. The Lieutenant-Governor ofthe Punjab has been pleased to appoint Captain D. H. F.Cowin to be a Civil Surgeon of the Second Class. Theservices of Captain B. B. Paymaster have been placed per-manently at the disposal of the Government of Bombay.Captain H. Emslie-Smith, Bengal Presidency, has arrivedhome on leave of absence. Captain C. H. Reinhold has beenpermitted to extend his leave by the Secretary of State forIndia. Captain F. 0. D. Fawcett and Captain G. M. Millarhave embarked for India on termination of their leave ofabsence. H.E. the Governor of Bombay in Council has beenpleased to appoint Captain A. J. V. Betts to be a CivilSurgeon of the Second Class and to officiate as Civil Surgeonat Nasik. The services of Captain G. J. Davys have beenplaced by the Home Department of the Government of Indiaat the disposal of H.E. the Commander-in-Chief for militaryemployment. Captain E. B. Munro has taken up duty underthe Government of Eastern Bengal and Assam. Captain S. H.Lee Abbott has been transferred as Civil Surgeon to Dalhousie.Captain E. Bisset has taken up duty under the UnitedProvinces Administration as medical officer in charge ofplague prevention in the Meerut District. Captain W.Lapsley, civil surgeon of Azamgarh, has arrived home onone year and four months’ leave of absence from India. Theservices of Captain V. B. Green-Armytage have been placedtemporarily at the disposal of the Government of EasternBengal and Assam.
SPECIAL RESERVE OF OFFICERS.
Royal Army Medical Corps.Harry Dudley Rollinson to be Lieutenant, on probation
(dated Nov. 3rd, 1911).