Transcript
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Springtown Independent School District

Response to Intervention Guidebook for

the Elementary Campuses

Revised August 2016

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Springtown ISD: Elementary Campuses Guidance Document:

Response to Intervention

MISSION STATEMENT

To provide all students with an educational program that will allow them to develop to their potential, to be

well-adjusted, and able to make positive contributions to a free enterprise society.

VISION STATEMENT

To provide efficient and effective school processes which result in success for all students

DISTRICT MOTTO

Students in Springtown Schools will be Safe, Secure, and Successful.

Indicators of the SISD Motto:

Students will be Safe

Be Environmentally Safe

Be Physically Safe

Be Free from Drugs & Harmful Influences

Students will be Secure

Have a positive Self-Image

Have Self-Confidence

Have Motivation to Learn & Succeed

Students will be Successful

In Academics

In Personal Growth

In Social Skills and Interactions

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Table of Contents

Defining RtI………………………………………………………………………………………………pg. 4

Major components of RtI……………………………………………………………………………….pg. 4

Tier Definitions…………………………………………………………………………………………..pg. 5

Academic Flowchart…………………………………………………………………………………….pg. 6-9

RtI Academic Pyramid….……………………………………………………………………………….pg. 10

SISD ELAR Resources………………………………………………………………………………….pg. 11

SISD Math Resources ……………………………………………………………………………….…pg. 12

RtI Step by Step Process for ELAR...………………………………………………………………….pg. 13

Decision-Making Guide for ELAR..…………………………………………………………………….pg. 14

RtI Step by Step Process for Math ……………………………………………………………………pg. 15

Decision-Making Guide for Math ………………………...……………………………………………pg. 16

SISD Behavior Response to Intervention……………………………………………………………..pg. 17

Behavior Flowchart……………………………………………………………………………………...pg. 18-19

RtI Behavior Pyramid……………………………………………………………………………………pg. 20

SISD Behavior Resources………………………………………………………………………………pg. 21

Vocabulary………………………………………………………………………………………………..pg. 22

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Defining “Response to Intervention”

Response to Intervention (RtI) is the practice of meeting the academic needs of all students through a

problem-solving process with three key elements:

High quality instruction and research based tiered interventions aligned with individual student

needs

Frequent monitoring of student progress to enable results based academic decisions

Use of student response data in making important educational decisions (such as those regarding

placement, interventions, curriculum, and instructional goals and methodologies)

The instructional approaches within the general education setting should result in academic progress for

the majority of the students (80%). The primary focus of RtI is early intervention to prevent long-term

academic failure. Struggling students are identified using data-based progress monitoring and are provided

intensive instruction. The use of a scientifically validated curriculum, as well as instructional methods

expected in an RtI model, leads to school improvement. Support services require collaboration among

campus personnel.

The Major Components of RtI

Data-based decision making—Critical educational decisions are based on assessment results. Data are

carefully analyzed to determine why academic problems exist.

Universal screening—Universal screenings are assessments administered to all students to determine as

early as possible which students are at risk of not meeting academic benchmarks. These screenings are

administered three times per year (BOY, MOY, EOY) in order to meet early intervention needs of all

students.

Tiered model of delivery—The RtI process incorporates a tiered model of delivery of instruction. The tiers

reflect increasing intensification of interventions to meet the individual needs of students.

Progress monitoring—The monitoring of student progress is a research-based practice that produces

data about student growth over time. Progress monitoring is used to determine the effectiveness of

instruction and/or interventions.

Fidelity of implementation—Fidelity of implementation is achieved when the delivery of instruction,

assessments, and progress monitoring is carried out as it was designed to be.

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Tier Definitions

Tier 1:

Tier 1 is the foundation of the RtI instructional model. In this tier, all students receive high-quality, research-

based instruction in the general education setting. Teachers deliver high-quality core class instruction that

is aligned with state standards and in which 80% or more of the students are successful.

Teachers will differentiate instruction in grade-level classes for six weeks and will monitor the progress of

all students via documentation of universal screening and individual student results on state assessments,

curriculum-based assessments, end of unit assessments, running records, daily assignments, and teacher-

made assessments.

What critical areas need to be addressed in Tier 1 classroom interventions?

The Individuals with Disabilities Improvement Act of 2004 (IDEA) and the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001

(NCLB) advocate the use of interventions and instruction based on scientific research. Both acts require

effective reading and mathematics instruction that results in improved student performance and a reduction

in the number of students needing special education services. The five essential components for reading

are phonemic awareness, vocabulary development, reading comprehension, phonics instruction, and

fluency, and those for mathematics are mathematics calculation and problem solving.

Tier 2:

The RtI campus team may increase support to Tier 2 for students who are not making progress at Tier 1,

about 15% of all students. Students are identified for individualized small-group instruction delivered by

teachers and/or interventionists, in addition to core class instruction. This intensified level of intervention

includes research-based programs, strategies, and procedures designed to supplement and enhance Tier

1 activities.

Note: Students continue to receive Tier 1 differentiated instructional support.

Tier 3:

Students who have not responded adequately to interventions in Tiers 1 and 2 and are performing

significantly below grade level will move to Tier 3 and receive intensified, comprehensive intervention in

addition to their grade-level instruction. Tier 3 typically addresses the needs of approximately 5% of all

students. Tier 3 intervention is designed to be 6-12 weeks.

Note: Students continue to receive Tier 1 differentiated instructional support.

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Administer Universal Screener in Reading and Math at the beginning, middle, and end of the year.

RtI Academic Flow Chart (1-4)

Administrator or designee assembles RtI team. A cut score of 25th percentile is used to analyze data

trends.

Campus RtI team meets with grade level teachers regarding curriculum and instructional practices.

Universal Screening DECISION POINT

Student is at or below the 25th percentile

A vision & hearing screening will be conducted.

The students will receive six weeks of general

classroom instruction and the data will be

examined to locate areas of concern.

Student is above the 25th percentile

Continue working with the student in the

general education classroom using Tier

1 instruction OR schedule meeting with

the RtI Team for further assistance.

Six Week DECISION POINT meeting

The students who scored at or below the 25%ile will take the assessment tool.

An RtI meeting will be conducted to look at the data.

Specific information will be examined regarding interventions, progress

monitoring, and classroom instruction. The information will be entered into

DMAC after the RtI meeting. The teacher will meet and discuss the goals for

each student and the student will begin graphing his/her progress. If the

student continues to score below the 25th percentile OR supporting

documentation demonstrates a lack of progress, move to Tier 2.

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Student is at or below the 25th

percentile on the most recent

assessment tool AND

progress is flat for 18-24

weeks.

At the RtI meeting, the

committee will add an additional

period of interventions and

progress monitoring and move

to Tier 3. See Tier 3 directions

below.

Tier 2 90 minutes weekly for 6 weeks, 5 to 1 grouping

Discuss intervention effectiveness and problem solve as needed.

Select appropriate interventions (specific district supported research-based interventions).

Establish a six week goal.

Assign intervention and assessment support.

Deliver intervention in 30 minutes sessions, 3 times per week, in a 5 to 1 grouping.

Administer progress monitoring 1 time per week and document in DMAC (progress monitoring section).

Students graph progress.

Running Records and Fluency Fact Checks will be conducted before each RtI meeting.

For bilingual/ELL students discuss TELPAS results and implement specific SIOP interventions.

Six Week DECISION POINT

Student is at or below the

25th percentile on the

most recent assessment

tool OR progress is

negative for 6- 12 weeks.

At the RtI meeting, the

committee will add another

period of interventions and

progress monitoring and

continue in Tier 2. See Tier

2 directions above.

Student is above the 25th

percentile on the most

recent assessment tool

AND progress is positive.

At the RtI meeting, the

committee will complete the

needed information and/or

move to Tier 1.

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Six Week DECISION POINT

Student is above the 25th

percentile on the most

recent assessment tool

AND progress is positive.

Move to Tier 2, see Tier 2

directions.

Student is at or below the 25th

percentile on the most recent

assessment tool AND

progress is flat for 12 weeks.

Proceed to referral for further

evaluation (Special Education).

Student is at or below the

25th percentile on the

most recent assessment

tool OR progress is

negative.

Continue in Tier 3 for no

longer than 6 additional

weeks. See Tier 3 directions

above.

Tier 3 120 minutes weekly per 6 weeks, 3 to 1 grouping

Discuss intervention effectiveness and problem solve as needed.

Select appropriate district supported research-based interventions.

Develop a six weeks goal.

Assign intervention and assessment support.

Students graph progress.

Running Records and Fluency Fact Checks will be conducted before each RtI meeting.

Deliver intervention in 30 minutes sessions, 4 times per week, in a 3 to 1 grouping.

Administer progress monitoring 1 time per week and document in DMAC (progress

monitoring section).

After 12 weeks in Tier 3, the RtI team will

determine whether to move the student back

to Tier 2, keep the student on Tier 3, or

proceed for referral for further evaluation

(Special Education – if there is suspect of a

disability).

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Post Referral

Administrator or designee meets with evaluator to review results of the evaluation. Evaluator

discusses strengths, weaknesses, and recommended interventions.

Student meets

eligibility for Special

Education services.

Follow the Special

Education process.

Student meets eligibility

for Dyslexia services.

Follow the §504

Committee process.

Student does not

meet eligibility.

The administrator or designee receives the

findings. The RtI team determines a plan for

the student which includes suggestions for

instruction and interventions based on the

evaluation. The RtI team determines if Tier 2

or Tier 3 interventions are appropriate for the

student. If the student will continue Tier 2 or

Tier 3, an intervention plan is created and the

RtI process is followed.

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Revised August 2015 Springtown ISD: Elementary Campuses RtI Pyramid

Academic TIER 1: Universal (80%) General Classroom Instruction

(Universal Screeners, Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills,

Formative Assessments, Unit/Common Assessments, TEKS

Resource System, Running Records, Fluency Fact Checks, SISD

Balanced Literacy Guide, and Differentiated Instruction)

TIER 2: Targeted (15%) Minimum of 90 minutes weekly Minimum 6 weeks

5:1 grouping with specific interventions & weekly progress monitoring

Running records conducted every two weeks Decision Point after 6 weeks:

(1) Continue another 6 weeks (2) Move back to Tier 1

(3) Move to Tier 3

504 Information: 1. A 504 referral can occur at any point in the RtI process. 2. A student identified as 504 is not automatically a Tier 3 student.

TIER 3: Intensive (5%) Minimum 120 minutes weekly

Maximum 12 weeks 3:1 grouping with specific interventions and

continued progress monitoring Running records conducted every two weeks

Decision point after 6 weeks: (1) Referral to Special Education

(2) Return to Tier 2 (3) Continue in Tier 3 for no longer than 12

additional weeks

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SISD ELAR Resources

Tier 1 Researched Based Instructional Strategies

Marzano’s Classroom Instruction that Works

Differentiated Instruction Strategies: Tiered Instruction, Flexible Grouping, Anchor Activities

5E Model

ELPS

Revised Bloom’s Questioning Levels

Literacy across the contents

Sheltered Instruction (SIOP)

District Supported Resources K-4 ELAR

Tier 1 Core Classroom Instruction

Tier 2 Targeted Interventions

Tier 3 Intensive Interventions

9 weeks 30 minutes – 3 X week Weekly progress monitoring

Minimum 6 weeks

30 minutes – 4 X week Weekly progress monitoring

Maximum 12 weeks

SISD Curriculum (TEKS and TEKS Resource System)

Handwriting

Journeys

Fountas and Pinnell Phonics System

Istation

Guided Reading

The Writing Academy

Empowering Writers

Running Records

Balanced Literacy Guide

Accelerated Reader

TPRI Intervention Lessons

Istation Intervention Lessons (3-4)

Core Progress (Renaissance)

Florida Center for Reading Research

Fountas and Pinnell Leveled Literacy Intervention kits

DRA Running Records

Support from Reading Specialist

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SISD Math Resources

Tier 1 Researched Based Instructional Strategies

Marzano’s Classroom Instruction that Works

Differentiated Instruction Strategies: Tiered Instruction, Flexible Grouping, Anchor Activities

5E Model

ELPS

Revised Bloom’s Questioning Levels

Literacy across the contents

Sheltered Instruction (SIOP)

District Supported Resources K-4 Math

Tier 1 Core Classroom Instruction

Tier 2 Targeted Interventions

Tier 3 Intensive Interventions

9 weeks 30 minutes – 3 X week Weekly progress monitoring

Minimum 6 weeks

30 minutes – 4 X week Weekly progress monitoring

Maximum 12 weeks

SISD Curriculum (TEKS and TEKS Resource System)

Go Math

Accelerated Math

Motivational Math

Math Facts in a Flash

Math Scope and Sequence

Think Through Math

Interactive Math Glossary

Elementary Math Framework

Xtramath.org

Core Progress (Renaissance)

TEMI Interventions

Fluency Fact Checks

Support from Math Specialist

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RtI Step by Step Guide for ELAR

Step 1: Problem Identification

A universal screener will be conducted to determine students who will be considered at-risk due to readiness

standards. Each campus will administer the universal screener at the beginning of each school year.

Universal Screener for reading: 1st BOY: STAR Reading/STAR Early Literacy. The STAR Reading will be

administered the first nine weeks of school. If students do not pass the practice portion of STAR Reading, they will be

given STAR Early Literacy. Each student will be given a timed reading assessment and the results will be available

by logging into Renaissance Learning. Multiple reports can be generated to gather specific information regarding

areas of concern: Student Diagnostic Report and Instructional Planning Report. The information provided will provide

the teacher with specific needs of each student.

Universal screener for 1st (MOY, EOY), 2nd, 3rd and 4th grades: STAR Reading. The STAR Reading will be administered

the first nine weeks of school. Each student will be given a timed reading assessment and the results will be available

by logging into Renaissance Learning. Multiple reports can be generated to gather specific information regarding

areas of concern: Student Diagnostic Report and Instructional Planning Report. The reports will provide the teacher

with specific needs of each student.

The following guidelines will be used to determine which students will be monitored closely receiving core curriculum

and strategies for 6 weeks:

1st grade – At or below the 25th percentile for SR/SEL

2nd, 3rd and 4th grades – At or below the 25th percentile

*The STAR Early Literacy and/or STAR Reading will be given every six weeks to monitor growth.

*Additional information and/or assessments may be used to gather more detailed data.

Step 2: Intervention, Planning, and Implementation

Each grade level will have specific research-based interventions provided. After locating the reading domain area in

which the student struggles, the teacher will provide specific interventions.

Step 3: Progress Monitoring

Each teacher will gather data to determine if the intervention(s) provided have assisted the student. Progress monitoring will be conducted once a week. The progress the student is making will be entered into DMAC (progress monitoring section) each week by the teacher. The teacher will conduct running records prior to RtI meetings.

Step 4: RtI Meetings

Each six weeks, a RtI meeting will be conducted with an administrator, grade level teachers, reading specialist, and any other teacher providing interventions. In the meeting, the teacher will report and provide detailed information on the intervention(s) provided, stagnant or gained progress, and any other pertinent information about the student. A decision will be made to determine the area of focus, goals, and target area. Options to decide: continue working on the specified area of focus and target area, referral to Special Education or Dyslexia, or movement in tiers.

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RtI Decision-Making Guide for ELAR

Tier 1 - Universal screening: three times a year (BOY, MOY, EOY) *Students who are at or below the 25th percentile will take the STAR Reading/STAR Early Literacy each six weeks. 1. Entrance Criteria 1st grade: STAR Reading/STAR Early Literacy (BOY); STAR Reading (MOY and EOY) - At or below the 25th

percentile 2nd – 4th grades: STAR Reading - At or below the 25th percentile 2. Exit Criteria 1st grade: Completion of at least a two-six week intervention period and above the 25th percentile on the STAR Reading (BOY, MOY, EOY)/STAR Early Literacy (BOY) 2nd – 4th grades: Completion of at least a two-six week intervention period and above the 25th percentile on the STAR Reading Administrator and Specialist(s) conduct the RTI meetings. Student’s data are analyzed to identify trends. Consultation with teachers regarding curriculum and evidence-based instructional practices. Teachers implement core curriculum and evidence-based strategies. Review classroom data and analyze progress of struggling learners.

* Decision point: Identify students who continue to fall below and demonstrate a lack of progress. Schedule RtI meeting to discuss their move to Tier 2.

Tier 2 – Targeted Interventions: 6-24 weeks

1. Use targeted district supported interventions conducted by certified teacher.

Discuss scores and develop a SMART goal

Discuss interventions and support (30 minute sessions 3 X a week)

Progress monitoring: once a week by teacher

Running records conducted before each RtI meeting

*Decision point: Reconvene RtI team and determine if interventions are working. Student graphs progress each six weeks. ~Continue intervention(s) ~Student continues to struggle and falls significantly after weeks of targeted interventions, move to Tier 3.

Tier 3 - Intensive Interventions: Maximum 12 weeks

1. Increase intensity of district supported interventions conducted by certified teacher.

Discuss scores and develop a SMART goal

Discuss interventions and support (30 minute sessions 4 X a week)

Progress monitoring: once a week by teacher

Running records conducted before each RtI meeting

*Decision point: Reconvene RtI team and determine if interventions are working. Student continues to graph progress each six weeks.

~Continue intervention(s) for six weeks ~If student continues to struggle after 12 weeks of intensive interventions, refer for SE evaluation

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RtI Step by Step Guide for Math

STEP 1: Problem Identification

A universal screener will be conducted to determine students who will be considered at-risk due to readiness

standards. Each campus will administer the universal screener at the beginning of each school year.

Universal screener: 1st – 4th grades: STAR Math. The STAR Math will be administered the first nine weeks of school.

Each student will be given a timed math assessment and the results will be available by logging into Renaissance

Learning. Multiple reports can be generated to gather specific information regarding areas of concern: Student

Diagnostic Report and Instructional Planning Report. The reports will provide the teacher with specific needs of each

student.

The following guidelines will be used to determine which students will be monitored closely receiving core curriculum

and strategies for 6 weeks:

1st – 4th grades: At or below the 25th percentile based on the data

STAR Math (1-4) will be given each six weeks to monitor growth.

*Additional information and/or assessments may be used to gather more detailed data.

Step 2: Intervention, Planning, and Implementation

Each grade level will have specific research-based interventions provided. After locating the specific skill area in

which the student struggles, the teacher will provide interventions.

Step 3: Progress Monitoring

Each teacher will gather data to determine if the intervention(s) provided have assisted the student. Progress monitoring will be conducted once a week. The progress the student is making will be entered into DMAC (progress monitoring section) each week by the teacher. The teacher will conduct Fluency Fact Checks prior to each RtI meeting.

Step 4: RtI Meetings

Each six weeks, a RtI meeting will be conducted with an administrator, grade level teachers, math specialist, and any other teacher providing interventions. In the meeting, the teacher will report and provide detailed information on the intervention(s) provided, stagnant or gained progress, and any other pertinent information about the student. A decision will be made to determine the area of focus, goals, and target area. Options to decide: continue working on the specified area of focus and target area, referral to Special Education or Dyslexia, or movement in tiers.

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RtI Decision-Making Guide for Math

Tier 1 - Universal screening: three times a year (BOY, MOY, EOY) *Students who are at or below the 25th percentile will take the STAR Math each six weeks.

1. Entrance criteria 1st-4th grades: STAR Math - At or below the 25th percentile 2. Exit Criteria 1st-4th grades: Completion of at least a two-six week intervention period and above the 25th percentile Administrator and Specialist(s) conduct the RTI meetings. Student’s data are analyzed to identify trends. Consultation with teachers regarding curriculum and evidence-based instructional practices. Teachers implement core curriculum and evidence-based strategies. Review classroom data and analyze progress of struggling learners.

* Decision point: Identify students who continue to fall below and demonstrate a lack of progress. Schedule RtI meeting to discuss their move to Tier 2.

Tier 2 – Targeted Interventions: 6-24 weeks

1. Use targeted district supported interventions conducted by certified teacher.

Discuss scores and develop a SMART goal

Discuss interventions and support (30 minute sessions 3 X a week)

Progress monitoring: once a week by teacher

Fluency Fact Checks will be conducted before each RtI meeting

*Decision point: Reconvene RtI team and determine if interventions are working. Student graphs progress each six weeks. ~Continue intervention(s) ~Student continues to struggle and falls significantly after weeks of targeted interventions, move to Tier 3.

Tier 3 - Intensive Interventions: Maximum 12 weeks

1. Increase intensity of district supported interventions conducted by certified teacher.

Discuss scores and develop a SMART goal

Discuss interventions and support (30 minute sessions 4 X a week)

Progress monitoring: once a week by teacher

Fluency Fact Checks to be conducted before each RtI meeting

*Decision point: Reconvene RtI team and determine if interventions are working. Student

continues to graph progress each six weeks. ~Continue intervention(s) for six weeks ~If student continues to struggle after 12 weeks of intensive interventions, refer for SE evaluation

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SISD

Behavior Response

to Intervention

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RtI Behavior Flow Chart (K-4)

For students who have had Tier 1 behavior interventions implemented on a

consistent basis and in the manner designed, an RtI meeting will be conducted

to look at the data. Specific information will be examined regarding interventions

and progress monitoring. Examples of data to review include, but are not limited

to: discipline referrals, misbehavior recording sheet, rating scale, participation

evaluation record, behavior counting form, and interval chart – scatterplot (forms

located on Q drive). The information will be entered into DMAC during/after the

RtI meeting.

Move to Tier 2.

Tier 1 Interventions – Lacking

Insufficient documentation or lack of

implementation of Tier 1 interventions

implemented with consistency and fidelity:

Continue Tier 1 interventions with consistency

and fidelity and document results.

Tier 1 Interventions - Documented

Documentation indicated Tier 1 interventions

have been implemented with consistency and

fidelity for a minimum of 6 weeks and the

student’s behavior has not improved.

Universal Prevention Strategies

(CHAMPS, Rachel’s Challenge, Second Step, Character Education, Kelso’s Choices)

Principal convenes campus RtI team for students who are not responding to Tier 1 strategies.

Campus RtI team meets with grade level teachers regarding behavior and classroom management.

Universal Screening DECISION POINT

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Student’s behavior has stayed

the same or grown negatively.

Consult with LSSP

If consultation has already

occurred and documentation is in

order, move to Tier 3.

Present student to evaluation

team as a possible referral to

special education.

Student’s behavior has

improved and is no longer

experience difficulty.

At the RtI meeting, the

committee will complete the

needed information in DMAC

and move to Tier 1.

Student’s behavior has

improved but still

experiencing difficulty.

At the RtI meeting, the

committee will add another

period of interventions and

progress monitoring in DMAC

and continue in Tier 2.

See Tier 2 directions above.

6 Week DECISION POINT

Tier 2 Minimum of 6 weeks

Discuss intervention effectiveness and problem solve as needed.

Select appropriate interventions (district support interventions).

Establish baseline data-point scores and develop six week goal.

Assign intervention and support.

Deliver intervention on a daily basis.

Progress monitor.

Graph student progress.

Prior to the 6 week decision point meeting, the teacher completes the information in DMAC.

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Revised August 2015

Tier 1: Minimum of 6 weeks

Universal Prevention Strategies

(CHAMPS, Rachel’s Challenge, Second Step, Character Education, Kelso’s Choices)

Universal

85 – 90%

Tier 2: Minimum of 6 weeks

Targeted

7 – 10%

Intensive

3 – 5%

Individual Interventions & weekly progress monitoring during the 6 weeks

Decision Point after 6 weeks: (1) Continue another 6 weeks

(2) Move back to tier 1 (3) Move to Tier 3

Tier 3

Specialists,

Referrals,

FBA

Springtown ISD: Elementary Campuses RtI Pyramid

Behavior

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SISD Behavior Resources

Tier 1 Researched Based Behavior Strategies SISD Behavior Philosophy

CHAMPS

Rachel’s Challenge

Second Step

Character Education Program

Kelso’s Choices

All students in Springtown ISD will be safe, secure and successful.

District Supported Resources K-4

Behavior Tier 1

Core Classroom Instruction Tier 2 Targeted

Interventions Tier 3 Intensive

Interventions

6 weeks Minimum 6 weeks 6 weeks

Expectations posted in classroom

Expectations reviewed 4 times each grading period

Appropriate rate of positive interactions (3 positive to 1 negative)

Parent and teacher conference

Teaching replacement behavior

General education counseling services

Individualized behavior contract

Daily check in plan with specified staff member

Consult with Licensed Specialist in School Psychology

Special Education Referral

Recommended Additional Resources

Teacher’s Encyclopedia of Behavior Management

Behavioral Response to Intervention

Foundations: Establishing Positive Discipline Policies

Administrator’s Desk Reference to Behavior Management

Toughkid Toolbox

www.interventioncentral.org

www.pbisworld.com

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Vocabulary of Key Terms Used for RtI

Assessment window: A specific time frame given by the district to conduct assessments.

CHAMPs: A proactive and positive approach to behavior management (http://safeandcivilschools.com)

Comprehension: the ability to understand and get meaning from spoken and written language and is the ultimate goal in learning to read. The goal of Comprehension instruction is to teach children specific strategies to use for understanding text as they are reading (The Florida Center for Reading Research, 2005).

Data Management for Assessment and Curriculum (DMAC): is a component of the Region 7 Education Service Center that exists to supply Texas educators with the tools and services necessary to develop and improve the quality of education provided to students. Educators can utilize our software for: Data disaggregation, benchmarking, assessment, student achievement/progress monitoring, curriculum, and planning (www.dmac-solutions.net).

Fluency: the ability to read text quickly, accurately, and with proper expression and is the bridge between word recognition and comprehension (The Florida Center for Reading Research, 2005).

Intervention: any process that has the effect of increasing learning (Ogonosky, 2009).

I-station: delivers individualized instruction — complete with age-appropriate content — for 3rd-4th grade. Every lesson is supported with data-rich benchmark and continuous progress monitoring assessments through Istation's proprietary ISIP™ technology.

Kelso’s Choices: A conflict-management curriculum for elementary students based on the premise that every child is capable of becoming a peacemaker (www.kelsoschoices.com).

Percentile rank: is a norm-referenced score that provides a measure of a student’s reading ability compared to other students in the same grade nationally. The percentile rank score, which ranges from 1 to 99, indicates the percentage of other students nationally who obtained scores equal to or lower than the score of a particular student. For example, a student with a percentile rank of 85 performed as well as or better than 85 percent of other students in the same grade.

Phonics: The study of the relationship between letters and the sounds they represent; it is also used to describe reading instruction that teaches sound-symbol correspondences. The goal of phonics instruction is to help children use the sound-symbol relationship to read and write words. Phonics consists of: letter recognition, letter-sound correspondences, onset and rime, word study, syllable patterns, and morpheme structures (The Florida Center for Reading Research, 2005).

Phonological awareness: Phonological Awareness is defined as one’s sensitivity to, or explicit awareness of, the phonological structure of words in one’s language. It encompasses an awareness of individual words in sentences, syllables, and onset and rime segments as well as awareness of individual phonemes in words. Phonological Awareness is considered an “umbrella” or broad term, which covers aspects of sound identification and manipulation in spoken language. Phonological awareness consists of rhyme, alliteration, sentence segmentation, syllable, onset and rime, and phonemes (The Florida Center for Reading Research, 2005).

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Probes: Brief, timed samples of a student’s proficiency in reading, math, early literacy, or early numeracy, aligned to grade level standards (Buffum, Mattos, and Weber, 2009).

Progress monitoring: a scientifically based practice to assess students’ academic performance and evaluate the effectiveness of instruction that can be used with individual students, a small group, or an entire class. Also, the process used to monitor the implementation of specific interventions (Buffum, Mattos, and Weber, 2009).

Rachel’s Challenge: A national non-profit organization dedicated to creating safe, connected school environments where learning and teaching are maximized (www.rachelschallange.org)

Response to intervention (RtI): The practice of providing high-quality instruction and interventions matched to students’ needs, monitoring progress frequently to make changes in instruction or goals, and applying child response data to important educational decisions (Buffum, Mattos, and Weber, 2009).

Running Records: A tool for coding, scoring, and analyzing a child’s precise reading behaviors (Fountas and Pinnell, 1996).

Second Step: Developmentally appropriate ways to teach core social-emotional skills such as empathy, emotion management, and problem solving (www.cfchilden.org).

STAR Early Literacy: STAR Early Literacy assesses these eight key domains of early literacy and numeracy. 145 skills are grouped into 32 closely-related skill areas.

STAR Math: is an assessment of math achievement for students in grades 1–12. STAR Math Enterprise tracks development in four domains: Numbers and Operations, Algebra, Geometry and Measurement, Data Analysis, Statistics, and Probability (www.renlearn.com).

STAR Reading: is an assessment of reading comprehension and skills for independent readers through grade 12. STAR Reading Enterprise tracks development in five domains: Word Knowledge and Skills, Comprehension Strategies and Constructing Meaning, Analyzing Literary Text, Understanding Author’s Craft, and Analyzing Argument and Evaluating Text (www.renlearn.com).

Universal screener: A process of reviewing student performance through formal and/or informal assessment measures to determine progress in relation to student benchmarks and learning standards; also, the practice of assessing all students in a school with valid measures in the major curricular areas, so that no student at risk “falls through the crack” (Buffum, Mattos, and Weber, 2009).

Vocabulary: refers to the meanings and pronunciation of words necessary for communication. Vocabulary is often categorized as oral (listening and speaking) or reading (reading and writing) vocabulary. The goal of Vocabulary instruction is to provide students with an understanding of the meaning and use of words so that they can comprehend what they are reading and communicate effectively (The Florida Center for Reading Research, 2005).