Download pdf - RPT biology form4

  • 7/30/2019 RPT biology form4


  • 7/30/2019 RPT biology form4



    4 6 JAN 1.2Applyingscientificinvestigation

    Observe a situation andidentify all the variables.Suggest a question that issuitable for a scientificinvestigation. Discuss to:

    a) form a hypothesis,b) plan the method ofinvestigationincluding selection ofapparatus and workprocedures.

    Carry out an experiment:a) to collect and tabulatedata,b) present data in a suitable

    form,c) interpret the data and drawconclusion,d) write a complete report.Carry out an experiment onthe making of bread usingyeast in the absence andpresence of sugar.

    Record the time taken for thedough to double its size. For

    further investigations, salt isused. During investigation,highlight the need to practisescientific attitudes and noblevalues such as honestyand accuracy in recordingand verifying data.

    A student is able to:

    identify variables in a givensituation,

    identify the relationshipbetween two variables to form ahypothesis,

    design and carry out a simpleexperiment to test thehypothesis,

    record and present data in asuitable form,

    interpret data to drawconclusions,

    write a report on anexperiment,

    practise scientific attitudes andnoble values.

    This activityhelps theteacher toassessstudents

    capabilities tocarry out ascientificinvestigation.Theseattitudes andvalues shouldbe observedin allinvestigationsin other




    noble valuesnilai murni

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    DATE LearningObjectives

    Suggested LearningActivities

    Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary

    9 13 JAN 1.1Understandingcell structureand function

    Prepare and study slides tocompare the epidermal cellsof onion or cells ofHydrillaleaf with human cheek cells.Observe, draw and labeldiagrams of an animal celland a plant cell as seenthrough a light microscope.

    Study electron micrographsof animal cells and plant cellsto identify cellularcomponents of cell:a) plasma membrane andcell wall,b) cytoplasm,c) organelles:(i) nucleus: nucleolus,chromosomes, nucleoplasmand nuclear membrane,(ii) rough and smoothendoplasmic reticulum,(iii) mitochondria,(iv) Golgi apparatus,(v) lysosomes,(vi) ribosomes,(vii) chloroplasts,(viii) centrioles,(ix) vacuoles.

    A student is able to:

    draw and label an animal cell,

    draw and label a plant cell,

    identify the cellularcomponents of an animal cell,

    identify the cellular

    components of a plant cell,

    The structureof theorganelles isnot required.


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    Work in small groups tomatch cellular components totheir functions. Studentspresent a comparisonbetween the structure of an

    animal cell and a plant cell.

    Discuss the relationshipbetween the density ofcertain organelles with thefunction of specific cells:a) mitochondria with thefunction of sperm cells, flightmuscle cells in insects andbirds, cells in the meristems,b) chloroplasts with the

    function of palisade cells.

    state the functions of thecellular components in an animalcell,

    state the functions of thecellular components in a plantcell,

    compare and contrast ananimal cell and a plant cell,

    relate the density of certainorganelles with the functions ofspecific cells.


    density -ketumpatan

    16 20 JAN 1.2Understandingcellorganisation

    Observe the living processesof unicellular organisms suchas feeding, locomotion andreproduction throughcomputerized animation /video / microscope.

    Carry out small groupdiscussion on the following

    and present the findings:a) cell specialisation inmulticellular organisms,b) the necessity for cellspecialization in multicellularorganismsc) cell organisation in theformation of tissues, organsand systems in humans,

    A student is able to:

    state the necessity for cellspecialisation in multicellularorganism as compared tounicellular organism,

    describe cell specialisation inmulticellular organisms,

    describe cell organisation inthe formation of tissues, organsand systems in multicellularorganisms,

    livingprocessesproses -proseskehidupan



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    animals and plants.

    Construct models of tissues,organs and systems inhuman, animals and plants.

    Conduct a discussion on thefollowing:a) the meaning of internalenvironment,b) factors affecting theinternal environmentincluding temperature, pH,osmotic pressure andglucose level.c) it is important that the

    organisms cells alwaysexperience conditions whichpermit efficient functioning,the involvement of varioussystems in maintainingoptimal internal environment.

    ? state the meaning of internalenvironment,

    identify factors affecting theinternal environment,

    explain the necessity tomaintain optimal internalenvironment,

    describe the involvement ofvarious systems in maintainingoptimal internal environment.

    A simpleexplanation

    16 20 JAN 1.3Appreciatingthe uniquenessof the cell

    Discuss and predict the cellcondition without a particularcellular component.

    Conduct a role-play activityto show that cells becomeadapted for differentfunctions.

    A student is able to:

    predict the state of certain cellswithout a particular cellularcomponent,

    illustrate that most cells arespecialised for the job that theyperform.



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    DATE LearningObjectives

    Suggested LearningActivities

    Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary

    30 JAN3 FEB

    2.1Analysing theof movement ofsubstancesacross theplasmamembrane

    Discuss the following:a) substances that arerequired by cells,b) substances to beeliminated from cells,c) the necessity formovement of substancesacross the plasmamembrane.

    Discuss the structure of theplasma membrane ascomprising the phospholipidbilayer, carrier proteinand pores.

    Conduct an experiment,using starch suspension andglucose solution, to study themovement of substancesacross egg membraneor Visking tubing.

    Discuss the properties of theplasma membrane as asemipermeable membrane.

    Discuss the movement ofsoluble substances acrossthe plasma membranethrough simple diffusionand facilitated diffusion.

    A student is able to:

    state the substances requiredby living cells,

    state the substances that haveto be eliminated from cells,

    explain the necessity formovement of substances acrossthe plasma membrane,

    describe the structure of theplasma membrane,

    describe the permeability of theplasma membrane,

    explain the movement ofsoluble substances across theplasma membrane through theprocess of passive transport,

    Only a briefaccountof thestructure ofthe plasmamembrane isrequired.

    permeability -ketelapan



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    Carry out an activity to showosmosis using a simpleosmometer.

    Discuss the movement ofsubstances across theplasma membrane throughactive transport.Conduct a simulation activityto show the movement ofsubstances across theplasma membranethrough passive transportand active transport.

    Use computer simulation toshow the movement ofsubstances across theplasma membrane.

    Discuss the processes ofpassive transport and activetransport in living organisms:a) gaseous exchange in thealveoli and blood capillaries(simple diffusion),

    b) absorption of digestedfood in the villus (facilitateddiffusion),c) absorption of water by roothairs of a plant (osmosis),d) ion intake by root hairs ofa plant (active transport).

    explain the movement of watermolecules across the plasmamembrane by osmosis,

    explain the movement ofsubstances across the plasmamembrane through the processof active transport,

    explain the process of passivetransport in living organismsusing examples,

    explain the process of activetransport in living organismsusing examples,

    compare and contrast passivetransport and active transport.

    Only a basicexplanation ofthe activetransportprocess isrequired.

    activetransport -pengangkutanaktif

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    Construct a concept map onthe movement of substancesacross the plasmamembrane.

    Use a graphic organiser tocompare and contrastpassive transport and activetransport.

    6 10 FEB 2.2Understandingthe movementof substancesacross theplasma

    membrane ineveryday life

    Carry out activities to studythe effects of hypotonic andhypertonic solutions on plantand animal cells:a) plasmolysis anddeplasmolysis in plant cells,

    b) haemolysis and crenationin red blood cells.

    Discuss the following:a) hypotonic, hypertonic andisotonic solutions,b) plasmolysis,deplasmolysis, haemolysisand crenation,c) flaccidity and turgidity ofplant cells.

    Carry out an investigationusing various concentrationsof salt or sugar solutions todetermine the concentrationof external solution which isisotonic to the cell sap ofplant tissues.

    A student is able to:

    explain what hypotonic,hypertonic and isotonic solutionsare,

    explain the effects ofhypotonic, hypertonic andisotonic solutions on plant celland animal cell,

    explain plasmolysis,deplasmolysis, haemolysis andcrenation,

    design an experiment to

    determine the concentration ofexternal solution which isisotonic to cell sap,

    The use ofhuman bloodisdiscouraged.

    Theconcentrationof theexternalsolutionwhich isisotonic tothe cell sap isdeterminedfrom the

    plotted graph.

    effects -kesan

    turgidity -


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    Discuss and make aninference on theconcentration of cell sap inplant tissues which isequivalent to the

    concentration of isotonicsolution.

    Discuss and correlate themovement of substancesacross the plasmamembrane with thedifference in concentration ofthe external solution and thatof the cell sap.

    Discuss the following:a) wilting of plants caused bythe excessive use ofchemical fertilisers,b) preservation of food usingsalt or sugar.

    make an inference on theconcentration of cell sap in planttissues,

    relate the movement ofsubstances across plasmamembrane with concentrationgradient,

    explain the phenomenon ofwilting in plants using examples,

    explain the preservation of foodusing examples.

    Discussionshould bebased on theconcepts ofosmosis and



    preservation -pengawetan

    6-10 FEB 2.3Appreciatingthe movementof substances

    across theplasmamembrane

    Compose poems toappreciate the movement ofsubstances across theplasma membrane.

    A student is able to:

    explain the necessity ofmovement of substances acrossthe plasma membrane which

    occurs in a continuous andcontrolled manner for survival ofa cell.

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    DATE LearningObjectives

    Suggested LearningActivities

    Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary

    13-17 FEB 3.1

    Understandingthe chemicalcomposition ofthe cell

    Carry out small group

    discussion on the followingand present the findings:a) elements in the cell,including carbon, hydrogen,oxygen, nitrogen sulphur,phosphorus, calcium,potassium, magnesium,chlorine, sodiumand ferum,

    b) the presence and

    importance of chemicalcompounds in the cell.

    A student is able to:

    state the elements in the cell,

    list the chemical compounds inthe cell,

    explain the importance oforganic compounds in the cell,

    explain the importance of

    waterin the cell.


    compounds inthe cell arelimited tocarbohydrates,lipids,proteins,nucleic acidsand wateronly.

    A brief

    account onthe importanceofcarbohydrates,lipids, proteinsand nucleicacids isrequired.


    13-17 FEB 3.2Understandingcarbohydrates

    Carry out small groupdiscussion on the followingand present the findings:a) elements incarbohydrates,b) types of carbohydrates,i.e. monosaccharides,disaccharides andpolysaccharides, usingexamples,c) the formation and

    A student is able to:

    state the elements incarbohydrates,

    state the types ofcarbohydrates,

    explain the formation andbreakdown of disaccharides andpolysaccharides.

    A detailedmolecularstructure is notrequired.

    A briefaccount ofcondensationand hydrolysisreactionsis required.


    breakdown -penguraian

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    breakdown ofdisaccharides, such asmaltose, sucrose andlactose,d) the formation and

    breakdown ofpolysaccharides, such asstarch, glycogen andcellulose.

    Conduct an activity todifferentiate betweenreducing and nonreducingsugars.




    20-24 FEB 3.3


    Carry out small group

    discussion on the followingand present the findings:a) elements in protein, suchas carbon, hydrogen,oxygen, sulphur, nitrogenand phosphorus,b) dipeptides andpolypeptides,c) the formation andbreakdown of dipeptides andpolypeptides,

    d) essential amino acids andnonessential amino acids.

    Use charts to illustrate thevarious protein structures,i.e. primary, secondary,tertiary and quaternary.

    A student is able to:

    state the elements in proteins,

    state the various structures ofproteins,

    explain the formation andbreakdown of dipeptides andpolypeptides,

    explain the meaning ofessential amino acids and non-essential amino acids.

    A detailedmolecularstructure is notrequired.

    A briefaccount ofcondensationand hydrolysis

    reactionsis required.

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    27 FEB2 MAR


    List the main types of lipids:a) fat,b) oil,c) wax,d) phospholipids,

    e) steroids, such ascholesterol, testosterone,oestrogen, andprogesterone.

    Carry out small groupdiscussion on the followingand present thefindings:a) elements in lipids,b) components of fats and

    oils,c) formation and breakdownof fats and oils.

    Use a graphic organiser tocompare saturated fats andunsaturated fats.

    A student is able to:

    state the elements in lipids,

    state the main types of lipids,

    state the components of fatsand oils.

    explain the formation andbreakdown of fats and oils,

    compare and contrastsaturated fats and unsaturatedfats.

    A detailedmolecular

    structure is notrequired.

    A briefaccount ofcondensationand hydrolysisreactions

    is required.

    saturated fatslemak tepu

    unsaturatedfatslemaktak tepu



    19-23 MAR 3.5Understandingenzymes

    Discuss on the following:a) what enzymes are,b) enzyme requirement inthe living process,c) general characteristics ofenzyme,d) naming of enzyme basedon the substrate,e) sites of enzyme synthesis,

    A student is able to:

    state what enzymes are,

    explain why enzymes areneeded in life processes,

    list the general characteristicsof enzymes,

    relate the name of enzyme tosubstrate,

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    f) intracellular andextracellular enzymes andexamples.

    Conduct a role-play activity

    to show the involvement ofribosomes, endoplasmicreticulum, and Golgi body inthe production ofextracellular enzyme.

    Conduct experiments tostudy the effects of pH andtemperature on the activitiesof amylase and pepsin.

    Discuss the effects ofenzyme concentration andsubstrate concentration onenzyme activity.Discuss the mechanism ofenzyme action using thelock and key hypothesis.

    Discuss and correlate pH,temperature, enzymeconcentration and substrate

    concentration on enzymeactivity using the lock andkey hypothesis.

    Gather information from theInternet and other sourceson the uses of enzymes in:a) daily life, e.g. tenderisingmeat

    state sites where enzymes aresynthesised,

    state the meaning ofintracellular enzymes andextracellular enzymes,

    explain the involvement ofspecific organelles in theproduction of extracellularenzymes,

    explain the effects of pH,temperature, enzymeconcentration, and substrateconcentration on enzymeactivity,

    explain the mechanism ofenzyme action,

    relate the mechanism ofenzyme action with pH,

    temperature, enzymeconcentration and substrateconcentration,

    explain the uses of enzymes indaily life and industry usingexamples.

    intracellularenzymeenzim intrasel

    extracellularenzymeenzim luar sel

    concentration- kepekatan


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    b) industry e.g. foodprocessing and detergentmanufacturing.

    19-23 MAR 3.6

    Realising theimportance ofthe chemicalcomposition incells

    Conduct a role play or story

    telling session to predict theconsequences of deficiencyin one of the chemicalcomponents in the cell.

    predict the consequences of

    deficiency in carbohydrates,protein, lipids or enzymes in thecell.

    deficiency -


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    controlled process for theperpetuity of living thingssuch as regeneration oflizard tail, certain plant partsand the healing of skin.

    Gather information ondiseases, including cancer ortumour, caused byuncontrolled mitosis in livingthings.

    Make a trip to a researchinstitute to study tissueculture technique.

    Conduct a debate or forumon cloning issues.

    controlled mitosis,

    explain the effects ofuncontrolled mitosis in livingthings,

    describe the application ofknowledge on mitosis incloning,

    explain the advantages anddisadvantages of cloning.

    tissue culture. terkawal

    regeneration-pertumbuhan/ penjanaan


    uncontrolledmitosismitosis luarkawal

    2-6 APR 4.2Understandingmeiosis

    Discuss the following:a) trait inheritance inoffsprings,b) the need to maintaindiploid chromosomal numberfrom one generation toanother,c) the need to produce

    gametes with haploid numberof chromosomes,d) the uniqueness of diploidnumber of chromosomes inorganisms,e) the significance ofmeiosis,f) the type of cell thatundergoes meiosis in human,

    A student is able to:

    state the necessity of traitinheritance in offspring forcontinuation of life,

    state the necessity to maintaindiploid chromosomal numberfrom generation to generation,

    state the necessity forproduction of haploid gametes insexual reproduction,

    state the significance ofmeiosis,

    traitinheritancepewarisan ciri


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    animals and plants.

    Observe the process ofmeiosis throughcomputerised animation,

    photomicrograph, preparedslides, or video.

    Use simulation activities toshow changes inchromosome behaviourduring meiosis I and meiosisII

    Use graphic organisers tocompare and contrast:

    a) Meiosis I and meiosis II,b) Meiosis and mitosis.

    identify the type of cell thatundergoes meiosis,

    explain the process of meiosis,

    arrange the various stages ofmeiosis in the correct order,

    compare and contrast meiosis Iand meiosis II,

    compare and contrast meiosisand mitosis.

    A detailedexplanation ofProphase 1 isnot required.

    9-13 APR 4.3Appreciatingthe movementof chromosomesduring mitosisand meiosis.

    a) conduct a role-play,

    b) avoid radioactive andcarcinogenic substances.

    A student is able to:

    describe what will happenwhen the movement ofchromosomes during mitosisand meiosis do not occur in anorderly manner,

    know and avoid things that

    maybe harmful.

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    DATE LearningObjectives

    Suggested LearningActivities

    Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary

    9-13 APR 1.1Understandingtypes of nutrition

    Observe and identify typesof nutrition in variousorganisms.

    Discuss autotrophic andheterotrophic nutrition withreference tochemosynthesis,photosynthesis, holozoicnutrition, saprophytism, andparasitism.

    Use a graphic organiser toshow the types of nutrition.

    Conduct an activity toclassify various organismsaccording to types ofnutrition.

    A student is able to:

    state the types of nutrition,

    explain autotrophic nutrition,

    explain heterotrophicnutrition,

    classify organisms according

    to the types of nutrition.

    16-20 APR 1.2Applying the

    concept ofbalanced diet

    Carry out small groupdiscussion on the following

    and present the findings:a) requirements of abalanced diet,b) factors affecting the dailyenergy requirement such asage, sex, body weight andoccupation.Conduct an activity todetermine the energy value

    A student is able to:

    explain the necessity for abalanced diet,

    explain the factors affectingthedaily energy requirement of thehuman body,

    determine the energy value

    The unit forenergy usedis Joule.

    balanced dietgizi seimbang

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    in food samples.

    Design activities to test forthe presence of starch,reducing sugar, non-

    reducing sugar, protein andlipid in food samples.

    Conduct an experiment todetermine the Vitamin Ccontent in various fruit


    Match the vitamins withtheir sources, functions andeffects of deficiency.

    Match the minerals withtheir sources, functions andeffects of deficiency.

    Discuss the sources,functions and deficiency ofroughage.

    Discuss the sources andfunctions of water in thebody.

    Carry out a groupdiscussion to formulate and

    justify an appropriate dietmenu based on a nutrientchart for the following targetgroups:a) pregnant mothers,b) infants,

    in food samples,

    determine the nutrientcontent in different foodsamples,

    explain the functions andsources of vitamins in a diet tomaintain health,

    explain the functions andsources of minerals in a diet to

    maintain health,

    explain the functions andsources of roughage / dietaryfibre in a diet,

    explain the functions of waterin the body,

    justify the selection of anappropriate balanced diet for a

    target group.

    roughage / dietaryfibrepelawas

    target groupkumpulansasaran

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    c) children,d) teenagers,e) athletes,f) people with specificdiseases,

    g) the aged,h) vegetarians.

    23-27 APR 1.3Understandingmalnutrition

    Carry out small groupdiscussion on the followingand present the findings:a) meaning of malnutrition,b) effects of deficiency inproteins, vitamins, minerals,on health,c) effects of excessive

    intake of carbohydrates,lipids, vitamins andminerals on health,d) a diet low in saturatedfats help reduce the chanceof contractingcardiovascular disease,e) ways to reduce the riskof high blood pressure,diabetes mellitus andosteoporosis.

    A student is able to:

    explain what malnutrition is,

    explain the effects ofmalnutrition using examples,

    describe ways to reduce thechance of contracting certainhealth problems due to onesdiet,

    describe ways to reduce theeffects of certain healthproblems.

    30 APR -4 MAY

    1.4Analysing fooddigestion

    Discuss the following:a) glucose, amino acids andlipids are always requiredby the cell to carry outmetabolic processes,b) complex substances likecarbohydrates, proteins andlipids need to be digested.

    A student is able to:

    state the substances requiredby the cell to carry outmetabolic processes,

    list the complex substancesthat need to be digested,

    explain the necessity fordigestion of complex

    metabolicprocessesproses metabolik

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    Draw and label parts of thehuman digestive system.

    Discuss the functions of

    digestive juices, includingsaliva, gastric juice,pancreatic juice, intestinal

    juice and other substances,i.e. hydrochloric acid andbile that aid the process ofdigestion.

    Discuss the digestion ofcarbohydrates, proteins andfats on the following

    aspects:a) specific location of eachdigestive process,b) chewing of food,c) movement of food,d) glands involved,e) digestive enzymes,f) suitable pH for eachenzyme action,g) substrates and products.Identify the parts of

    digestivesystem in ruminants androdents.Discuss the digestion ofcellulose in ruminants (eg.cow) and rodents (rabbit).

    Use graphic organiser tocompare and contrast the


    draw and label the humandigestive system,

    state the digestive juices andsubstances that aid in theprocess of digestion in human,

    describe the functions of thedigestive juices andsubstances,

    explain the digestion ofcarbohydrates, proteins andlipids in the human body,

    identify parts of digestivesystem in ruminants androdents involved in thedigestion of cellulose,

    describe the digestion ofcellulose in ruminants androdents,

    compare and contrast thedigestive process in humans,ruminants and rodents,

    digestive juices


    bile - hempedu

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    process of cellulosedigestion in humans,ruminants and rodents.

    Plan and conduct

    experiments to study theenzyme actions on starchand protein food samples.

    Collect information anddiscuss problems related tofood digestion:b) incomplete digestion offood,c) bile stones preventingthe flow of bile, reduced

    production of specificdigestive enzyme.

    design experiments to studythe digestion of starch and

    proteins in food samples,

    describe problems related tofood digestion.

    7-11 MAY 1.5Understandingthe processesof absorptionandassimilation ofdigested food

    Examine models ordiagrams of the digestivesystem and cross-section ofthe small intestine. Withreference to the models ordiagrams discuss thefollowing:a) adaptation of the small

    intestine,b) absorption process ofamino acids, glucose, fattyacids, glycerol, vitaminsand minerals in the villus.

    Carry out an activity tostudy the movement ofsubstances through the

    A student is able to:

    identify the parts of thedigestive system involved inabsorption of digested food,

    explain the adaptivecharacteristic of the digestivesystem related to absorption,

    draw and label the structureof a villus,

    explain the process ofabsorption in the villus,


    absorption -penyerapan

    small intestineusus kecil

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    Visking tubing.

    Based on the above activitycorrelate the movement offood substances through

    the Visking tubing withnutrient absorption in thesmall intestine.

    Discuss the absorption ofwater and minerals in thecolon.

    Using diagrams, charts orcomputerised animationdiscuss:

    a) the transport of aminoacids, glucose, watersoluble vitamins andminerals by the circulatorysystemi) from the small intestine tothe liver through the hepaticportal vein,ii) from the liver to the bodycells,b) transport of lipids and fat

    soluble vitamins.

    Make a schematic diagramto show the transport ofnutrients from the intestineto the body cells.

    Discuss the followingfunctions of the liver:

    make an analogy on theprocess of absorption in thesmall intestine,

    explain the absorption ofwaterand minerals in the colon,

    describe the transport ofnutrients by the circulatory

    system for assimilation,

    explain the main functions ofthe liver,

    describe the process ofassimilation.


    circulatory systemsistem



    assimilation -assimilasi

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    a) storage of nutrients,b) processing the productsofdigestion i.e. excessglucose

    and amino acids,c) detoxification.

    Discuss the process ofassimilation by the bodycells.


    28 MAY-8 JUNE



    1.6Understandingthe formation offaeces anddefecation

    With reference to diagrams,charts or model of thedigestive system, identifythe colon and rectum.

    Carry out small groupdiscussion on the followingand present the findings:a) the formation of faeces,b) the role ofmicroorganisms in thecolon,c) effects of antibiotics onthe microorganisms in thecolon,d) what defecation is,e) the importance ofdefecation,f) importance of high fibrediets,g) defecation related

    A student is able to:

    identify the part of thedigestivesystem where the formation offaeces takes place,

    describe the formation offaeces,

    explain the role ofmicroorganisms in the colonandthe effect of antibiotics on

    them,explain what defecation is,

    explain the importance ofdefecation,

    explain the importance ofhighfibre diets,

    describe the problemsrelated to defecation.




    haemorrhoids -buasir

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    problems,i.e. constipation,colon cancer andhaemorrhoids.




    Evaluatingeating habits

    Carry out small group

    discussion on the followingand present the findings:a) relationship betweeneating habits and healthproblems such as:(i) gastritis,(ii) obesity,(iii) anorexia nervosa,(iv) bulimia,b) evaluate the nutrientcontents of food based on

    food labels oradvertisments,c) evaluate the eatinghabits of classmates.

    A student is able to:

    relate eating habits withhealth problems,

    evaluate critically whether aparticular eating habit is goodor bad.

    Eating habitsinvolve thefrequencyand timeof eating andthe type offoodconsumed.

    eating habitstabiatmakan

    health problemsmasalahkesihatan


    1.8Realising theimportance of ahealthy digestivesystem

    Conduct an activity topredict the effects of adefective digestive system.

    Conduct a discussion onways to take care of the

    digestive system, such asgood eating habits, avoid

    junk food, try to cut downon sweet and fatty foods.

    A student is able to:

    predict the effects of adefective digestive system onhealth,

    take care of the digestivesystem for ones well-being.

    defective digestivesystemsistempencernaan yangtidak berfungsi

    dengan baik


    1.9Understandingthe importanceof

    Carry out small groupdiscussion on the followingand present the findings:a) the elements required by

    A student is able to:

    list elements required byplants,


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    macronutrientsandmicronutrientsin plants

    plants,b) classify the elementsrequired by plants based onthe amount needed:(i) macronutrients

    consistingof carbon, hydrogen,oxygen, nitrogen,phosphorus, potassium,calcium, magnesium andsulphur,(ii) micronutrients consistingof boron, molybdenum,zinc,manganese, copper andferum.

    Plan and conduct anexperiment on plants tostudy the effects ofmacronutrient deficiency i.e.nitrogen, phosphorus,potassium, calcium,magnesium and sulphur.

    Discuss and correlate theeffects of macronutrient

    deficiency with the functionof the macronutrients basedon the results of theexperiment.

    Collect and interpret datafrom various sources suchas the Internet on thefunction of each

    classify elements required byplants based on the amountneeded,

    design an experiment tostudy the effects ofmacronutrientdeficiency in plants,

    relate the effects ofmacronutrient deficiency withthe function of macronutrients,

    explain the function of eachmacronutrient in plants,

    state the function of

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    macronutrient in plants.

    Discuss the function ofmirconutrients and effects

    of micronutrient deficiencyin plants.

    micronutrients in plants,

    state the effects of

    micronutrient deficiency inplants.

    2 6 JULY 1.10Understandingphotosynthesis

    Students read about thediscovery of photosynthesisand extract important factsfrom it.

    Study a cross-sectionalmodel of a leaf. Draw andlabel it.

    Discuss the following:a) functions of the parts of aleaf,b) adaptation of the leaf foroptimal photosynthesis.

    Carry out an activity toinvestigate the adaptationof plants such as hibiscus,water lily, Hydrillaand

    cactus with respect to:a) distribution of stomata,b) distribution ofchloroplasts.

    A student is able to:

    describe the developmentthatleads to the discovery ofphotosynthesis,

    state the substances requiredfor photosynthesis,

    state the substancesproduced from photosynthesis,

    draw and label the cross-section of a leaf,

    state the function of eachpart of the leaf with respect tophotosynthesis,

    explain leaf adaptation tooptimise photosynthesis,

    explain how plants fromdifferent habitats are adaptedto carry out photosynthesis.

    adaptation -penyesuaian

    2 - 6 JULY 1.11Understandingthe mechanismof

    With reference to thestructure of chloroplastdiscuss the light and darkreactions of photosynthesis

    A student is able to:

    identify the parts ofchloroplast related to

    Detailedstructure of

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    photosynthesis with respect to:a) substances required.b) location of reaction.c) products of reaction.

    Draw a simple schematicdiagram of the light anddark reactions inphotosynthesis.

    Discuss the following:a) compare and contrastthe light reaction and darkreaction in photosynthesis,b) correlate light reactionwith dark reaction in


    Write an equation torepresent the overallprocess of photosynthesis.


    explain the light reaction ofphotosynthesis,

    explain the dark reaction ofphotosynthesis,

    compare and contrast lightreaction and dark reaction inphotosynthesis,

    relate light reaction with darkreaction in photosynthesis,

    write an equation torepresentthe process of photosynthesis.

    chloroplast isnot required.


    for light anddarkreactions arenotrequired.

    light reactiontindakbalascahaya

    dark reactiontindakbalasgelap

    9-13 JULY 1.12Synthesisingfactorsaffectingphotosynthesis

    Conduct a brainstormingsession to identify thefactors affecting the rate ofphotosynthesis i.e.concentration of carbon

    dioxide, light intensity andtemperature.

    Plan and carry out anexperiment to study theeffect of light intensity onthe rate of photosynthesis.

    Carry out small group

    A student is able to:

    identify the factors affectingtherate of photosynthesis,

    design an experiment toinvestigate the effect of lightintensity on the rate ofphotosynthesis,

    identify the factor that limitsthe rate of photosynthesis atdifferent light intensity,

    explain the effects oftemperature and concentration

    light intensitykeamatancahaya

    limiting factor-

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    discussion on the effects oflight intensity, temperatureand concentration of carbondioxide on the rate ofphotosynthesis.

    Plan a strategy based onfactors affecting the rate ofphotosynthesis to ensurecrop production throughoutthe year in countries withfour seasons.

    of carbon dioxide on the rate ofphotosynthesis,

    explain the difference in therate of photosynthesis in plantsthroughout the day based on

    the changes in light intensityand temperature,

    identify some ways to meetthe need of increasing theproductivity of crops based onfactors affecting the rate ofphotosynthesis.


    crops - tanaman

    9-13 JULY 1.13Practising acaring attitude

    towards plants

    Compose a poem or lyric ofa song to show appreciationof the role of

    photosynthesis in ensuringthe perpetuation of life.

    Conduct a planting projectin the science resourcegarden or schoolcompound.

    A student is able to:

    tell why we need to take

    good care of plants,

    identify cases of mishandlingor destruction of plants.

    6-10 JULY 1.14Understandingthe technology

    used in foodproduction

    Carry out small groupdiscussion on the followingand present the findings:

    a) the quantity of foodneeded for the present andfuture population of thecountry,b) the need for improvingthe quality and quantity offood for the country in linewith the national foodproduction policy,

    A student is able to:

    explain the need for

    improving the quality andquantity of food,

    explain the effort to diversifyfood production,

    explain ways to improve thequality and quantity of foodproduction in the country.

    improving -menambahbaikkan

    diversify -mempelbagaikan

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    c) effort by variousagencies to diversify foodproduction,d) methods used to improvethe quality and quantity of

    food production through thefollowing:(i) direct seeding for rice,(ii) hydroponics andaeroponics,(iii) breeding,(iv) tissue culture,(v) genetic engineering(vi) soil management,(vii) biological control.

    Conduct a field trip torelevant agencies such asthe Institute of AgriculturalResearch and Developmentof Malaysia (MARDI),

    Agriculture Department andFishery Department.

    Carry out a vegetableplanting project.

    16-20 JULY 1.15Evaluating thetechnologicaldevelopment infood processing

    Discuss the need for foodprocessing based on thefollowing:a) overcoming the factorscausing spoilage of foodsuch as the action ofmicroorganisms andoxidation,b) extending the lifespan of

    A student is able to:explain the necessity for foodprocessing,

    describe the development offood processing technology,

    food processingpemprosesanmakanan

    development -perkembangan

    food spoilage

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    food,c) avoiding food wastage,d) diversifying the uses offood like milk and dairyproducts,

    e) ensuring sufficient foodsupply.

    Prepare a portfolio on thetechnological developmentof food processing from theearly days till the present.

    Correlate the following foodprocessing methods withfactors causing food

    spoilage:i. cooking,ii. using salt, sugar andvinegar,iii. fermentation process,iv. drying,v. pasteurization,vi. canning,vii. refrigeration.

    Conduct a forum entitled

    The effects of processedfood on health.

    relate food processingmethods with factors causingfood spoilage,

    assess the methods of foodprocessing to justify the choiceof consuming certainprocessed food.


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    DATE LearningObjectives

    Suggested LearningActivities

    Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary

    23-27 JULY 2.1

    Understandingthe respiratoryprocess inenergyproduction

    Discuss the following:

    a) living processes requireenergy,b) the main substrate forrespiration, that is glucose, isobtained from the following:(i) the digestion ofcarbohydrates in human andanimals,(ii) the process ofphotosynthesis in plants.

    Carry out a discussion on thetypes of respiration.

    Carry out an activity to showaerobic respiration.

    Discuss the energyproduction in aerobicrespiration.

    Conduct an experiment to

    investigate anaerobicrespiration in yeast.

    Discuss the following:a) condition leading toanaerobic respiration in cells,b) the process of anaerobicrespiration in humanmuscles.

    A student is able to:

    state that all living processesrequire energy,

    identify the main substrate forproducing energy,

    state the two types ofrespiration,

    explain what cell respiration is,

    explain the energy productionfrom glucose during the processof aerobic respiration,

    state the conditions leading toanaerobic respiration in cells,

    explain the process ofanaerobic respiration in yeast,

    explain the process ofanaerobic respiration in humanmuscles,

    write the chemical equationsfor aerobic and anaerobicrespiration,


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    Use a graphic organiser tocompare and contrastaerobic respiration withanaerobic respiration.

    compare and contrast aerobicrespiration with anaerobicrespiration.

    23-27 JULY 2.2Analysing therespiratorystructures andBreathingmechanisms inhuman andanimal

    Observe graphics and livespecimens and discuss therespiratory structures inhuman and other organismsincluding protozoa, insects,fish and amphibians.

    Conduct an activity tocompare the total surfacearea of a flat card with a

    corrugated card, andcorrelate the increase in totalsurface area with themodified surface structure.

    Discuss the relationshipbetween the total surfacearea of the respiratorystructures and the efficiencyof gaseous exchange invarious organisms.

    Observe the respiratorystructures to generalise thecharacteristics of therespiratory surfaces inhuman and other organismssuch as protozoa, insects,fish and amphibians.

    A student is able to:

    state the respiratory structuresin human and some animals,

    make an inference on thevarious adaptations of therespiratory structures,

    describe the characteristics ofrespiratory surfaces in humanand other organisms,



    adaptations -penyesuaian


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    Construct or use a modelthat can be manipulated toexplain the breathingmechanism in human.

    Discuss the breathingmechanism of otherorganisms such as protozoa,insects, fish and amphibians.

    Use graphic organiser tocompare and contrast thehuman respiratory systemwith that of other organisms.

    describe the breathingmechanism in human and otherorganisms,

    compare and contrast thehuman respiratory system withthat of other organisms.


    30 JULY

    3 AUG


    Understandingthe concept ofgaseousexchange acrossthe respiratorysurfaces andtransport ofgases in human

    Using a diagram, discuss the

    process of gaseousexchange across the surfaceof the alveolus and bloodcapillaries in the lungs inrelation to:a) the difference in partialpressure of respiratory gasesin the air of the alveolus andblood capillaries in the lungs,i.e:(i) partial pressure of oxygen

    is higher in the air of thealveolus compared to thepartial pressure of oxygenin the blood capillaries,(ii) partial pressure of carbondioxide is lower in the airof the alveolus comparedto the partial pressure ofcarbon dioxide in the blood

    A student is able to:

    describe the process ofgaseous exchange across thesurface of the alveolus andblood capillaries in the lungs,






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    capillaries.b) the difference in partialpressure of oxygen andcarbon dioxide in the bloodentering the alveolus with the

    blood leaving the alveolusi.e.:(i) partial pressure of oxygenis lower in the bloodentering the alveoluscompared to the partialpressure of oxygen in theblood leaving the alveolus.(ii) partial pressure of carbondioxide is higher in theblood entering the alveolus

    compared to the partialpressure of carbon dioxidein the blood leaving thealveolus.

    Discuss the following:a) the transport of respiratorygases in human,b) the exchange ofrespiratory gases betweenthe blood and body cells.

    Use schematic diagram toexplain the exchange andtransport of respiratory gasesin human.

    Conduct an experiment toinvestigate the differencesbetween inhaled and exhaled

    explain the transport ofrespiratory gases,

    explain the process of gaseousexchange between the bloodand body cells,

    distinguish the composition ofinhaled and exhaled air.

    Caution:Handle thefollowingsolutions withcare:



    inhaled airudarasedutan

    exhaled air


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    air in terms of oxygen,carbon dioxide and heatcontent.

    Study the process of

    respiratory gas exchangeand transport usingsimulations andcomputerized animations.


    13-17 AUG 2.4Understandingthe regulatorymechanism inrespiration

    Conduct an experiment tostudy the effects of avigorous exercise on the rateof respiration and rate ofheart beat.

    Conduct a discussion on thefollowing:a) correlate the rate ofrespiration with the oxygenand carbon dioxide contentsin the body,b) regulatory mechanism ofoxygen and carbon dioxidecontents in the body.Conduct a discussion on

    human respiratory response,rate of respiration and rate ofheart beat in differentsituations:a) vigorous activities such asswimming, running, aerobicexercise, mountain climbingand playing badminton,b) relaxing,

    A student is able to:

    describe the change in rate ofrespiration after completing avigorous exercise,

    correlate the rate of respirationwith the oxygen and carbondioxide content in the body,

    explain the regulatorymechanism of oxygen andcarbon dioxide content in thebody,

    explain the human respiratoryresponse and rate of respirationin different situations,

    correlate the rate of respirationwith the rate of heart beat.




    responsegerak balas

    rate of heartbeat kadardenyutanjantung

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    c) fear.

    13-17 AUG 2.5Realising theimportance ofmaintaining a


    Discuss the habits to becultivated or avoided toensure the efficient functionof the respiratory organs.

    Conduct an experiment toshow the effects of cigarettesmoke on white cotton wooland draw an analogybetween the lungs and thewhite cotton wool.

    Show photographs ofdamaged lungs (cancer) dueto smoking.

    A student is able to:

    care and maintain efficientfunction of the respiratory



    20 24AUG


    27-31 AUG 2.6Understandingrespiration inplants

    Discuss the following:a) the lower energyrequirement of plantscompared to animals forliving processes,b) the intake of oxygen byplants for respiration.

    Draw a diagram to show theintake of oxygen in plants.

    Discuss the anaerobicrespiration carried out by riceplants in a paddy field orother plants in certainsituations like flooding.

    A student is able to:

    describe the energyrequirement in plants,

    explain the intake of oxygen forrespiration,

    explain aerobic respiration inplants,

    explain anaerobic respiration inplants under certain conditions,

    A diagram ofthe cross-section of aleaf isrequired.


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    Use a graphic organiser tocompare the process ofrespiration with the processof photosynthesis in plants.

    Discuss the following:a) meaning of compensationpoint,b) correlate light intensitywith compensation point fromgraph.

    Visualise and describe theeffect on living things whenthe rate of photosynthesisand rate of respiration

    remains at compensationpoint.

    compare and contrast theprocess of photosynthesis andrespiration,

    explain what compensationpoint is,

    relate light intensity with theattainment of compensationpoint,

    predict the situation when therate of photosynthesis and rateof respiration remains atcompensation point.



    light intensitykeamatancahaya

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    DATE LearningObjectives

    Suggested LearningActivities

    Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary

    3-7 SEPT 1.1Understandingthe abiotic andbioticcomponents ofthe environment

    Conduct a field study to:a) identify the abioticcomponents including pH,temperature, lightintensity, humidity,topography, and themicroclimate of anecosystem,b) identify the bioticcomponents of anecosystem,

    c) investigate the feedingrelationships of the bioticcomponents to construct thefood chains and food webs,and classify the bioticcomponents into trophiclevels,d) investigate the interactionbetween biotic componentsas follows:(i) symbiosis among plants

    and animals encompassingthe following:- commensalism,- parasitism,- mutualism,(ii) saprophytism,(iii) predator - preyinteraction.(e) investigate the

    A student is able to:

    identify the abioticcomponentsof an ecosystem,

    identify the biotic componentsof an ecosystem,

    classify biotic componentsinto

    trophic levels,

    explain the interactionsbetween biotic components inrelation to feeding, usingexamples,

    explain the interactionbetweenbiotic components in relation to

    competition, using examples.

    Emphasis is onfield study forthe students toreinforce theirunderstandingin this area.


    bioticcomponentskomponen biotik

    trophic levels

    aras trof


    prey - mangsa

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    interactionbetween biotic componentsin relation to competition,which are:(i) intraspecific competition,

    (ii) interspecific competition.

    Conduct an experiment tostudy the intraspecificcompetition andinterspecific competition ofplants,e.g. maize and rice.

    Collect and interpret data tostudy intraspecific

    competition andinterspecific competitioninvolving Paramecium, forexample Parameciumaureliaand Parameciumcaudatum.

    competition -persaingan

    3-7 SEPT 1.2Understandingthe processesof colonisation

    and successionin an ecosystem

    Conduct a field study on anecosystem i.e. a mangroveswamp or a pond to:a) identify the niche, habitat,

    community and population,b) investigate the process ofcolonisation,c) investigate the process ofsuccession,d) identify pioneer species,successor species,dominant species andclimax community,

    A student is able to:

    state what an ecosystem is,

    identify the niche, habitat,community and population of


    explain the process ofcolonisation,

    explain the process ofsuccession,

    identify the pioneer species inan ecosystem,

    identify the successors in an

    mangroveswamp payabakau



    successors spesies

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    e) identify the adaptivecharacteristics of pioneerspecies and subsequentspecies in the habitat for theprocesses of colonisation

    and succession.

    Students present theirfindings or make a folio.

    Study the processes ofcolonization and successionthrough video, computersoftware and printedmaterial.

    Discuss and correlate theabiotic component andbiotic component during theprocesses of colonisationand succession in anecosystem.


    identify the dominant speciesin an ecosystem,

    identify the adaptivecharacteristics of pioneer

    species,identify the adaptivecharacteristics of successors,

    explain the changes inhabitatcaused by pioneer species,

    explain the changes inhabitatcaused by successors at everylevel of succession until aclimax

    community is reached,relate the abiotic componentswith the biotic components inanecosystem during theprocessesof colonisation and succession.


    adaptivecharacteristicsciri penyesuaian

    pioneerspesies perintis



    1.3Synthesisingideas on


    Discuss the appropriatesampling techniques tostudy the population size of

    an organism.

    Conduct a field study or usean appropriate analogy to:a) estimate the populationsize of animals such asgarden snails and woodlice,b) investigate the

    A student is able to:

    identify the appropriate

    sampling technique to studythepopulation size of an organism,

    estimate the population sizeofan organism in a habitat,

    determine the distribution of




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    distribution of plants usingthe quadratsampling technique.

    Based on the above study

    discuss the distribution ofan organism in a habitat.Discuss and correlate thechange in populationdistribution of an organismwith the changes in eachof the abiotic factors.

    Plan and conduct anexperiment to study therelationship of population

    distribution of an organismwith changes in any one ofthe abiotic factors such aspH, temperature, lightintensity and humidity.

    Suggested organisms:Pleurococcus, Lemna

    organisms in a habitat basedonthe density, frequency andpercentage coverage of thespecies,

    correlate the change inpopulation distribution of anorganism with the changes ineach of the abiotic factors,

    design an experiment toinvestigate the effect of achange in any one of theabioticfactors on the population

    growthrate of an organism.




    percentagecoverageperatus litupan

    growth ratekadarpertumbuhan



    the concept ofbiodiversity

    Discuss the following:a) meaning of biodiversity,

    b) need for the classificationsystem of organisms.Gather information on thefollowing:a) the five kingdoms in theclassification of organisms,which are Monera, Protista,Fungi, Plantae and


    A student is able to :

    explain the meaning of


    explain the need forclassification of organisms,

    state the five kingdoms usedin the classification oforganisms,


    classification pengelasan

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    b) main characteristics oforganisms in each kingdom,c) examples of organisms ineach kingdom,

    Discuss the following:a) the hierarchy in theclassification of organismsfrom kingdom to species,b) the method of naming anumber of vertebrates andlocal flowering plants, usingthe Linnaeus binomialsystem,c) the importance ofbiodiversity.

    Conduct a field trip to createawareness of biodiversity ofan ecosystem.

    identify the maincharacteristics of organisms ineach kingdom,

    list examples of organisms in

    each kingdom,

    state the hierarchy in theclassification of organisms,using examples,

    explain through examples,themethod of naming organismsusing the Linnaeus binomialsystem,

    explain the importance ofbiodiversity.


    1.5Understandingthe impact ofmicroorganismson life

    Using charts, slides andphotomicrographs, identifyand list various types ofmicroorganismsi.e. protozoa, algae, fungi,

    bacteria and virus.

    Conduct an experiment tostudy the effects oftemperature, pH, lightand nutrients on the activityof microorganisms e.g.Bacillussubtilisor yeast.

    A student is able to:

    classify various types ofmicroorganisms based on theirbasic characteristics,

    state the abiotic componentsaffecting the activity ofmicroorganisms,

    explain the effect of a changein each abiotic component onthe activity of microorganisms,

    explain the role of useful

    A brief accountof the basiccharacteristicsof each type ofmicroorganisms

    is required.

    decomposition -pereputan

    alimentary canal


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    Gather information anddiscuss the role of usefulmicroorganisms in thefollowing:a) decomposition,

    b) nitrogen cycle,c) alimentary canal oftermite,d) digestive system inhuman.Gather information anddiscuss the effects ofharmful micro -organisms:a) causing diseases,b) spoilage of food andsubstances.

    Gather information andpresent the findings on thefollowing:a) pathogens, vectors,symptoms, and methods intransmission of diseasessuch as malaria, denguefever, cholera, ringworm,food poisoning, AIDS,hepatitis, and SARS,

    b) methods to controlpathogens including the useof antibiotics, vaccines,antiseptics anddisinfectants.

    Gather information andpresent the uses ofmicroorganisms in


    explain the effect of harmfulmicro-organisms,

    explain the meaning ofpathogen,

    identify the pathogen, vectorand symptoms of oneparticular disease,

    explain how the diseasespreads,

    describe the methods forcontrolling pathogen,

    explain the use ofmicroorganisms in

    The scientificnamesof pathogensand life cycle ofvectorsare not


    pathogen -patogen

    transmission -pemindahan

    food poisoning


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    biotechnology, such as:a) production of antibioticsand vaccines,b) cleaning of oil spills,c) waste treatment,

    d) food processing,e) production of bioplastic,f) production of energy frombiomass.

    biotechnology, usingexamples.

    oil spillstumpahanminyak

    waste treatmentrawatankumbahan



    Conduct a forum to discussthe importance ofpreservation andconservation of biodiversity.

    Conduct an activity topreserve and conservevarious living things aroundus.

    A student is able to:

    justify the importance ofpreservation and conservationof biodiversity.

    preserve and conservevarious living things aroundhim/her.

    preservation -pemeliharaan


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    DATE LearningObjectives

    Suggested LearningActivities

    Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary




    EvaluatingHuman activitiesthat endanger anecosystem

    Carry out small group

    discussion on the followingand present the findings:a) human activities thatthreaten the ecosystem,b) the impact of humanactivities on theecosystem,c) the effects of unplanneddevelopment andmismanagement of theecosystem, such as:

    i. soil erosion,ii. flash flood,iii. landslide,iv. eutrofication,v. water, air, thermal andnoise pollution,vi. global warming,vii. ozone depletion,viii. climatic change,ix. extinction of livingthings,

    x. deforestation,d) types of pollution andsources of pollution,e) effects of pollution onthe following:i. human health ( diseasesaffecting the respiratorysystem, skin problems,conjunctivitis, cancer and

    A student is able to:

    identify human activities thatthreaten the ecosystem,

    explain the impact of humanactivities on the ecosystem,

    evaluate critically the effectsof unplanned developmentand mismanagement of theecosystem,

    describe types of pollution

    and sources of pollution,

    explain the effects ofpollution on living things andthe environment,

    compare and contrastpollutants in the air from


    threaten -mengancam




    mismanagement salahpengurusan

    development -pembangunan


    flash food banjir kilat

    landslide tanah runtuh

    global warming

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    cholera),ii. animal and planthabitats,iii. buildings,iv. agriculture,

    v. climate.

    Conduct an experiment tocompare solid pollutants inthe air of differentenvironments and make aninference on the sources ofpollution.

    Conduct an activity toanalyse data on air

    pollution index of somecities within and outsidethe country, and make aninference on the sourcesof pollution.

    Conduct an activity toanalyse data on waterpollution, such asBiochemical OxygenDemand (BOD) value and

    content of heavy metals insome rivers, and makean inference on thesources of pollution.

    Conduct activities toformulate a strategy toreduce the level of airand water pollution in a

    different environments,

    state the sources of airpollution,

    interpret data on the level ofair pollution in some cities,

    make an inference on thesources of air pollution insome cities,

    interpret data on the level ofwater pollution in some rivers,

    make an inference on the

    sources of water pollution insome rivers,

    predict the level of air andwater pollution in a particularlocation within the next tenyears,

    suggest strategies to solve


    ozone depletion

    penipisan ozon


    deforestation -penyahutanan

    pollution -pencemaran

    BiochemicalOxygenDemand keperluanoksigen biokimia

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    particular location by:a) analysing information onthe population, such as thesize of population, socio-economic activities, and

    level of air and waterpollution,b) conducting an activity topredict the level of air andwater pollution at aparticular location withinthe next ten years,c) preparing an action planconsisting of a strategy toreduce the level of air andwater pollution at that

    particular location withinthe next ten years.

    problems related to air andwater pollution in a particularlocation within the next tenyears.


    2.2Understandingthe greenhouseeffect andthinning of theozone layer.

    Carry out small groupdiscussion on the followingand present the findings:a) greenhouse effect,including its cause andeffect,

    b) concentration of carbondioxide in the atmosphereand correlate it with globalwarming,c) ozone depletion,including its cause andeffect,d) impact of ozonedepletion and global

    A student is able to:

    explain what greenhouseeffect is,

    correlate the concentrationof carbon dioxide in theatmosphere with global

    warming,explain the thinning of theozone layer,

    explain the impact ofthinning of the ozone layerand globalwarming on the ecosystem.

    The molecularstructure ofchlorofluorocarbonand equations forchemical reactionsare not required.

    greenhouseeffectkesanrumah hijau

    global warmingpemanasanglobal

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    warming on theecosystem.

    1-5 OCT 2.3

    Realising theimportance ofpropermanagement ofdevelopmentactivities andthe ecosystem

    Conduct a debate on the

    need for development toimprove the quality of lifeand to meet therequirements of anincreasing population.

    Discuss the effects of anincrease in population onthe ecosystem.

    Carry out small group

    discussion on the followingand present the findings:a) implementation of laws,b) use of technology,c) education on themanagement of resources,including the reduce,reuse, and recycle ofresources,d) preservation andconservation of soil, water,

    flora and fauna of forestsand mangrove swamps,e) practice of biologicalcontrol,f) use of renewableenergy,g) efficient use of energy.

    Conduct activities to care

    A student is able to:

    justify the need fordevelopment,

    explain the effects ofincrease in population on theecosystem,

    explain measures taken inthe management ofdevelopment activities and

    the ecosystem to ensure abalance of nature ismaintained.

    care for the ecosystem,

    participate in activities

    balance ofnature






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    for the followingecosystems in school andat home:a) fish ponds,b) gardens.

    Plan and conduct aprogramme related to themanagement of theecosystem, for example,Environment Day.

    related to the management ofthe ecosystem.


    29 OCT9 NOV


    21 NOV