Transcript
Page 1: THE LIMBIC SYSTEM · THE LIMBIC SYSTEM Institute of Anatomy, 2nd and 1st Medical Faculty R. Druga. LIMBIC SYSTEM ... All cortical formations, Limbic system, Basal ganglia, Thalamus,

THE LIMBIC SYSTEMTHE LIMBIC SYSTEM

Institute of Anatomy, 2nd and 1st Medical Institute of Anatomy, 2nd and 1st Medical FacultyFacultyR. DrugaR. Druga

Page 2: THE LIMBIC SYSTEM · THE LIMBIC SYSTEM Institute of Anatomy, 2nd and 1st Medical Faculty R. Druga. LIMBIC SYSTEM ... All cortical formations, Limbic system, Basal ganglia, Thalamus,

LIMBIC SYSTEMLIMBIC SYSTEM

Limbic cortexLimbic cortex = g. cinguli + g. = g. cinguli + g. parahippocampalis + hippocampal parahippocampalis + hippocampal formation (formation (gyrus dentatus, hippocampus, gyrus dentatus, hippocampus, subiculum)subiculum)

Subcortical structures = Subcortical structures = amygdala, septum verum, habenula, amygdala, septum verum, habenula, hypothalamushypothalamus

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Funkce limbického systémuFunkce limbického systému

Emoční reakce a jejich kontrola (Papez 1937)Emoční reakce a jejich kontrola (Papez 1937)

Viscerální mozek (MacLean 1949)Viscerální mozek (MacLean 1949)

Paměťové mechanizmy, EmocePaměťové mechanizmy, Emoce

Page 4: THE LIMBIC SYSTEM · THE LIMBIC SYSTEM Institute of Anatomy, 2nd and 1st Medical Faculty R. Druga. LIMBIC SYSTEM ... All cortical formations, Limbic system, Basal ganglia, Thalamus,

Functions of the limbic systemFunctions of the limbic system

Control of emotional reactions (Papez 1937)Control of emotional reactions (Papez 1937)

Visceral brain (MacLean 1949)Visceral brain (MacLean 1949)

Memory, emotionsMemory, emotions

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Limbic brain = limbic cortex + subcortical structures

Hippokampální formace Amygdala

Page 6: THE LIMBIC SYSTEM · THE LIMBIC SYSTEM Institute of Anatomy, 2nd and 1st Medical Faculty R. Druga. LIMBIC SYSTEM ... All cortical formations, Limbic system, Basal ganglia, Thalamus,
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1- hippocampal body

2 – head and digitationes hippocampi

3 – hippocampal tail

4 – fimbria (fornix)

5 – fornix

6 – subiculum

10 – collateral eminence

Intraventricular aspect of the hippocampus

(hippocampus from above)

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Parahippocampal gyrus + Uncus Hippocampal formation

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Olfactory cortical area

Dog Human

Page 12: THE LIMBIC SYSTEM · THE LIMBIC SYSTEM Institute of Anatomy, 2nd and 1st Medical Faculty R. Druga. LIMBIC SYSTEM ... All cortical formations, Limbic system, Basal ganglia, Thalamus,
Page 13: THE LIMBIC SYSTEM · THE LIMBIC SYSTEM Institute of Anatomy, 2nd and 1st Medical Faculty R. Druga. LIMBIC SYSTEM ... All cortical formations, Limbic system, Basal ganglia, Thalamus,
Page 14: THE LIMBIC SYSTEM · THE LIMBIC SYSTEM Institute of Anatomy, 2nd and 1st Medical Faculty R. Druga. LIMBIC SYSTEM ... All cortical formations, Limbic system, Basal ganglia, Thalamus,
Page 15: THE LIMBIC SYSTEM · THE LIMBIC SYSTEM Institute of Anatomy, 2nd and 1st Medical Faculty R. Druga. LIMBIC SYSTEM ... All cortical formations, Limbic system, Basal ganglia, Thalamus,
Page 16: THE LIMBIC SYSTEM · THE LIMBIC SYSTEM Institute of Anatomy, 2nd and 1st Medical Faculty R. Druga. LIMBIC SYSTEM ... All cortical formations, Limbic system, Basal ganglia, Thalamus,

Andersen ´s circuit Andersenův okruh

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Afferent connections of tjhe hippocampal formation

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Efferent connenctions of the hippocampal formation

Page 19: THE LIMBIC SYSTEM · THE LIMBIC SYSTEM Institute of Anatomy, 2nd and 1st Medical Faculty R. Druga. LIMBIC SYSTEM ... All cortical formations, Limbic system, Basal ganglia, Thalamus,
Page 20: THE LIMBIC SYSTEM · THE LIMBIC SYSTEM Institute of Anatomy, 2nd and 1st Medical Faculty R. Druga. LIMBIC SYSTEM ... All cortical formations, Limbic system, Basal ganglia, Thalamus,
Page 21: THE LIMBIC SYSTEM · THE LIMBIC SYSTEM Institute of Anatomy, 2nd and 1st Medical Faculty R. Druga. LIMBIC SYSTEM ... All cortical formations, Limbic system, Basal ganglia, Thalamus,

Papez circuit

Papezův okruh

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Papez circuit Papez circuit Papezův okruhPapezův okruh

Hippocampal formationHippocampal formation – fornix – – fornix – hypothalamushypothalamus ( mamillary ncc.) – tr. ( mamillary ncc.) – tr. mamillothalamicus - mamillothalamicus - thalamusthalamus (ant. (ant. ncc.) – ncc.) – gyrus cinguligyrus cinguli – – gyrusgyrus pparahippocampalisarahippocampalis (entorhinal (entorhinal area, 28) – area, 28) – hippocampal formationhippocampal formation

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Spoje hippokampální formaceSpoje hippokampální formaceConnections of the hippocampal formationConnections of the hippocampal formation

Afferentní korovéAfferentní korové Associative neocortexAssociative neocortex Parahippocampal and Parahippocampal and

cingular gyrus, entorhinal cingular gyrus, entorhinal cortex (area 28)cortex (area 28)

Olfactory cortexOlfactory cortex Afferentní Afferentní

podkorovépodkorové AmygdalaAmygdala Thalamus (MD, ncc. Thalamus (MD, ncc.

mediani)mediani) HypothalamusHypothalamus Septum verumSeptum verum

Efferentní korové Efferentní korové Subiculum – area 28, Subiculum – area 28,

parahippocampal gyrus – parahippocampal gyrus – associative cortical areasassociative cortical areas

Efferentní Efferentní podkorové podkorové

FornixFornix Hypothalamus (mamillary Hypothalamus (mamillary

nuclei)nuclei) Thalamus (ant. ncc.)Thalamus (ant. ncc.) Septum verumSeptum verum Ventral striatumVentral striatum amygdalaamygdala

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Neocortex – hippokampNeocortex – hippokampaal formal formationtion

Primary sensory areas (SI, AI, VI)Primary sensory areas (SI, AI, VI)

Associate cortical areas (SII, A II, V II)Associate cortical areas (SII, A II, V II)

Gyrus cinguli , g. parahippocampalis (area Gyrus cinguli , g. parahippocampalis (area 28, 35, 36)28, 35, 36)

HippocampusHippocampus (hippocampal formation) (hippocampal formation)

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Funkce hippokampální formaceFunkce hippokampální formace

Korové asociační oblasti - Korové asociační oblasti - hippokampální formacehippokampální formace – – limbické struktury (septum, hypothalamus, amygdala)limbické struktury (septum, hypothalamus, amygdala)

Učení a paměťUčení a paměť Schopnost se učit a pamatovat si slova, čísla, fakta, místa, tvářeSchopnost se učit a pamatovat si slova, čísla, fakta, místa, tváře Poškození – ztráta paměti (amnesia, anterográdní, CA 1)Poškození – ztráta paměti (amnesia, anterográdní, CA 1) Hippokampální formace – proces učení a vytváření paměťových Hippokampální formace – proces učení a vytváření paměťových

stopstop Nemá význam pro uchovávání dlouhodobé paměti (neocortex, Nemá význam pro uchovávání dlouhodobé paměti (neocortex,

thalamus ?)thalamus ?) Hippokampální „ place cells „ - mění aktivitu v souvislosti se Hippokampální „ place cells „ - mění aktivitu v souvislosti se

změnami v okolízměnami v okolí Intrahippokampální navigační mapyIntrahippokampální navigační mapy Přední a zadní hippokampus (zrakové signály do zadního hipp.)Přední a zadní hippokampus (zrakové signály do zadního hipp.) Prostorová orientace a navigace Prostorová orientace a navigace

Page 26: THE LIMBIC SYSTEM · THE LIMBIC SYSTEM Institute of Anatomy, 2nd and 1st Medical Faculty R. Druga. LIMBIC SYSTEM ... All cortical formations, Limbic system, Basal ganglia, Thalamus,

Functions of the hippocampal formationFunctions of the hippocampal formation

Learning and memoryLearning and memory The ability to learn and remember words, faces, places, eventsThe ability to learn and remember words, faces, places, events Damage = Loss of memory (amnesia, anterograde, CA 1)Damage = Loss of memory (amnesia, anterograde, CA 1) Hippocampal formation is important for the process of learning Hippocampal formation is important for the process of learning

or forming of the memory tracesor forming of the memory traces Hippocampus is not important for the long-term storage of Hippocampus is not important for the long-term storage of

informations (long-term memory) – neocortex, thalamus ?informations (long-term memory) – neocortex, thalamus ? Hippocampal „ place cells“ – the firing of single hippocampal Hippocampal „ place cells“ – the firing of single hippocampal

cells changes with position of animal in relation to its cells changes with position of animal in relation to its surroundings (different corners of the cage)surroundings (different corners of the cage)

Intrahippocampal navigation mapsIntrahippocampal navigation maps

Page 27: THE LIMBIC SYSTEM · THE LIMBIC SYSTEM Institute of Anatomy, 2nd and 1st Medical Faculty R. Druga. LIMBIC SYSTEM ... All cortical formations, Limbic system, Basal ganglia, Thalamus,
Page 28: THE LIMBIC SYSTEM · THE LIMBIC SYSTEM Institute of Anatomy, 2nd and 1st Medical Faculty R. Druga. LIMBIC SYSTEM ... All cortical formations, Limbic system, Basal ganglia, Thalamus,

SEPTUM VERUM AMYGDALA, NUCLEUS BASALIS

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SEPTUM PELLUCIDUM

SEPTUM

VERUM(septal nuclei Ch 1, Ch 2)

NC. BASALIS

Ch 4 – group of cholinergic neurons projecting to the neocortex and to the amygdala

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SEPTUM VERUMSEPTUM VERUM

Reciprocal connections - hippocampus, Reciprocal connections - hippocampus, hypothalamus, gyrus cingulihypothalamus, gyrus cinguli

Efferent projections to the thalamus and Efferent projections to the thalamus and amygdalaamygdala

Cholinergic neurons (Ch1, Ch2) project to Cholinergic neurons (Ch1, Ch2) project to hippocampushippocampus

Stimulation – aggressive behavior Stimulation – aggressive behavior Lesion - reduction of aggressive behaviorLesion - reduction of aggressive behavior

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Basolateral and corticomedial groups of amygdalar nuclei

AMYGDALA

Page 32: THE LIMBIC SYSTEM · THE LIMBIC SYSTEM Institute of Anatomy, 2nd and 1st Medical Faculty R. Druga. LIMBIC SYSTEM ... All cortical formations, Limbic system, Basal ganglia, Thalamus,

Amygdala – afferent and efferent connenctions

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Amygdala - spoje

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Intraamygdaloid connections Intraamygdalární spoje

Lateral nc,

Basal nc.

Central nc.

Page 35: THE LIMBIC SYSTEM · THE LIMBIC SYSTEM Institute of Anatomy, 2nd and 1st Medical Faculty R. Druga. LIMBIC SYSTEM ... All cortical formations, Limbic system, Basal ganglia, Thalamus,

Amygdala (amygdalar nuclei) - Amygdala (amygdalar nuclei) - connectionsconnections

Corticomedialní jádra Corticomedialní jádra - aferenty z čichové - aferenty z čichové korové oblasti, z hypothalamu ze septakorové oblasti, z hypothalamu ze septa

Basolateralní jádra Basolateralní jádra - - afferenty z thalamu a z afferenty z thalamu a z mozkové kůry (prefrontalní, temporalnímozkové kůry (prefrontalní, temporalní))

Efferentní spoje Efferentní spoje – – hypothalamushypothalamus (stria (stria terminalis, VM), tterminalis, VM), thalamushalamus (MD), (MD), hippocampal hippocampal formationformation (28, subiculum), (28, subiculum), septal nuclei, ventral septal nuclei, ventral striatum, prefrontal and temporal cortex, brain striatum, prefrontal and temporal cortex, brain stem nuclei (stem nuclei (SGC, RF, parasympathetic cranial SGC, RF, parasympathetic cranial nerve nuclei (n. vagus). nerve nuclei (n. vagus).

Page 36: THE LIMBIC SYSTEM · THE LIMBIC SYSTEM Institute of Anatomy, 2nd and 1st Medical Faculty R. Druga. LIMBIC SYSTEM ... All cortical formations, Limbic system, Basal ganglia, Thalamus,

Amygdala – functions I.Amygdala – functions I.

StimulationStimulation Corticomedial group – Corticomedial group –

salivation, licking, chewing, salivation, licking, chewing, emptying of the rectum emptying of the rectum and the bladderand the bladder

Basolateral group – Basolateral group – increased attention, increased attention, stopping of motor activity, stopping of motor activity, arousal, fear (+ autonomic arousal, fear (+ autonomic reactions), ragereactions), rage

In humans – feeling of In humans – feeling of anxiety, fear, hallucinationsanxiety, fear, hallucinations

Amygdala is frequently Amygdala is frequently focus of epileptic seizures !!focus of epileptic seizures !!

DestructionDestruction Reduction of aggressivity Reduction of aggressivity

and defensive reactionsand defensive reactions Reduction or loss of Reduction or loss of

emotional reactionsemotional reactions

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Amygdala functions II.Amygdala functions II.

Amygdala is involved in learning Amygdala is involved in learning (remembering) whether something is „ good (remembering) whether something is „ good „ or „ bad “.„ or „ bad “.

Amygdala differenciates a dangerous and Amygdala differenciates a dangerous and nondangerous signalsnondangerous signals..

Page 38: THE LIMBIC SYSTEM · THE LIMBIC SYSTEM Institute of Anatomy, 2nd and 1st Medical Faculty R. Druga. LIMBIC SYSTEM ... All cortical formations, Limbic system, Basal ganglia, Thalamus,

VELKÉ MEDIÁTOROVÉ SYSTÉMYVELKÉ MEDIÁTOROVÉ SYSTÉMY

MAJOR NEUROTRANSMITTER SYSTEMSMAJOR NEUROTRANSMITTER SYSTEMS

Page 39: THE LIMBIC SYSTEM · THE LIMBIC SYSTEM Institute of Anatomy, 2nd and 1st Medical Faculty R. Druga. LIMBIC SYSTEM ... All cortical formations, Limbic system, Basal ganglia, Thalamus,

Cholinergic systém, Ch 1 – Ch6, Cholinergic nucle, produce acetylcholine

Page 40: THE LIMBIC SYSTEM · THE LIMBIC SYSTEM Institute of Anatomy, 2nd and 1st Medical Faculty R. Druga. LIMBIC SYSTEM ... All cortical formations, Limbic system, Basal ganglia, Thalamus,

Cholinergic group Ch 4 (Basal nucleus of Meynert)

Supplies neocortex + amygdala

Page 41: THE LIMBIC SYSTEM · THE LIMBIC SYSTEM Institute of Anatomy, 2nd and 1st Medical Faculty R. Druga. LIMBIC SYSTEM ... All cortical formations, Limbic system, Basal ganglia, Thalamus,

Cholinergic system

Page 42: THE LIMBIC SYSTEM · THE LIMBIC SYSTEM Institute of Anatomy, 2nd and 1st Medical Faculty R. Druga. LIMBIC SYSTEM ... All cortical formations, Limbic system, Basal ganglia, Thalamus,

Cholinergic systemCholinergic system Cholinergní group Target structure Cholinergní group Target structure

Cholinergní skupina Cílová struktura Cholinergní skupina Cílová struktura

Ch 1, Ch 2 hippokampusCh 1, Ch 2 hippokampus Septum verumSeptum verum Ch 3 bulbus olfactorius Ch 3 bulbus olfactorius Area diagonalisArea diagonalis Ch 4 neocortex, amygdala Ch 4 neocortex, amygdala Nucleus basalis Nucleus basalis Ch 5, Ch 6 thalamus Ch 5, Ch 6 thalamus

RFRF Ach augments the excitability of cortical neurons, Ach augments the excitability of cortical neurons,

improves circulation, supports memory mechanismimproves circulation, supports memory mechanism Zvyšuje excitabilitu korových neuronů, zlepšuje Zvyšuje excitabilitu korových neuronů, zlepšuje

cirkulaci, podporuje paměťové mechanizmycirkulaci, podporuje paměťové mechanizmy

Page 43: THE LIMBIC SYSTEM · THE LIMBIC SYSTEM Institute of Anatomy, 2nd and 1st Medical Faculty R. Druga. LIMBIC SYSTEM ... All cortical formations, Limbic system, Basal ganglia, Thalamus,

Serotoninergic system

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Monoaminergic systems

Noradrenergic system A1- A7, locus coeruleus Spinal cord Sensory ncc. of cranial

nerves (n.V) Cerebellum Hypothalamus Thalamus (VPL, VPM, LGB Neocortex Hippocampal formation Striatum 0

Serotoninergic system Rapheal nuclei RF Spinal cord Brain stem Cerebellum Thalamus Hypothalamus Striatum Neocortex Hippocampal formation

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Dopaminergic pathways A9, A 10Noradrenergic pathways Serotoninergic pathways

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Dopaminergic systemDopaminergic system

Substantia nigra, pars compacta - A 9Substantia nigra, pars compacta - A 9 Area tegmentalis ventralis (VTA), - A 10Area tegmentalis ventralis (VTA), - A 10

StriatumStriatum Globus pallidusGlobus pallidus NeocortexNeocortex Decrease - ParkinsonismusDecrease - Parkinsonismus

Page 47: THE LIMBIC SYSTEM · THE LIMBIC SYSTEM Institute of Anatomy, 2nd and 1st Medical Faculty R. Druga. LIMBIC SYSTEM ... All cortical formations, Limbic system, Basal ganglia, Thalamus,

Noradrenergic systemNoradrenergic system Locus coeruleus - A 6Locus coeruleus - A 6 Spinal cordSpinal cord Brain stem – cranial nerves sensitive nuclei (nc. V.)Brain stem – cranial nerves sensitive nuclei (nc. V.) Cerebellum – Purkyně cellsCerebellum – Purkyně cells HypothalamusHypothalamus Thalamus (nc. VPL, nc. VPM, corpora geniculataThalamus (nc. VPL, nc. VPM, corpora geniculata Neocortex, Hippocampal formationNeocortex, Hippocampal formation Part of the ascending activation system of the RFPart of the ascending activation system of the RF Regulation of transmision of sensory signbals (pain, posterior horns Regulation of transmision of sensory signbals (pain, posterior horns

of the spiunal cord)of the spiunal cord) Regulation of circulationRegulation of circulation Essential to feel emergizedEssential to feel emergized Without NA – you feel exhausted, tired, without energyWithout NA – you feel exhausted, tired, without energy

Page 48: THE LIMBIC SYSTEM · THE LIMBIC SYSTEM Institute of Anatomy, 2nd and 1st Medical Faculty R. Druga. LIMBIC SYSTEM ... All cortical formations, Limbic system, Basal ganglia, Thalamus,

Serotoninergní systémSerotoninergní systém

Rapheální jádra RFRapheální jádra RF Vzestupný a sestupný systémVzestupný a sestupný systém Všechny korové formace, Limbický systém, Striatum, Všechny korové formace, Limbický systém, Striatum,

thalamus, hypothalamus, mozkový kmen, míchathalamus, hypothalamus, mozkový kmen, mícha Aktivita vzestupného systému –změny náladyAktivita vzestupného systému –změny nálady Aktivita sestupného systému – analgesieAktivita sestupného systému – analgesie Snížení synthésy - deprese, podrážděnost, poruchy Snížení synthésy - deprese, podrážděnost, poruchy

spánku, insomniespánku, insomnie Nadměrně zvýšená hladina (serotoninový syndrom – Nadměrně zvýšená hladina (serotoninový syndrom –

třes, zvýšení TK, zrychlení akce srdeční, zmatenost, třes, zvýšení TK, zrychlení akce srdeční, zmatenost, bezvědomí)bezvědomí)

Sluneční osvit – zvyšuje produkci ( v zimě deprese, Sluneční osvit – zvyšuje produkci ( v zimě deprese, podráždění, úzkostné stavy)podráždění, úzkostné stavy)

Page 49: THE LIMBIC SYSTEM · THE LIMBIC SYSTEM Institute of Anatomy, 2nd and 1st Medical Faculty R. Druga. LIMBIC SYSTEM ... All cortical formations, Limbic system, Basal ganglia, Thalamus,

SEROTONINERGIC SYSTEMSEROTONINERGIC SYSTEM Reticular formation (rapheal nuclei)Reticular formation (rapheal nuclei) Ascending and descending systemsAscending and descending systems All cortical formations, Limbic system, Basal ganglia, All cortical formations, Limbic system, Basal ganglia,

Thalamus, Hypothalamus , Brain stem, Spinal cordThalamus, Hypothalamus , Brain stem, Spinal cord Activity in descending system = analgesiaActivity in descending system = analgesia Decrease of synthesis- depression, irritability, sleep Decrease of synthesis- depression, irritability, sleep

disorders, insomniadisorders, insomnia Increase of synthesis – tremor, increase of blood Increase of synthesis – tremor, increase of blood

pressure anpressure andd heart rate, confusion, unconsciousness heart rate, confusion, unconsciousness Sun lighting – increases production (winter Sun lighting – increases production (winter

depression, irritability, anxiety)depression, irritability, anxiety)

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Glutamatergic systemGlutamatergic system

Excitatory neurotransmitterExcitatory neurotransmitter Majority of ascending and descending pathwaysMajority of ascending and descending pathways All descending cortical pathways (corticostriatal, All descending cortical pathways (corticostriatal,

corticothalamic, corticospinal)corticothalamic, corticospinal) Descending brain stem pathwaysDescending brain stem pathways Efferent cerebellar pathways (dentato – thalamic)Efferent cerebellar pathways (dentato – thalamic) Commissural pathways (corpus callosum)Commissural pathways (corpus callosum) Associative cortical pathwaysAssociative cortical pathways

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GABAergic systemGABAergic system

GABA - Inhibitory neurotransmitterGABA - Inhibitory neurotransmitter

Local interneurons ( neocortex, Local interneurons ( neocortex, hippocampus, thalamic nuclei, cerebellar hippocampus, thalamic nuclei, cerebellar cortex)cortex)

Striatal efferent projectionsStriatal efferent projections Globus pallidus – efferent projectionsGlobus pallidus – efferent projections Purkyně cells projectionsPurkyně cells projections

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Nitric oxideNitric oxide Gaseous neurotransmitterGaseous neurotransmitter Produced by NOSynthasisProduced by NOSynthasis Neuronal, endothelial, inducibleNeuronal, endothelial, inducible 200 200 µµm = 2 millions of synaptic contactsm = 2 millions of synaptic contacts Local interneuronsLocal interneurons NO – increases releasing of NO – increases releasing of

neurotransmittersneurotransmitters Vasodilatation !!! (endothelial NOS)Vasodilatation !!! (endothelial NOS) Damage of neurons (neurodegenerative Damage of neurons (neurodegenerative

diseases)diseases)

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Cévní zásobení mozkuCévní zásobení mozku

Vasculature of the CNSVasculature of the CNS

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Vertebrobasilar system

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Circle of Willis Vertebrobasilary + carotic systems

Korové a bazální větve

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The Circle of WillisThe Circle of Willis

Communication between vertebral and Communication between vertebral and a. carotis interna systemsa. carotis interna systems

Anterior and posterior communicating Anterior and posterior communicating arteries allow blood to flow between arteries allow blood to flow between both systems (PCA) or between right both systems (PCA) or between right and left vessels (ACA)and left vessels (ACA)

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CT – AG, 3-D

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Longitudinal system

Segmental (radicular)

system

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Liquor cerebrospinalis Liquor cerebrospinalis Produced by the choroid plexusProduced by the choroid plexus Ventricles and subarachnoid space 140 mlVentricles and subarachnoid space 140 mlPhysical support of the brain (floats within the Physical support of the brain (floats within the fluid)fluid)Channel for chemical communication within the Channel for chemical communication within the CNS (neurons- fluid- walls of ventricles – CNS (neurons- fluid- walls of ventricles – neurons)neurons)

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Dural sheaths

Kořenové pochvy

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Dural sheaths

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CEREBRAL VENTRICLES

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Choroidal plexus – lateral ventricles, 3rd ventricle, 4th ventricle

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Absorbtion of liquor

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MRI – T2

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Ventriculus lateralis – pars centralis

3rd ventricle

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Ventriculus lateralis – cornu temporale

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DRÁHY CENTRÁLNÍHO DRÁHY CENTRÁLNÍHO NERVOVÉHO SYSTÉMUNERVOVÉHO SYSTÉMU

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Dráhy CNSDráhy CNS Ascendentní (sensitivní)Ascendentní (sensitivní) Descendentní (motorické, sest. složky Descendentní (motorické, sest. složky

sensitivníchj drah)sensitivníchj drah) Dráhy snyslových orgánů (čichová, chuťová, Dráhy snyslových orgánů (čichová, chuťová,

vestibulární, sluchová, zraková)vestibulární, sluchová, zraková) Dráhy RFDráhy RF Dráhy mozečkuDráhy mozečku Dráhy BG Dráhy BG Zapojení thalamu a hypothalamuZapojení thalamu a hypothalamu Zapojení limbického systémuZapojení limbického systému Asociační a komisurální korová vláknaAsociační a komisurální korová vlákna

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Ascendentní (sensitivní dráhy)Ascendentní (sensitivní dráhy)

Lemniskální systémLemniskální systém Anterolaterální systém (tr. spinothalamicus, Anterolaterální systém (tr. spinothalamicus,

tr. spinoreticularis, tr. spinotectalis)tr. spinoreticularis, tr. spinotectalis) Tr. spinocerebellares, tr. spinoolivarisTr. spinocerebellares, tr. spinoolivaris Sensitivní dráhy hlavových nervů (jádra n. Sensitivní dráhy hlavových nervů (jádra n.

trigeminus, nc. solitarius)trigeminus, nc. solitarius)

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Sestupné, motorické dráhy ISestupné, motorické dráhy I Motorické korové dráhyMotorické korové dráhy Tr. corticospinalis !!Tr. corticospinalis !! Tr. corticopontinus !!Tr. corticopontinus !! Tr. corticonuclearis (V., VII., ncc. Tr. corticonuclearis (V., VII., ncc.

vestibulares, nc. ambiguus, nc. accessorius, vestibulares, nc. ambiguus, nc. accessorius, nc. hypoglossus)nc. hypoglossus)

Tr. corticotectalisTr. corticotectalis Tr. corticointerstitialis (area praetectalis, nc. Tr. corticointerstitialis (area praetectalis, nc.

Cajali)Cajali) Tr. corticorubralisTr. corticorubralis Tr. corticoreticularisTr. corticoreticularis

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Sestupné, motorické dráhy IISestupné, motorické dráhy II

Motorické kmenové dráhyMotorické kmenové dráhy Tr. interstitiospinalisTr. interstitiospinalis Tr. tectospinalisTr. tectospinalis Tr. rubrospinalisTr. rubrospinalis Tr. reticulospinalisTr. reticulospinalis Tr. vestibulospinalisTr. vestibulospinalis Mediální a laterální motorický míšní systém !!Mediální a laterální motorický míšní systém !!

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Dráhy smyslových orgánůDráhy smyslových orgánů

Zraková dráhaZraková dráha Sítnice – n. opticus - chiasma- tr. Sítnice – n. opticus - chiasma- tr.

opticus – CGL – area 17 (18, 19, opticus – CGL – area 17 (18, 19, where and what systém)where and what systém)

Odbočky (hypothalamus, CS, Odbočky (hypothalamus, CS, pretektální oblast)pretektální oblast)

Dráhy pupilárního reflexu (miosis + Dráhy pupilárního reflexu (miosis + akomodace čočky, mydriasis !!!)akomodace čočky, mydriasis !!!)

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Sluchová dráhaSluchová dráha

Ganglion cochleareGanglion cochleare Nc. cochlearis (dors., ventr.)Nc. cochlearis (dors., ventr.) Oliva superior, ncc. corp. TrapezoideiOliva superior, ncc. corp. Trapezoidei Coliculus inferiorColiculus inferior CGMCGM Cortex - area 41- 42, 22 (where and Cortex - area 41- 42, 22 (where and

what dráha)what dráha)

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Čichová dráhaČichová dráha

Čichová sliznice (receptorové buňky) –Čichová sliznice (receptorové buňky) –fila olfactoria – bulbus olfactorius- fila olfactoria – bulbus olfactorius- piriformní kůra (area 51), area 28, piriformní kůra (area 51), area 28, amygdalaamygdala - hippokampální formace, - hippokampální formace, hypothalamus, thalamus (MD) – hypothalamus, thalamus (MD) – orbitofrontální čichová oblastorbitofrontální čichová oblast

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Chuťová dráhaChuťová dráha

T – buňky v gangl. geniculi a v gangl. T – buňky v gangl. geniculi a v gangl. n. IX. a X.n. IX. a X.

Nc. solitarius (nc. gustatorius)Nc. solitarius (nc. gustatorius) Thalamus (nc. VPM)Thalamus (nc. VPM) Cortex (area 43, přední insula)Cortex (area 43, přední insula)

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Vestibulární dráhaVestibulární dráha Receptorové buňky (macula sacculi, utriculi – statický Receptorové buňky (macula sacculi, utriculi – statický

labyrint, lineární změny)labyrint, lineární změny) Receptorové buňky (cristae ampullares, dynamický Receptorové buňky (cristae ampullares, dynamický

labyrint, rotační pohybylabyrint, rotační pohyby)) Ganglion vestibulareGanglion vestibulare Nuclei vestibularesNuclei vestibulares Tr. vestibulocerebellarisTr. vestibulocerebellaris Jádra okohybných nervů (III., IV., VI.)Jádra okohybných nervů (III., IV., VI.) Tr. vestibulospinalisTr. vestibulospinalis Tr. vestibulothalamicus (nc. VPM, post. jádra)Tr. vestibulothalamicus (nc. VPM, post. jádra) Korové vestibulárni oblasti (zadní insula, 2, 3, 7, 8, 6)Korové vestibulárni oblasti (zadní insula, 2, 3, 7, 8, 6) Vestibulookulární, šíjové a labyrintové reflexy !!Vestibulookulární, šíjové a labyrintové reflexy !!

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Spoje striata a pallidaSpoje striata a pallida Aferentní a eferentní spoje striata a Aferentní a eferentní spoje striata a

pallida, subst. Nigra, nc. subthalamicuspallida, subst. Nigra, nc. subthalamicus Okruh bazálních ganglií ( mediátory, Okruh bazálních ganglií ( mediátory,

dopamin)dopamin)

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Zapojení mozečkuZapojení mozečku

Aferentní spoje mozečkuAferentní spoje mozečku Spoje mozečková kůra – jádraSpoje mozečková kůra – jádra Eferentace mozečkových jaderEferentace mozečkových jader (Mechová a šplhavá vlákna)(Mechová a šplhavá vlákna) MediátoryMediátory

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Zapojení RFZapojení RF

Aferentní spojeAferentní spoje Eferentní spojeEferentní spoje Ascendentní aktivační systém RFAscendentní aktivační systém RF Mediátorové systémy v RFMediátorové systémy v RF

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Zapojení thalamických jaderZapojení thalamických jader

Podkorový vstup – jádro – korová Podkorový vstup – jádro – korová oblastoblast

VA, VL, VPL, VPM, CGM, CGLVA, VL, VPL, VPM, CGM, CGL Intralaminární jádra, Pulvinar, Nc. Intralaminární jádra, Pulvinar, Nc.

mediodorsalismediodorsalis

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Limbický systémLimbický systém

Aferentace a eferentace hippokampu a Aferentace a eferentace hippokampu a amygdalyamygdaly

Neokortex – limbický systémNeokortex – limbický systém Papezův okruhPapezův okruh Andersenův okruhAndersenův okruh

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HypothalamusHypothalamus

Aferentí spojeAferentí spoje Eferentní spojeEferentní spoje Hypothalamo-hypof. systém Hypothalamo-hypof. systém

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Děkuji za pozornostDěkuji za pozornost

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Sensitivní dráhy Sensitivní dráhy Anterolaterální systémAnterolaterální systém - Tr. - Tr.

spinothalamicus, spinothalamicus, Tr. spinoreticularis, Tr. spinotectalisTr. spinoreticularis, Tr. spinotectalis

Lemniskální systémLemniskální systém Tr. spino-bulbo-thalamo- corticalis (dráha Tr. spino-bulbo-thalamo- corticalis (dráha

zadních míšních provazcůzadních míšních provazců

Tr. spinocerebellaresTr. spinocerebellares Tr. spinoolivarisTr. spinoolivaris

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TRACTUS CEREBRITRACTUS CEREBRI

Přehled drahPřehled drah

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Motorické dráhy -kmenovéMotorické dráhy -kmenové

Tr. reticulo-spinalisTr. reticulo-spinalis Tr. rubro-spinalisTr. rubro-spinalis Tr. tecto-spinalisTr. tecto-spinalis Tr. vestibulo-spinalisTr. vestibulo-spinalis Tr. interstitio-spinalisTr. interstitio-spinalis Mediální x laterální systém Mediální x laterální systém

motorických míšních drahmotorických míšních drah

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Motorické dráhy -korovéMotorické dráhy -korové

Tr. cortico-spinalisTr. cortico-spinalis Tr. cortico-reticularisTr. cortico-reticularis Tr. cortico-nuclearisTr. cortico-nuclearis Tr. cortico-rubralisTr. cortico-rubralis Tr. cortico-tectalisTr. cortico-tectalis

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Sensorické dráhy - smyslovéSensorické dráhy - smyslové

Čichová dráhaČichová dráha Zraková dráhaZraková dráha Sluchová dráhaSluchová dráha Chuťová dráhaChuťová dráha Vestibulární dráhaVestibulární dráha


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