Transcript
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    "##$%&&'''()*+,-."))/(*+#&*)#+-("#0/ 1

    2")3# 4)#+-% 5)30 6 7"+08-#39Rate or Reaction

    Calculation

    Rate of Reaction (Average Rate)

    :;

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    "##$%&&'''()*+,-."))/(*+#&*)#+-("#0/ H

    Chemical Reaction

    Precipitation of Sulphur

    HI7/D

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    "##$%&&'''()*+,-."))/(*+#&*)#+-("#0/ L

    Ostwald Process (Manufacture Nitric Acid)

    Stage 1

    O4ILD=FJ 6KHD=FO4KD=FJ PIHKD=F

    Notes:1( B+0$+3

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    "##$%&&'''()*+,-."))/(*+#&*)#+-("#0/ O

    Substitution Reaction

    Alkene

    Alkene

    Combustion

    CompleteCombustion

    IncompleteCombustion

    Addition Reaction

    + Bromine/Chlorine

    + Potassium

    Manganate(VII)+ Hydrogen

    + Hydrogen Halide

    + Steam

    Polymerization

    Alkane Alcohol

    Craking Dehydration

    Preparation of Alkene

    Cracking of Alkane

    H7OI1T7IOJ 7HIOJ 7HIPJ 7LIP

    Dehydration of Alchohol

    7HI6KI J 7HIOJ IHK

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    Combustion%

    Complete combustion:

    7HIOJ LKHH7KHJ HIHKIncomplete combustion

    7HIOJ HKHH7K J HIHK

    7HIOJ KHH7 J HIHKAddition Reaction%

    + Bromine:

    + Potassium Manganate(VII):

    + Hydrohen:

    D7

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    Alcohol

    AlkeneCarbohydrate

    Alcoholfermentation Addition

    + SodiumdehydrationCombustionOxidation

    (+K2CrO7/KMnO4)

    Preparation of alchohol

    Fermentation of Carbohydrate (Glucose)

    7PI1HKPH7HI6KI J H7KH

    Addition of Alkene

    7HIOJ IHK 7HI6KI

    \7

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    "##$%&&'''()*+,-."))/(*+#&*)#+-("#0/ N

    Carboxylic Acid

    AldehydesAlchohol

    Carboxylic acidOxidation Oxidation

    + Metal+ oxide base+ alkali + Metal carbonate + Alchohol

    Salt + H2O Salt + H2O Salt + H2Salt + CO2

    + H2OEsther

    Preparation of Carboxylic acid

    Oxidation of Alcohol

    7HI6KI J H\K] 7IL7KKI J IHK

    Oxidation of Aldehyde

    7HIPK J \K] 7IL7KKI

    Reaction

    Carboxylic Acid + Alkali

    7IL7KKI J 4

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    "##$%&&'''()*+,-."))/(*+#&*)#+-("#0/ U

    Summary of The Reaction

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    Oxidation and Reduction

    Iron(II) to Iron(III)

    Oxidising agent: Chlorine or Bromine

    J

    5+HJ5+LJJ +

    7/HJ H+ H7/

    H5+HJJ 7/HH5+LJJ H7/

    J

    5+HJ5+LJJ +

    ^3HJ H+ H^3

    H5+HJJ ^3HH5+LJJ H7/

    Observation%

    1( B"+ =3++* .)/);3 )> 5+HJ-)/;#8)* #;3*- _3)'*Observation%

    1( B"+ =3++* .)/);3 )> 5+HJ-)/;#8)* #;3* _3)'*H( B"+ _3)'* .)/);3 )> _3)08*+ ' #"+ S*KO-)/;#8)* #;3*- 8*#) .)/);3/+--

    Oxidising agent: Potassium Dichromate(VI)

    J

    5+HJ5+LJJ +

    73HKNH,J 1O IJJ P+ H73LJJ NIHK

    P5+HJJ S*KOJ UIJP5+LJJ S*HJJ OIHK

    Observation%

    1( B"+ =3++* .)/);3 )> -)/;#8)* 5+HJ#;3*- _3)'*(H( B"+ )3 #"+ 73HKN

    H,-)/;#8)* #;3*- =3++*(

    Oxidising agent: Hidrogen Peroxide

    J

    5+HJ5+LJJ +

    IHKHJ HIJJ H+ HIHK

    H5+HJJ IHKHJ HIJH5+

    LJJ HIHK

    Observation%

    1( B"+ =3++* .)/);3 )> -)/;#8)* 5+HJ#;3*- _3)'*

    Oxidising agent: Concentrated Nitric Acid

    J

    5+HJ5+LJJ +

    4KL,J OIJJ L+ 4K J HIHK

    L5+HJJ 4KL,J OIJL5+LJJ 4K J HIHK

    Observation%1( B"+ =3++* .)/);3 )> -)/;#8)* 5+HJ#;3*- _3)'*

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    "##$%&&'''()*+,-."))/(*+#&*)#+-("#0/ 1T

    Iron(III) to Iron(II)

    Reducing Agent: More reactive Metal

    J

    5+LJJ + 5+HJ

    `* `*HJJ H+

    H5+LJJ `* H5+HJJ `*HJ

    Observation:

    1( B"+ _3)'* .)/);3 )> #"+ 83)*DQQQF -)/;#8)* #;3* =3++*(H( `8*. $)'?+3 ?8--)/W+ 8* #"+ -)/;#8)*(

    Reducing Agent: Sulphur Dioxide

    J

    5+LJJ + 5+HJ

    2KHJ HIHK 2KOH,J OIJJ H+

    H5+LJ

    J 2KHJ HIHK H5+HJ

    J 2KOH,

    J OIJ

    Observation:

    1( B"+ _3)'* .)/);3 )> #"+ 83)*DQQQF -)/;#8)* #;3* =3++*(

    Reducing Agent: Hydrogen Sulphide

    J

    5+LJJ + 5+HJ

    IH2 HIJJ 2 J H+

    H5+LJJ IH2 H5+HJJ HIJJ 2

    Observation:1( B"+ _3)'* .)/);3 )> #"+ 83)*DQQQF -)/;#8)* #;3* =3++*(H( M+//)' $3+.8$8#)30- 8* #"+ -)/;#8)*(

    Reducing Agent: Sodium Sulphite

    J

    5+LJJ + 5+HJ

    2KLH,J IHK 2KO

    H,J HIJJ H+

    H5+LJJ 2KLH,J IHK H5+

    HJJ 2KOH,J HIJ

    Observation:

    1( B"+ _3)'* .)/);3 )> #"+ 83)*DQQQF -)/;#8)* #;3* =3++*(

    Reducing Agent: Tin(II) Chloride

    J

    5+LJJ + 5+HJ

    2*HJ 2*OJJ H+

    H5+LJJ 2*HJH5+HJJ 2*OJ

    Observation:

    1( B"+ _3)'* .)/);3 )> #"+ 83)*DQQQF -)/;#8)* #;3* =3++*(

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    Displacement of Metal

    \X 0)3+ 3+

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    Preparation of Oxygen Gas

    Decomposition of Potassium Manganate (VII)

    HaS*KOaHS*KOJ S*KHJ KH

    Decomposition of Potassium Chlorate (V)

    Ha7/KLHa7/ J LKH\S

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    Thermochemistry

    Calculation

    Heat of Reaction

    B"+30

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