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    MODUL KERTAS 1 & 2

    MODUL 1

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    4551/1 LONJAKAN SAUJANA SPM 20092

    1 Diagram 1 shows a type of muscle tissue found in the human body. Where is thetissue found?

    Diagram 1

    A Heart C BicepsB Pancreas D Small intestine

    2 The plasma membrane consists of molecules arranged in a double layer asshown in Diagram 2

    Diagram 2

    The part labelled I and II areA hydrophobic and hydrophilic respectively

    B hydrophilic and hydrophobic respectivelyC both hydrophobicD both hydrophilic

    3. Diagram 3 shows the net flow of water molecules from a dilute solutionto a concentrated solution through a semi-permeable membrane.

    Diagram 3

    What is this process called?A OsmosisB Active transport

    C Simple diffusionD Facilitated diffusion

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    4551/1 LONJAKAN SAUJANA SPM 20093

    4 Diagram 4 is a graph which shows the changes in mass of potato strips immersed indifferent concentrations of sucrose solution.

    Diagram 4

    Based on the graph, which of the following concentrations of sucrose solution shouldbe used so that a flaccid potato strip regains its turgidity?

    A 1.5 g per 100 mlB 2.5 g per 100 mlC 3.5 g per 100 mlD 4.5 g per 100 ml

    5. Lipid is needed to build substance X while cellulose is needed to build substance Y.What are substances X and Y?

    Substance X Substance Y

    A Protoplasm Cell wall

    B Plasma membrane Cell wall

    C Cell wall Protoplasm

    D Cell wall Plasma membrane

    6 . Haemoglobin is an example of aA. primary structure of proteinB. secondary structure of proteinC. tertiary structure of proteinD. quarternary structure of protein

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    4551/1 LONJAKAN SAUJANA SPM 20094

    7 Which of the following graph shows the effect of pH on the metabolic rate of theenzyme pepsin?

    8 Diagram 5 shows the phases in a cell cycle.

    Diagram 5

    Y

    hase

    X phase

    Rate ofreaction Rate of

    reaction

    Rate of

    reaction Rate of

    reaction

    X hase

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    4551/1 LONJAKAN SAUJANA SPM 20095

    Which of the following represents V ?

    A mitosis C stage SB cytokinesis D stage G1

    9 Diagram 6 shows a phase in mitosis of a plant cell.

    Diagram 6

    Which of the following is true about the cell in Diagram 6 ?

    Stage of mitosis Number of chromosomes in themother cell

    A Anaphase 4

    B Telophase 4

    C Anaphase 8

    D Telophase 8

    10. Crossing over is an important process in meiosis. It results in variations in the daughtercells. At which stage of meiosis does crossing over take place?

    A Prophase IB Prophase IIC Metaphase IID Anaphase I

    11 Lack of vitamin D in the diet will cause the disease

    A scurvy.B beri-beri.C rickets.D pellagra.

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    12 Diagram 7 shows the molecular structure of three food classes

    Diagram 7

    Which food classes do X, Y and Z belong to ?

    X Y Z

    A CarbohydrateB ProteinC ProteinD Lipid

    ProteinLipid

    CarbohydrateCarbohydrate

    LipidCarbohydrate

    LipidProtein

    13 Diagram 8 shows part of the human alimentary canal.

    Diagram 8

    A person who has structure P removed must regulate his dietary intake of

    A. fats C proteinB. carbohydrate D. water

    14 In the absence of oxygen the skeletal muscles contract using energy from thebreakdown of glucose and glycogen toA ethanol and waterB energy and waterC ethanol and lactic acidD lactic acid and energy

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    4551/1 LONJAKAN SAUJANA SPM 20097

    15 Which of the following is not involved in the transportation of carbon dioxide by theblood.A Carbonic acidB CarbaminohaemoglobinC Hydrogen carbonate ionD Carbon monoxide

    16 Table shows the biomass of a few types of organisms in a community.

    Organism Total Biomass of all theorganisms at each

    trophic level(kg)

    P 1200

    Q 30

    R 150

    S 670

    T 100U 2700

    Which of the following is a possible food chain in this community?

    A P U S T C P S T QB Q R S P D U S P Q

    17 Which of the following organisms is a parasite ?

    A C

    B D

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    4551/1 LONJAKAN SAUJANA SPM 20098

    18 Diagram 9 is a graph which shows changes in the population of two species ofbeetles, T and U, over a period of time. Both species feed on the same food source.

    Diagram 9

    What is the interrelationship between species T and U?

    A Symbiosis C ParasitismB Predation D Competition

    19 Diagram 10 shows a cross section of a young dicotyledon root consisting of a fewmain tissues.

    Diagram 10

    What is Y ?A Phloem B XylemC Cortex D Cambium

    20 Diagram 11 shows some human bones .

    Diagram 11

    Population

    T U

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    Which bones are part of the axial skeleton ?A P and SB Q and RC P , Q and RD Q , R and S

    21 Diagram 12 below shows a motor neuron.

    Diagram 12

    Which one of the following A, B, C or D in the table below names the labelled partscorrectly?

    1 2

    ABCD

    Cell bodyAxonDendriteSynapse

    AxonDendriteMyelin sheathDendrite

    22 Diagram 13 shows a plant with soft stem .

    Which of the following support structures helps the plant climb to obtain sunlight ?

    Diagram 13

    A Clasping roots B Twining stemsC Tendrils D Thorns.

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    23 Diagram 14 shows a nerve pathway involved in a reflex action. Which structure is theefferent neurone?

    Diagram 14

    24 Some cucumber slices are immersed in 0.1% sucrose solution. After 3 hours, theslices are found to be turgid and hard.Which of the following statements explains this phenomenon?

    A The cucumber cell wall prevents it from shrinkingB The cell sap is hypotonic towards the sucrose solutionC The high concentration of the cell sap in the vacuole causes water to

    diffuse into the cellD The cucumber cell wall allows the sucrose molecules to diffuse into the

    cell

    25 Diagram 15 shows the four-chambered stomach of a ruminant.

    Diagram 15

    Which of the following is not a correct match about each chamber and its function?

    A. S- Rumen, mutualistic bacteria digest cellulose.B. V- Reticulum, the partially digested food is formed into balls and regurgitated into the

    mouth for chewingC. U- Omasum, the regurgitated food in the mouth is passed into the omasumD. T- Duodenum, the digested products are absorbed.

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    26 What substances are dissolved in the fuid which passes along the ureter to thebladder of a healthy person?

    Glucose Protein Salts UreaA. Absent Absent Absent PresentB. Absent Absent Present PresentC. Present Absent Present PresentD. Present Present Absent Absent

    27 Diagram 16 shows the female reproductive system. In which parts are the eggs and

    the zygote formed?

    Diagram 16

    Eggs Zygote

    A

    B

    C

    D

    1

    1

    2

    2

    2

    3

    1

    3

    28 Diagram 17 shows sex determination in human.

    Ovary cell Testis cell

    Gametes

    Diagram 17

    1

    2

    P Q

    R

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    If a couple have a son, what is the cell composition in P, Q and R?

    P Q RA 44 + X 44 + Y 44 + XYB 22 + Y 22 + X 44 + XYC 22 + X 22 + X 44 + XXD 22 + X 22 + Y 44 + XY

    29 Which of these genetically inherited disease is dangerous and can cause deathat a young age?

    A. AlbinoB. HaemophiliaC. Short-sightednessD. Down syndrome

    30 Table 1 shows a Punnet square which represents the gametes and progeny

    from a dihybrid cross. Alphabets a to p represent the daughter cells from thiscross.

    male gamete

    female gamete

    HK Hk hK hk

    HK a b c d

    Hk e f g h

    hK I j k l

    hk m n o p

    Table 1

    Which of the following daughter cells have the same genotype as the parent ?

    A a, f, k, p C d, g, j, mB b, c, e, I D e, f, h, l

    31 Diagram 18 shows the development of a pollen tube and its entry into the ovule.Which part develops into the testa after fertilisation?

    Diagram 18

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    32 Contraceptive pills contain a combination ofA. estrogen and luteinising hormone.B. progesterone and prolactinC. estrogen and follicle stimulating hormone

    D. progesterone and estrogen.

    33. Which of the following shows the differences between mitosis and meiosis?

    Mitosis Meiosis

    I Involves one stage of cell division Involves two stages of cell division

    II Produces two diploid daughter cells Produces four haploid daughtercells

    III Synapsis and crossing over takes

    place between homologouschromosomes

    Synapsis and crossing over does

    not take place

    IV Chromosomes are not in pairs Homologous chromosomes are inpairs at prophase I

    A I and II onlyB I and III onlyC I, II and IV onlyD I, II, III and IV

    34 Diagram 19 is a graph which represents a type of variation found in students.

    Diagram 19This variation may be

    I height II weightIII type of ear lobe IV dimple

    A I and II only C III and IV onlyB I and III only D I, II, III and IV

    Variation

    Number of

    individuals

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    35 Which of the following is not a cause of variation?

    A. Radiation B. Gene mutationC. Asexual reproduction D. Meiosis

    36 Diagram 20 shows the structure of a villus in the ileum

    Diagram 20

    Which vessels P, Q, R, and S carry the largest amounts of glucose, amino acids, lipiddroplets or fat-soluble vitamins?

    Glucose Aminoacids

    Lipiddroplets

    Fat solublevitamins

    A P Q R S

    B Q P R S

    C R R S S

    D S S R R

    37 Diagram 21 shows a plastic quadrat used to determine the percentage coverage ofbread mould on a piece of bread. The shaded area shows the presence of mould.

    Diagram 21

    Based on the result obtained in Diagram 21, calculate the percentage coverage ofthe bread mould , taking the area of each small square to be 1 cm

    A 32 % C 56%B 40% D 80%

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    38 Diagram 22 below shows equipment that can cause the thinning of the ozone layer.

    Diagram 22

    How can this problem be solved?

    I Stop using chlorofluorocarbonII Replace CFCs with HCFCsIII Patching holes in the ozone layerIV Produce less electrical goods

    A I and IIB II and IVC I, II and IIID I, II, III and IV

    39 The following statement is about eutrophication.

    What is the correct sequence of the eutrophication process ?

    A O, L, M and N C L, M, O and NB L, N, M and O D O, M, L and N

    L : Excess fertilisers from agriculture lands flow into lakesM : Bacteria grow rapidlyN : Algae grow rapidly and covers the surface of the lakeO : The value of BOD increase

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    40. An experiment was carried out to investigate the rate of water loss from a plant in aday.The wind and relative humidity factors were kept constant. Diagram 23 is a graphwhich shows the result obtained from 0600 to 1300 hours .Which of the curves A,B,Cor D is expected to show the rate of water loss in the plant after 1300 hours ?

    Diagram 23

    41 Diagram 24 shows a human arm .

    Diagram 24

    If tendon X was torn off,what happens to the arm ?A The elbow joint loosens upB The fingers cannot gripC The arm connot be bentD The lower arm cannot twist.

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    42 Diagram 25 is a graph which shows the changes in the glucose concentration in theblood of a person over a period of two hours.

    Diagram 25

    Which of the following best explains the shape of the graph after X?A. The person has eaten a meal that is high in sugar .B. The person has had an insulin injection.C. The person is suffering from diabetes mellitus.D. The person starts some vigorous physical exercise.

    43 Which characteristics of the glomerulus enhances the efficiency of ultrafiltration ?I. The diameter of the afferent arteriole is larger than that of the efferent arteriole.II. The afferent arteriole divides further into a dense network of capillaries.

    III. The high hydrostatic pressure of the blood entering the glomerulus.IV. The Bowmans capsule is made up of only two layers of cells.

    A. I, II and III onlyB. I, II and IV onlyC. II, III and IV onlyD. I, II, III and IV

    44 A womans menstrual period started on 23rd

    March. In which week was an egg mostlikely to have been released?

    Week March

    Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat

    A - - - 1 2 3 4

    B 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

    C 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

    D 19 20 21 22 23 24 25

    26 27 28 29 30 31

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    45 What is true about the importance of secondary growth in plants?I. It increases the diameters of the plant stems and roots for mechanical support.II. It allows plants to increase in length to achieve maximum height.III. It produces new phloem and xylem tissues to replace the old and damaged ones.IV. It produces a thick bark which reduces the evaporation of water from the surface

    of the stem.

    A. I, II and III only B. I, III and IV onlyC II, III and IV only D. I, II, III and IV.

    46 A woman with blood group A claims that a man with blood group AB is thefather of her baby. The babys blood is tested. Which of the following could be thebabys blood group?

    I Group A

    II Group BIII Group OIV Group AB

    A I and II onlyB I and IV onlyC I, II and IV onlyD I, II, III and IV

    47 Which of the following shows the difference between continuous variation anddiscontinuous variation?

    Continuous Variation Discontinuous Variation

    A Controlled by dominant genes. Controlled by recessive genes.B Caused by mutation. Not caused by mutation.C Occurs in animals. Occurs in plants.D Can be measured. Cannot be measured.

    48 The Hydrangea plant produces blue flowers when grown on acidic soil, and redflowers when grown on alkaline soil. What conclusion can be made from thisobservation?

    A. The colour of the Hydrangea flower is a continuous variationB. The environment affects the colour of the flowersC. The pH of the soil causes mutationD. The colour of the flower is affected by the genetic factor only

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    49 I - Homologous chromosomes line up at the equator of the cell.II - Homologous chromosomes separate and move to opposite polesIII Sister chromatids separate and move to different polesIV Nuclear membrane and nucleolus disintegrate.

    I, II, III and IV shows the processes which occur in meiosis. Among the followingevents, which occur in anaphase I ?.

    A I onlyB II onlyC III and IV onlyD II and IV only

    50 Diagram 26 shows an organ system.

    Diagram 26

    What are the functions of the organ system shown above?I To transport oxygen to the body cellsII To defend the body against diseasesIII To remove metabolic wastesIV To help regulate the volume and composition of blood

    A I and II onlyB I and III onlyC II and IV onlyD III and IV only

    END OF QUESTION PAPERK E R T A S S O A L A N T A M A T

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    4551/2 - 2 - LONJAKAN SAUJANA SPM 2009

    PPD MELAKA TENGAH

    Section A[ 60 marks ]

    Answerall questions from this section.

    1. Diagram 1 shows cell organisation in plant. Cells J undergo differentiation andspecialisation to form several tissues in a leaf of a green plant.Rajah 1 menunjukkan organisasi sel dalam satu tumbuhan. Sel-sel J mengalami

    pembezaan dan pengkhususan untuk membentuk beberapa tisu dalamsatutumbuhan hijau.

    Cell Specialisation

    DIAGRAM 1

    (a) Name tissue K and tissue L.Namakan tisu K dan L

    K :

    L:

    [2 marks]

    Cells J

    Sel-selJ

    Cross-sectionof a leafKeratanrentas sehelai

    daun

    K

    L

    XylemtissueTisuxilem

    M

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    (b) State the function of cells K and M in a leaf.Nyatakan fungsi sel K dan M dalam sehelai daun

    K : .

    M: ...

    [2 marks]

    (c) (i) Explain the differentiation of cells J to form the xylem tissue.Terangkan pembezaan sel J dalam membentuk tisu xilem.

    [2 marks]

    (ii) During the formation of the xylem tissue, the plant was unable to synthesise lignin.Explain the effect on the function of the leaf.Sewaktu pembentukan tisu xylem, satu tumbuhan gagal mensistesis lignin.

    Terangkan kesannya keatas fungsi daun tumbuhan tersebut.

    [2 marks]

    (d) Based on diagram 1, state the meaning of cell specialization.Berdasarkan rajah 1, nyatakan maksud pengkhususan sel.

    [2 marks]

    (e) Leaf is the main photosynthetic organ of a plant.Explain the adaptation of tissue L to enable the leaf to carry out its function.Daun adalah organ utama fotosintesis sesuatu tumbuhanTerangkan adaptasi tisu L untuk membolehkannya menjalankan fungsinya

    [2 marks]

    TOTA

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    PPD MELAKA TENGAH

    2. Diagram 2.1 shows the cell cycle of an organism.

    Diagram 2.1

    (a) Name phase U in Diagram 2.1..

    U:[1 mark]

    (b) Phase U is further divided into three sub phases, X, Y and Z. Describe whathappens at sub phases X, Y and Z.

    X:

    Y:

    Z: [3 marks]

    (c) The number of chromosomes present in the nucleus of a somatic cell is 6.Diagram 2.2 shows a stage of cell division to produce gametes.

    Diagram 2.2

    Mitotic cell

    division Phase U

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    PPD MELAKA TENGAH

    Complete the diagram to show the chromosomes for a daughter cell producedat the end of sub-phase Q.

    [2 marks]

    ( d ) Explain how radiotherapy affected cell cycle in cancer treatment.

    [2 marks]

    (e)(i) A farmer wants to breed a good variety of banana plants for commercialproduction. Suggest a suitable method to be used and explain how the methodnamed can increase the crop yield.

    [3 marks]

    (ii) State a problem that can occur when using this method..

    [1 mark]

    TOTA

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    PPD MELAKA TENGAH

    3. Diagram 3 shows part of a nitrogen cycle.Rajah 3 menunjukkan sebahagian kitar nitrogen.

    DIAGRAM 4

    DIAGRAM 3

    a) Name P, Q and RNamakan P, Q dan R.

    P: .........................................................................................................................

    Q: ........................................................................................................................

    R: .........................................................................................................................

    [3marks]

    Nitrogen in the atmosphere

    Nitrogen dalam atmosfera

    Nitrogen fixation by

    microorganisms in plant P

    Pengikatan nitrogen oleh

    mikroorganisma dalam

    tumbuhan P

    Nitrogenous

    compounds in plants

    Sebatian nitrogen

    dalam tumbuhan

    Nitrogenous compounds

    in animals

    Sebatian nitrogen dalam

    haiwan

    Organism R

    Or anisma R

    Process Y

    Proses Y

    Substance Q

    Bahan Q

    Ammonium compounds

    Sebatian ammonium

    Nitrites

    Nitrit

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    PPD MELAKA TENGAH

    (b) (i ) Name the microorganism that is involved in the nitrogen cycle and lives in plantP.Namakan mikroorganisma yang terlibat dalam kitar nitrogen dan tinggal dalamtumbuhan P.

    ..........................................................................................................................................[ 1 mark]

    (ii) Besides nitrogen fixation by microorganisms, name a natural phenomenon which isalso able to convert nitrogen in the atmosphere to substance Q.Selain daripada pengikatan nitrogen oleh mikroorganisma, namakan satufenomena semulajadi yang boleh menukarkan nitrogen dalam atmosfera kepadabahan Q.

    ..........................................................................................................................................[ 1 mark]

    (c) Microorganisms are involved in process Y.Mikroorganisma terlibat dalam proses Y.

    (i) Name one type of microorganism which is involved in process Y.Namakan sejenis mikroorganisma yang terlibat dalam proses Y.

    ..........................................................................................................................................[ 1 mark]

    (ii) Explain the role of the microorganism in ( c)(i)Terangkan peranan mikroorganisma dalam (c)(i)

    ..........................................................................................................................................

    ..........................................................................................................................................

    ..........................................................................................................................................

    ..........................................................................................................................................[ 3 marks]

    (d) Explain how a deficiency of Q in the soil affects the growth of the plants.

    Terangkan bagaimana kekurangan Q dalam tanah memberi kesan terhadappertumbuhan tumbuhan.

    ..........................................................................................................................................

    ..........................................................................................................................................

    ..........................................................................................................................................[ 3 marks]

    TOTA

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    PPD MELAKA TENGAH

    4 Two individuals P and Q were given injections to acquire immunity. The level of antibodiesin the blood of individual P and Q is shown in Diagram 4.1 and 4.2 respectively.

    DIAGRAM 4.1

    DIAGRAM 5.2

    DIAGRAM 4.2

    (a) What is the substance injected into the blood of individual P and individual Q ?

    P :

    Q :

    1s

    injection 2nd

    injection

    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

    Concentration

    ofantibodiesin

    the

    blood

    (arbitraryunit)

    Immunity level

    Increaseimmediately

    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

    1s

    vaccination 2nd

    vaccination Time (weeks)

    Immunity level

    Co

    ncentration

    ofantibodiesin

    the

    blo

    od

    (arbitraryunit)

    Booster dose (2nd)stimulates a faster and

    larger lasting

    response.

    Individual P

    1st

    Injection 2nd Injection

    Time (weeks)

    Individual Q

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    PPD MELAKA TENGAH

    [ 2 marks ]

    (b) State the type of immunity obtained by individual P and individual Q.

    P : ..

    Q : ..

    [ 2 marks ]

    (c) Using your biological knowledge, describe how you could save this boy.

    ...

    [ 4 marks ]

    (d) Table 4.1 shows a schedule of immunisation given for every new born Malaysian until the

    age of two.

    Age Types of Immunity

    New born

    Tuberculosis (B.C.G)

    Hepatitis B ( First dose )

    1 month Hepatitis B ( Second dose )

    3 month

    Triple Antigen

    Polio ( First dose )

    5 month

    Triple Antigen

    Polio ( Second dose )

    Hepatitis B ( Third dose )

    9 24 month Germans measles

    1 - 2 year

    Triple Antigen

    Polio ( Third dose )

    TABLE 4.1

    A boy was bitten by a snake. He was unconscious

    and he was hospitalised.

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    2009

    PPD MELAKA TENGAH

    (d) (i) Based on Table 4.1, state the type of pathogen which cause the diseases.

    ...................................................................................................................................................

    [1 mark]

    (ii) Explain why there is a need for second and third doses for the immunisation.

    [ 3 marks ]

    TOTAL

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    PPD MELAKA TENGAH

    5. Figure 5 shows various types of fingerprints.Rajah 5 menunjukkan bebrapa jenis cap jari

    Composite Whorl Curves LoopsKomposit Pusar Lengkung Gelung

    FIGURE 5

    (a) (i) Based on Figure 5, name the type of fingerprints of students X and Y below.Berdasarkan Rajah 5, namakan jenis cap jari bagi pelajar X dan Y di bawah.

    Student X Student Y

    Type of fingerprint: Type of fingerprint:Jenis cap ibu jari: Jenis cap ibu jari:

    .[2 marks]

    (ii) State one factor that causes variation in the fingerprints of students X and Y.Nyatakan bagaimana faktor di (a)(ii) menghasilkan variasi.

    .... ..[1 mark]

    (iii) State how the factor in (a) (ii) causes variation.Nyatakan bagaimana faktor di (a)(ii) menghasilkan variasi.

    [1 mark]

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    PPD MELAKA TENGAH

    (b) (i) What is the type of variation shown in Figure 5?Apakah jenis variasi yang ditunjukkan dalam Rajah 5?

    [1 mark]

    (ii) State two traits, other than fingerprint, which show the same type of variation asin (b)(i).Nyatakan dua trait selain cap jari yang menunjukkan variasi yang sama seperti(b)(i).

    Trait 1 :

    Trait 2 : [2 marks]

    (c) Height is a type of variation.Explain the differences between the type of variation shown by fingerprints andheight.

    Trait ketinggian merupakan sejenis variasiHuraikan perbezaan antara variasi yang ditunjukkan oleh trait jenis cap jari dengantrait ketinggian pelajar.

    [2 marks](d) Explain how variation can ensure the survival of a species.

    Terangkan bagaimana variasi boleh menjamin kemandirian suatu spesies

    [3 marks]

    TOTAL

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    PPD MELAKA TENGAH

    SECTION B

    [ 40 marks ]

    Answertwo questions from this section.

    6. Diagram 6.1 shows a respiratory structure of an insect.

    Rajah 6.1 menunjukkan struktur respirasi satu serangga

    DIAGRAM 6.1

    (a) (i) Explain the gases exchange between tracheol and body cell.

    Terangkan pertukaran gas antara trakeol dan sel-sel badan[4 marks]

    (ii) Chitin is a polysaccharide on the outer surface of structure P. Due to the change inthe environment, the insect is unable to form the polysaccharide.Explain how the absence of chitin affects inhalation and the energy production.

    Kitin adalah polisakarida yang terdapat pada permukaan struktur P. Disebabkanperubahan dalam persekitaran, serangga tidak dapat menghasilkan polisakarida.Terangkan bagaimana ketiadaan kitin memberi kesan keatas proses tarikan nafas

    dan penghasilan tenaga . [6 marks]

    PTracheolTrakeol

    Body cellsSel-selBadan

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    PPD MELAKA TENGAH

    (b) Diagram 6.2 shows the rate of oxygen intake before, during and after a vigorousexercise of an athlete.

    Rajah 6.2 menunjukkan kadar pengambilan oksigen sebelum, semasa dan selepassatu latihan intensif seorang atlit.

    Time (min)

    DIAGRAM 6.2

    (i) Based on the graph, compare the respiration before and during the vigorousexercise.

    Berdasarkan graf diatas, bezakan proses respirasi sebelum dan semasa

    latihan tersebut. [4 marks]

    (ii) Explain how the oxygen intake by the athlete returns to the normal level at the 25thminute.

    Terangkan bagaiman pengambilan oksigen oleh atlit tersebut kembali ke asalselepas minit ke 25

    [6 marks]

    Vigorous exercise

    Oxygen intake(litre/minute)

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    (7) (a) Figure 7 shows development of the follicle in the female ovary, thickeningof uterine endometrium and the hormones involved.

    Rajah 7 menunjukkan perkembangan folokel dalam ovari seorang perempuan,penebalan endometrium uterus dan hormonphormon yang terlbat.

    FIGURE 7

    Explain the relationship between development of the follicle , changing of therespective hormonal level in the blood and the thickening of the uterineendometrium in a female.

    Terangkan hubungan antara perkembangan folikel, perubahan aras hormon-

    hormon masing-masing dalam darah dan penebalan endometrium uterus padaseorang perempuan.

    (10marks)

    Time (Day)

    Estrogen

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    (b) Graph 7(a) and 7(b) show the growth curve of human and insect.Based on the graph , compare the growth process in human and insect.

    Graf 7 (a) dan 7 (b) menunjkkan lengkuk pertumbuhan manusia dan seranggaBerdasarkan graf, bandingkan proses pertumbuhan pada manusia dan serangga.

    (10marks)

    GRAPH 7(a) : Growth curve for human

    GRAPH 7(b) : Growth curve for insect

    Height cm

    Time (year)

    Length(cm)

    Time(day)

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    8 (a) Diagram 8 shows the blood groups of a married couple, Encik Ahmad andPuan Amalina and their children.

    Rajah 8 menunjukkan kumpulan darah bagi pasangan suami isteri EncikAhmad dan Puan Amalina serta anak-anaknya.

    ParentsIbu bapa

    0ffspringAnak

    blood group 0 blood group 0 blood group 0 blood group ABkumpulan darah O kumpulan darah O kumpulan darah O kumpulann darah AB

    Diagram 8

    Diagram 8 shows the variation of blood groups in En Ahmads family. Explain whythere is a variation in blood groups of the offspring.

    Rajah 8 menunjukkan variasi kumpulan darah dalam keluarga En Ahmad. Terangkanmengapa adanya variasi dalam kumpulan darah anak-anaknya.

    [ 10 marks]

    (b) Genetic engineering is widely used in the field of agriculture and medicine.Justify the impact of genetic engineering on humans and the environment.

    Kejuruteraan genetik digunakan secara meluas dalam bidang pertanian danperubatan.Beri wajaran tentang impak kejuruteraan genetik terhadap manusia dan

    persekitaran.

    [ 10 marks]

    E En Ahmad

    Blood group A

    Kumpulan darah A

    EPn Amalina

    Blood group B

    Kumpulan darah B

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    Biodiversity is the variety of plants, animals and microorganisms living on Earth.These organisms live in different ecosystems and are important to our lives.Biodiversiti ialah kepelbagaian jenis tumbuhan, haiwan dan Mikroorganisma yanghidup di bumi. Organisma ini hidup dalam berbagai ekosistem dan penting kepadakehidupan kita.

    9.(a)(i) Based on the statement discuss the importance of biodiversity.

    Berdasarkan pernyataan di atas bincangkan kepentingan biodiversiti.[4 marks]

    (ii) Diagram 9 shows an ecosystem in Malaysia.Rajah 9 menunjukkan satu ekosistem di Malaysia

    Diagram 9

    Discuss the importance of the ecosystem shown in Diagram 8 to the environmentand economy of our country.Bincangkan kepentingan ekosistem di Rajah 8 kepada persekitaran dan ekonomi

    negara kita.[6 marks]

    (b)

    Biotechnology is the application of organisms or microorganisms or their biologicalprocesses in the production of materials for use in medicine and industry.

    Biotechnology ialah aplikasi organisma atau microorganism atau proses biologidalam penghasilan bahan-bahan untuk kegunaan bidang perubatan danperindustrian.

    Discuss the uses of microorganisms inBincangkan pengunaan microorganisma dalam

    (i) the waste treatment process.proses rawatan kumbahan.

    (ii) food processingpemprosesan makanan

    [10 marks]

    END OF QUESTION PAPER

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    PPD MELAKA TENGAH

    LONJAKAN SAUJANA SPM 2009

    JAWAPAN - BIOLOGY PAPER 1

    1. A 11. C 21. C 31. C 41. C

    2. B 12. C 22. C 32. D 42. A

    3. A 13. A 23. C 33. D 43. A

    4. A 14. D 24. C 34. C 44. B

    5. B 15. D 25. D 35. C 45. B

    6. D 16. C 26. B 36. C 46. C

    7. C 17. B 27. C 37. C 47. D

    8. B 18. D 28. D 38. C 48. B

    9. A 19. A 29. B 39. B 49. B

    10. A 20. C 30. C 40. D 50. D

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    PPDMT LONJAKAN SAUJANA SPM 2009 BIOLOGY P2

    2

    MARKING SCHEME - BIOLOGY PAPER 2

    QUESTION 1

    No Criteria Marks

    (a) Able to name tissue K and tissue L.Answer: K: Upper epidermis (cells / tissue) L: Palisade mesophyll (cells / tissue)

    11 2

    (b) Able to state the function of cells K and M in a leaf.Sample answer: K: Protect the inner tissues. // Allows light to penetrate. M: Controls the size of stoma / transpiration / gaseous exchange

    // Allows gaseous exchange through the stoma.

    11

    2

    (c) (i) Able to explain the differentiation of cells J to form the xylem tissue.Sample answer: Cells J join end to end, / the wall of cells J at the joints dissolved, to form a hollow tube / continuous tube (from root to leaves). The wall of xylem vessel is thickened by lignin. (Any 2)

    111 2

    (ii) Able to explain the effect on the function of the leaf when the plantunable to synthesise lignin during the formation of the xylem tissue.Sample answer: Xylem cannot be strengthened / cannot uphold leaf. Less sunlight received / absorbed. Slow down the rate of photosynthesis / less glucose produced

    Or (Any 2) Xylem vessels collapsed. Less water supplied to leaves. Slow down the rate of photosynthesis / less glucose produced

    (Any 2)

    111

    111 2

    (d) Able to state the meaning of cell specialisation.Sample answer: Cells grow, change shape / differentiate. To carry out / perform specific function.

    11 2

    (e) Able to explain the adaptation of palisade mesophyll tissue to enable

    the leaf to carry out its function.Sample answer: Upright and closely packed. Contains large number of chloroplast. All cells receive maximum amount of sunlight.

    // Absorb maximum amount of sunlight // energy.

    111

    2

    TOTAL 12

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    3

    QUESTION 2

    No Criteria Marks

    (a)

    (b)

    (c)

    (d)

    (e)(i)

    (e)(ii)

    Able to name the phase U.Sample answer:U : Interphase

    Able to describe the processes at sub phases X, Y and Z duringphase U

    Sample answer :

    X : Cell synthesises protein / new orgenelles formedY : DNA is synthesized / is replicated / 2 sister chromatidsformedZ : Cell accumulates energy / synthesise energy / prepare forcell division

    Able to draw a daughter cell based on the following criteria: No. of chromosomes are haploid / 3 chromosomes

    Types of chromosomes/ non homologous

    New genetic combination

    Able to explain how radiotherapy can treat cancer.Sample answer :

    F : Radiotherapy uses radiation / high energy raysE1 : destroy the nucleus of cancerous cellsE2 : cancerous cells die / cannot divide mitotically

    E3 : cell cycle stops

    Able to name the method and explain the advantages of themethod in increasing crop yield.

    Sample answer :T : Tissue culture / CloningE1 : Large numbers of clones can be producedE2 : Within a short period of time / any timeE3 : Clones inherited good characteristics/ resistance to diseases/ fast growth rate / large fruit / good genetic traits

    Able to state one problem :Clones can be destroyed completely if they do not have theresistance to new diseases / pest.//No variation

    1

    11

    1

    111

    Any 2

    1111

    Any1E = 1

    1111

    T=1mAny

    2EMarks

    Any 1

    1

    3

    2

    2

    3

    1

    TOTAL 12

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    4

    QUESTION 3

    No Criteria Marks

    3 a

    b(i)

    (ii)

    c(i)

    (ii)

    d

    Able to name P,Q and RSuggested answerP: leguminous plant / example of a leguminous plantQ: nitratesR: denitrifying bacteria

    Able to state the name of the microorganismSuggested answerRhizobium sp /nitrogen fixing bacteria

    Able to name the natural phenomenon that can convert atmospheric

    nitrogen to substance QSuggested answerLightning

    Able to suggest the type of the microorganism that is involved inprocess Y.Suggested answersaprophytic bacteria / fungi // putrefying bacteria / fungi

    Able to explain the role of the microorganism in the nitrogen cycleSuggested answer

    1. Saprophytic bacteria / fungi decompose protein in the dead

    plants and animals / excretory products of animals2. to ammonium/ simpler nitrogenous compounds/ ammonia whichis eventually converted to nitrates.

    3. This increases the nitrate / nitrogen content of the soil.

    Able to explain how a deficiency of Q in the soil affects plant growth.Suggested answer1 Root hairs absorb less Q/nitrates/nitrogen// less Q/nitrates/nitrogen is available to be absorbed by plants.

    2. Less chlorophyll / protein is synthesized.3 Rate of photosynthesis decreases.4 Plant growth is slow / retarded.

    Any 3

    111

    1

    1

    1

    1

    1

    1

    1111

    3

    1

    1

    1

    3

    3

    TOTAL 12

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    5

    QUESTION 4

    No Criteria Marks

    (a)

    (b)

    (c)

    (d)(i)

    (ii)

    Able to state the substances injected into the blood of individualP and individual Q.Sample answer:P : Dead or weakened bacteria / viruses / antigens// vaccine

    Q : Serum containing antibodies // antiserum

    Able to explain the type of immunity obtained by individual P andindividual Q.Sample answer :P : Artificial active immunity

    The body produces its own antibodies to fight againstinfections by pathogens.

    Q : Artificial passive immunityThe body receives antibodies produced from outside sourcesto fight against infections by pathogens.

    Able to describe how could save that boy.Sample answer :F1: Snake venom / toxin acts as antigen to our bodyF2: Injection of serum which contains instant antibodies /antiserum / anti-toxin must be given to the patient.F3: Antibody-antigen action occured very fastF4: Antitoxin/ antibody reacts with toxin / snake venom/ antigenand neutralize it / he is saved.

    Able to state the types of pathogen which cause the diseasesAnswer:Virus / bacteria

    Able to explain why there is a need for second and third dosesfor the immunisationSample answer :

    F1: Immunisation is given to prevent infection from pathogensthat caused diseases like Tuberculosis, Hepatitis B, Polio,diphtheria, whooping cough, tetanus. German measles ( state atleast 2 example )F2: New born are injected with vaccines to get Artificially ActiveImmunityF3: First dose are given to induce baby lymphocytes to produce

    antibodies which are specific against the antigens / bacteria /virusF4: 2nd and 3rd dose are booster dose to increase the productionof antibodies at a faster rate.F5: Achieved immunity level // antibodies remained in the bloodfor a long time and provide permanent immunity / protect themfrom the next infection.

    Any 3

    1

    1

    1

    1

    11

    11

    1

    1

    1

    1

    1

    2

    2

    4

    3

    TOTAL 12

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    6

    QUESTION 5

    No Criteria Marks

    (a) (i)

    ( ii)

    (iii)

    (b) (i)

    (ii)

    (c)

    (d)

    Able to name the type of fingerprints of students X and Y

    Answer:X - Loop ; Y- Composite

    Able to state one factor that causes variation in the fingerprintsof students X and Y.Answer:

    Genetic factor

    Able to state how the factor in (a) (ii) causes variationAnswer:Genetic recombination during crossing overresults in the formation of different

    Able to state the type of variationAnswer:Continuos variation

    Able to state two traits, other than fingerprint, which show thesame type of variation as in (b)(i)Answer:

    The ability to roll tongueTypes of hair

    Able to explain the differences between the type of variationshown by fingerprints and height.Sample answer:

    Height Types of fingerprint

    - Shows normal distribution Shows discrete distribution

    - Affected by environmental Not affected byFactors environmental factor

    Able to explain how variation can ensure the survival of a species

    Sample answer:

    - Can differentiate from one individual to another / no one is thesame

    - Able to adapt to a new environment- Able to camourflage to run away from any predators

    2

    1

    1

    1

    11

    1

    1

    1

    1

    1

    2

    1

    1

    1

    2

    2

    3

    TOTAL 12

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    7

    SECTION B

    QUESTION 6

    No Criteria Marks

    (a) (i) Able to explain the exchange of gases between tracheole and bodycell.Sample answer: Partial pressure/concentration of oxygen in the tracheole is higher

    than partial pressure/concentration of oxygen in body cell . Oxygen diffuse from tracheole to body cell Partial pressure/concentration of carbon dioxide in the body cell is

    higher than partial pressure/concentration of carbon dioxide intracheole .

    Carbon dioxide diffuse from tracheole to body cell

    1

    1

    1

    1 4

    (ii) Able to explain how the absent of chitin affect the process ofinhalation and energy production of the insect.

    Sample answer: The function of chitin is to prevent trachea from collapsing/sustain

    the air pressure During inhalation high pressure air moves into the trachea. The absent of chitin will cause the trachea / P to collapse / burst /

    rupture. Air with oxygen cannot reach tracheal. Body cell cannot get enough oxygen for cellular respiration The insect does not produce enough energy and respire

    anaerobically. Less energy produced. (Any 6)

    1

    11

    111

    16

    b (i) Able to compare and explain the respiration before and duringvigorous exercise.Sample answer:

    Before (A) During (B) Explanation (E)1.

    AerobicRespiration

    AnaerobicRespiration

    Before - oxygen intake islow/the same as oxygenrequired/enough oxygenis supplied to the cell

    During oxygen requiredis more than oxygenintake

    2.

    Themuscles arein normalcondition

    The musclesare in the stateof oxygen debt

    Before oxygen issufficient

    During oxygen isinsufficient / oxygensupplied is less thanoxygen supplied.

    3.

    Energyproduced is

    Energyproduced is

    Before complete breakdown of glucose (produce

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    8

    more/38ATP

    less / 2 ATP more energy) During incomplete break

    down of glucose (produceless energy)

    4

    .

    No/less

    accumulation of lacticacid in themuscles

    High

    accumulationof lactic acid inthe muscles

    Before complete break

    down of glucose producecarbon dioxide and water

    During Incompletebreakdown of glucoseproduce lactic acid

    A + B = 1m

    E=1m (Any one E)

    8

    (b) (ii) Able to explain how the oxygen intake by the athlete returns to thenormal level at the 25th minute.

    Sample answer: Lactic acid has been removed from the muscles The lactic acid has been converted to energy/ convert to glucose

    1

    1 2

    TOTAL 20

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    9

    QUESTION 7

    No. Criteria Mark Remark

    7(a) Able to explain the relationship between development ofthe follicle , changing of the respective hormonal level inthe blood and the thickening of the uterine

    endometrium.

    Suggested answer:

    Day 0 7Follicle very small start to develop when receive FSH from pituitary the wall of follicle will produce estrogenFSH- pituitary start to release FSH, FSH will go

    to the ovary

    - FSH stimulate development of follicle

    Endometrium- stimulate by estrogen; undergo thickening / repairing

    Day 8 14Follicle

    - become larger, develop to form follicle GraafFSH / LH/ Estrogen/progesterone

    - FSH decrease, LH at maximum level , estrogen atmaximum level

    - LH stimulate ovulation / completion of meiosis I,

    estrogen stimulate the thickening of endometrium- Progesterone level very low

    Endometrium- endometrium become very thick (ready to

    implantation (of embryo))-

    Day 15 - 21Follicle

    - Follicle undergoes ovulation/ released oocyte II- The remaining follicle tissue / corpus luteum

    secreted small amount of estrogen but largeamount of progesterone

    FSH/ LH/ Estrogen/ Progesterone- Progesterone stimulated the thickening of

    endometrium , halted the secretion of FSH/LH- Development of new follicle and ovulation stop.

    Endometrium- more thicker and highly vascular- ready for implantation of embryo

    111

    11

    1

    1

    11

    1

    1

    11

    1

    1

    Max 3marks for

    each stage- 9 marks

    At least theanswershows the

    relationshipbetween 3parameteri.e follicle,hormone

    andendometriu

    m- 1 mark

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    10

    Day 22 28Corpus luteum

    - if no fertilisation, corpus luteum becomedisintegrate

    FSH/ LH/ Estrogen / Progesterone

    - FSH, LH and estrogen at minimum level;progesterone level also drop

    Endometrium- endometrium become breakdown & disintegrate- blood and tissue are shed / lining of uterus

    discharge through vagina as menstrual flow.

    1

    1

    1

    1 Max 10

    7(b) Able to compare the growth process in human andinsect.Suggested answers:

    Similarities- height of man / length of instar increases by time- both show horizontal line / constant growth during

    adult

    Difference- Form of graph Sigmoid form for human and like

    series of steps in insect- Age of organism the height measured yearly,

    but in insect used day for measuring the length- Caused of different human have endoskeleton

    but insect have exoskeleton

    - Stages involve in human, the curve has threedifferent phases, but there are five steps in insect// nymphal stages

    - Vertical and horizontal line : curve for human didnot shows different line (only the curve fromcontinuous points), but there are five differenthorizontal and vertical lines each

    - Zero growth no point to show zero growth inhuman, but there are 5 time of zero growth (athorizontal line)

    - Sudden growth : no sudden growth for human,but there are sudden growth in insect (at vertical

    line)- Ecdysis : no ecdysis in human but ecdysis

    occurred in insect- Mitosis : the cells in human undergo mitosis all

    the time, but in insect, mitosis only occurred atcertain time (during ecdysis)

    - Absorption of air : in human, there are noabsorption of air, but in insect, during ecdysis

    1

    1

    1

    1

    1

    1

    1

    1

    1

    1

    1

    1

    Max 10marks

    *2 marksfor

    similarities,8 marks fordifferences

    TOTAL 20

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    11

    QUESTION 8

    No Criteria Marks

    8(a) Able to explain why there is a variation of blood groups in theoffspring

    1. The ABO blood group in humans is controlled by three allelesIA, , IB and Io.

    2 Alleles IA and IB are codominant but allele Io is recessive.3 Ahmad is heterozygous for blood group A // Genotype of

    Ahmad is IA, IO,

    4 Amalina is heterozygous for blood group B // Genotype ofAmalina is IB, IO

    5 Ahmad produces two types of sperms, one containing allele IA

    and the other containing allele IO .6 Amalina produces ovum containing allele IO or allele IB

    7 When the sperm containing allele IO fertilizes with the ovumcontaining allele IO the offspring produced will have the

    genotype I

    O

    I

    O

    8 and the phenotype is blood group O.9 Three of the children who have the blood group O are

    produced this way and they have the genotype IOIO

    10 When the sperm containing the IA allele fertilizes with theovum containing allele IB then the offspring produced willhave the genotype IA IB

    11 and the phenotype is blood group AB.12 One of the children who have the blood group AB is produced

    this way and has the genotype IA, IB.

    Any 10 pointsGenetic diagram:

    Parents Ahmad x AmalinaGenotype IA IO IB IO PT 3,4

    PT 5., 6Gametes

    Fertilisation

    OffspringGenotype IAIB IOIO PT7.10Phenotype blood group AB blood group B Pt 8, 11(If answer using schematic diagram - only maximum 7 marks)

    1

    11

    1

    1

    11

    11

    1

    1

    1 10

    No Criteria Marks

    IA

    IO I

    BIO

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    12

    8b Able to explain the effect of genetic engineering on man and theenvironmentSuggested answerGood effectsAgricultureF1 Genetic engineering used to produce disease resistant/ pest resistant

    plantse.g legumes, peas and beans

    P : Less pesticides are used- less pollution to the environment- better health for consumers.

    P : increase yield of crops- better livelihood for farmers.- help to solve problems of insufficient food.

    F2 : create crops with better nutrition value e.g tomatoes with highervitamin A content

    - help to solve problems of malnutrition.F3: create crops with longer shelf lives e.g tomato

    - less food wastageF4 : genetically modified livestock e. g cows

    - produce meat with less fat / more milk.

    MedicineF5 : genetically modified bacteria produce insulinP ; for treatment of diabetis mellitusF6: Genetically modified yeast to produce vaccine for hepatitisP: for prevention of diseases.F7: Gene therapy for treatment of genetic disorders/ diseases e.gmuscular dystrophy, rheumatoid arthritis, sickle cell anaemiaP: Defective gene removed and normal gene inserted.

    Any 2F and P for agriculture,any 1F and P for medicine Max : 6m

    Bad effectF1 Pest resistant genes may be transferred to weedsP: may be difficult to control growth of weeds.F2: Some transgenic crops may have animal genesP : this may not be acceptable to certain groups for religious reasons.F3: Genetically modified foods may be harmful to healthP: may activate human genes to cause cancer.F4: Transgenic organisms may affect the survival of other organisms

    in the ecosystem.P: may cause the imbalance of nature / ecosystemF5: Gene therapy used for the treatment of genetic disorder has itslimitations.P : may not be acceptable because of religious and moral values.

    : very costlyAny 2F and P

    Max 4m

    6

    410

    TOTAL 20

    QUESTION 9

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    13

    No Criteria Marks

    9 (a)(i)

    (ii)

    Able to discuss the importance of Biodiversity

    Suggested answer:

    F- it provides humans with necessities of lifeP- is a resource for food/timber to build shelter/as a fuel/fibresfor clothing.F- many plant species are original sources of pharmaceuticaldrugs/medicines.P- new commodities, for example, new crop plants or medicinalmaterials could be developed using the gene pool from wildspecies in the forests.F- allow for biological control to maintain stable populationP- regulate climatic conditions, biogeochemical cycles, preventflooding

    F- Natural ecosystems and species in the wild are beautifulP- there is much pleasure to be derived from unspoilt naturalenvironmentF- ecotourismP- could provide income for some countries

    Any 4 points

    Able to discuss the Importance of mangrove swamps.Sample answer:

    - F: resource for timber used in building industry- P : has many varieties of species of mangrove trees

    - F: Mangroves protect the coastlines and prevent- coastal erosion.- P: The roots of mangrove trees act as wave- breakers which stabilise the coastlines.- F:: Mangrove swamps are good breeding grounds- for fish and crustaceans/ prawns, crabs etc.- Important for fishermen- P: The calm water and prop roots shelter the- spawns from predators- F: Serve as habitat for many species of birds,- amphibians and reptiles.- P: The habitat provides food, shelter, living space,

    - nesting and breeding sites for these animals.- F: Serve as natural barriers against torrential- storms and tsunamis- P: The trees block the water from flooding the

    land during a storm.Any 6 ponts

    Max 4

    Max 6

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    14

    (b)(i)

    (ii)

    Able to discuss the uses of microorganisms in ;

    Waste treatment- rich in organic matters, bacteria and microorganisms- (in oxidation pond)the sewage is decomposed

    by(millions) of aerobic bacteria(in the presence of

    oxygen)- Decomposed sewage/sludge settled to the bottom of the

    pond

    - fermentation takes place at sedimentation tanks

    - using anaerobic bacteria- produce methane/carbon dioxide/minerals- digested sludge use as fertilizers

    Any 5 points

    Food processing- F: Use of yeast in making of bread and cake- P: Fermentation by yeast produces carbon dioxide- which makes dough rise.- F: Beer brewed from barley/ wine from grape juice- P: Yeast fermentation of the sugar in barley/ grape- produces ethanol- F: Yoghurt is made from fermentation of milk by- bacteria / Lactobacillus sp. / Streptooccus- thermophillus- P: Bacteria converts sugar into lactic acid which

    - coagulates the milk to / form yoghurt- F: Cheese made by adding bacteria and rennin to- milk.- P: Milk separates into curd and whey/ coagulates- F: Soya sauce made from fermentation of soya- bean by fungi- P: Yeast fermentation breaks down soya bean and- gives it flavour

    Any 5 points

    1

    1

    1

    1

    111

    Max 5

    Max 5

    TOTAL 20

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    MARKING SCHEME

    PAPER 1

    TRIAL KEDAH 2010

    1. C 26. A

    2. A 27. A

    3. C 28. B

    4. D 29. C

    5. C 30. C

    6. B 31. C

    7. A 32. B

    8. D 33. A

    9. D 34. C10. B 35. D

    11. C 36. A

    12. D 37. A

    13. D 38. A

    14. D 39. D

    15. B 40. A

    16. D 41. A

    17. C 42. C

    18. A 43. B19. D 44. B

    20. C 45. A

    21. B 46. B

    22. D 47 D

    23. A 48. A

    24. B 49. C

    25. C 50. B

    *k

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    2

    BIOLOGY

    SECTION A

    PAPER 2 [4551/2]

    No. Marking Criteria / Sample Answers Marks

    1 (a) (i) Gills 1

    (ii) Tracheal system 1

    (b) P : Filaments

    Q: Spiracles

    1

    1 2

    (c) (R is ring of chitin which) support the tracheal / prevent the tracheal

    from collapsing.

    1

    (d) Diagram 1.1(b):

    P1: The filament have numerous thin-walled lamellae to maximise

    the surface area for gaseous exchange.

    P2: The gill filaments have thin membrane and covered by a net

    work of capillaries to transport respiratory gases.

    P3: The surface of the gills is moist which allows the gases to be

    dissolved.

    Any 1P 1

    Diagram 1.2(b)

    P1: The large number of tracheoles provides a large surface for the

    diffusion of gases.P2: Tip of tracheoles have thin permeable walls and contain fluid in

    which respiratory gases can dissolve.

    P3:Terminal ends of the tracheol remains moist which allows the

    gases to be dissolved.

    Any 1P

    1

    (e) (i) P1:( The gaseous exchange process occurs over the whole body

    surface in an Amoeba sp) through simple diffusion.

    P2:Higher concentration of oxygen in the water surrounding causes

    oxygen to diffuse into the Amoeba.

    P3:Higher concentration of carbon dioxide in the cell causes carbondioxide to diffuse out of the Amoeba.

    Any 2P

    1

    1

    1

    2

    (ii) S: Contractile vacuole 1

    (iii) P1: Freshwater is hypotonic to the cytoplasmic fluid of Amoeba sp .

    P2: Water diffuses into the cell and fill the contractile vacuole by

    osmosis

    P3: When the contractile vacuole is filled with water to its maximum

    size, it contracts to expel its content from time to time.

    Any 2P

    1

    1

    1

    2

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    3

    No. Marking criteria/ Sample answers Mark

    2 (a) (i) Osmosis 1

    (ii) P1 : Sucrose solution is hypertonic / more concentrated.

    P2 : Water diffuse from distilled water into the sucrose solutionP3 : The level of sucrose solution in the capillary tube stop rising

    at the equilibrium stage / the concentration inside and outside

    of the visking tubing is the same / the amount of water

    diffuse into and out from the visking tubing is the same.

    Any 2 Ps

    1

    11 2

    (b) F- Sucrose molecules are too large

    E- The visking tubing is a semi permeable membrane/

    which only allows certain substances to pass through.

    1

    1 2

    (c) (i) Y : crenation

    Z : haemolysis

    1

    1 2

    (ii) P1- Solution Z is hypotonic compare to red blood cell.

    P2- Osmosis occur

    P3- water leaves/ diffuses into the cell

    P4- Red blood cell expand/ swell and burst.

    Any 3P

    1

    1

    1

    1

    3

    (iii) F : No

    P1 : Plant cell consists of cell wallP2 : Cell wall is made up of cellulose

    // Cell wall able to withstand the pressure.

    Any 2

    1

    11 2

    Total 12

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    4

    No. Marking criteria/ Sample answers Mark

    3 (a) (i) Absorption / Simple diffusion / facilitated diffusion 1

    (ii) F1 thin wall/ one cell thick

    E1 increase rate of diffusion of digested food/ nutrients

    F2 large surface area/ has microvilli

    E2 increase rate of absorption of digested food/ nutrient

    F3 has a network of capillaries/ blood vessels

    E3 to transport the absorbed nutrients

    Any F + E

    1

    1

    1

    1

    1

    1

    2

    (b) P: hepatic portal vein

    Q: lymphatic/lymph vessel/ duct

    1

    1 2

    (c) P1: Deamination.// The amino group is removed (from amino acid)/

    converted to ammonia .

    P2: (Ammonia) is converted to urea.

    P3: urea will be excreted through the kidneys.

    Any 2 Ps

    1

    1

    1 2

    (d) L1: A major energy reserve in the body//

    L2: (phospholipids are) components of the plasma membrane//

    L3: Lipids is used as a respiratory substrate//

    L4: Excess fats are stored in adipose tissues (under the skin, aroundinternal organs)

    Any 1L

    A1:Amino acids are used in protein synthesis//

    A2:For repair and production of new protoplasm/growth and repair//

    A3:Used in the formation of enzymes/ some hormones/protein part of

    haemoglobin/ antibodies

    Any 1A

    G1:Glucose is used as the main respiratory substrate// It is oxidised to

    release energy (water and carbon dioxide)//

    G2:Excessive glucose is converted to glycogen// Blood glucose level rise / increase.

    Any 1 G

    1

    1

    1

    1

    1

    1

    1

    1

    1

    3

    (e) P1: Diabetes mellitus // Blood sugar level increases// Hyperglycemia

    P2: Excess glucose cannot be converted to glycogen.

    1

    1 2

    Total 12

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    5

    No. Marking criteria/ Sample answers Mark

    4 (a)

    Both arrows correct 1

    (b) A Pulmonary artery

    B Pulmonary vein

    1

    1 2

    (c) F : Contraction of ventricle / heartE1: generates a (high) pressure

    E2 : (to) propel/ force / pump the blood flow from the heart/ ventricle to

    vessel A

    Any two

    11

    1 2

    (d)(i) Coronary artery 1 1

    (ii) P1: Cut the supply of O2/ nutrients to the heart muscle

    P2: causing chest pain / angina / heart attack / myocardial infarctionReject Heart problem

    1

    1 2

    (e) (i)

    (ii)

    P1: platelets break down and release chemicals

    P2: to cause platelets to stick to each other

    P3: platelets clump together to form a plug to prevent blood loss .

    P4: released thrombokinase and other clotting factors

    Any 2P

    P1 : Fibrinogen is soluble, fibrin is insoluble / not soluble

    P2 : Fibrin able to form fibres / meshwork / thread to trap

    blood cells, fibrinogen is not able to do so.

    1

    1

    1

    1

    1

    1

    2

    2

    Total 12

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    6

    No. Marking Criteria / Sample Answers Marks

    5 (a) (i) (Transfer/flow of) energy 1

    (a) (ii) F : Phytoplankton is an autotrophic organism.P1 : Able to absorb light energy / consists of chloroplast.

    P2 : synthesis their own food / carry out photosynthesis

    Any 2

    11

    1 2

    (b) F1 : population of small fish increases

    P1 : no shark feed on small fish // shark is the predator

    F2 : population of plankton decreases

    P2 : more small fish feed on the plankton

    F3 : Eventually the population of small fish decreases

    Any 3

    1

    1

    1

    1

    1 3

    (c) F : Commensalism

    P1 : Shark is the host / neither gain any benefit nor harmed.

    P2 : Remora benefits

    P3 : Remora obtain protection / food / transport from the shark.

    Any 3

    1

    1

    1

    1 3

    (d) P1 : Fertilizer washed away by rain water into the lake

    P2 : Nutrient / minerals content in the lake increase.

    P3 : alga bloom / alga grow rapidly in the lake.

    P4 : eutrophication occur.P5 : Oxygen content in the lake decrease / drop

    P6 : Fishes die / population decrease

    Any 3 P

    1

    1

    1

    11

    1 3

    Total 12

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    7

    BIOLOGY

    SECTION A

    PAPER 2 [4551/2] - ESSAYNo. Marking Scheme Mark

    6(a) (i) Continuous variation : body weight, height

    Discontinuous variation : types of earlobe, types of finger print.

    1

    1 2

    (a)(ii) Continuous Variation Discontinuous variation

    P1 The changes of

    characteristics among

    individual are gradual

    The differences among

    individuals are distinct.

    P2 Continuous variation is

    quantitative // characteristics

    can be measured.

    Discontinuous variation is

    qualitative // characteristic

    is either present or absent.

    P3 The graph shows the normal

    distribution curve.

    The graph shows the

    discrete distribution.P4 The character is determined

    by many genes

    The character is determined

    by a single genes

    P5 The characteristic is

    influenced by the

    environmental factor and

    genetic factor.

    The characteristic is

    influenced by the genetic

    factor.

    P6 Exhibits a range of

    phenotype with intermediate

    characters.

    There are no intermediate

    groups.

    Any 4

    pair

    Max

    4 m

    (b) AlbinismeF : Albinisme is caused by the change in gene // mutation

    P1 : Body / skin unable to produce black pigment (melanin)P2 : The skin and hair of albinos are white // their eyes are pink.

    Any 2

    Sickle cell anaemiaF : Sickle cell anaemia is caused by the change in the genes //

    mutation.P1 : haemoglobin produced is not normal / abnormal

    P2 : Abnormal haemoglobin unable to bind / transport / carries

    with oxygen efficiently.

    P3 : The patient will always feel weak / cannot carries out

    vigorous activities.

    Any 2

    1

    11

    1

    1

    1

    1

    Max2 m

    Max

    2m

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    8

    6(c) (i) Abiotic factors that cause variation between the two sets of ginger plantsare:

    F1: Sun light

    P1: Plants need light energy to carry out photosynthesis for

    growthP2: Set A, plants are obtain more / exposed to sunlight

    // Plants in set B obtain less sunlight / not exposed to Sunlight.

    P3 : Growth rate of plants in Set A is higher than plants in Set B.

    1

    1

    1

    1

    F2: Space

    P4: Plants need (space) to grow a large root system / leaves

    P5: Plants able to absorb sufficient water and minerals/sunlight.P6: Set A, plants have larger space for the root and leaves to

    Grow // Plants in set B have smaller space for the root and

    leaves to grow.

    1

    1

    11

    F3: Soil / mineralsP7: Plants need mineral for (healthy) growth.

    P8: Loam soil provides more minerals in Set A.

    // Sandy loam soil in Set B contains less minerals.

    P9: Loam soil able to trap / store water better than sandy loam soil.

    Any 8

    11

    1

    1

    max

    8

    6(c) (ii) F1 : Plantlets from tissue culture have the same genetic material.

    P1 : This is to show /ensure/proof the differences of plants in

    Set A and Set B are not caused by genetic factor / have the same

    genetic material.

    // This is to show /ensure/proof the differences of plants in

    Set A and Set B are caused by abiotic factors.

    1

    1 2

    Total 20

    No. Marking Scheme Mark

    7(a) P1 : Nerve impulses arrive at the axon terminal of

    (presynaptic) neurone.

    P2 : Causes the synaptic vesicles to move towards the

    (presynaptic) membrane and fuse with the membrane.P3 : Neurotransmiters /acetylcoline (examples) molecules

    are released from synaptic vesicles.

    P4 : (The neurotransmitter molecules) diffuse across thesynaptic cleft into the postsynaptic knob / dendrite

    / cell body of neighbouring neurone..

    P5 : The neurotransmitter molecules bind to specific

    receptor sites in the postsynaptic knob.

    P6 : The binding triggers / generates new nerve Impulses.

    P7 : The impulses then move along the postsynaptic neurone.

    P8 : The release of neurotransmitter is in one direction,

    from the synaptic knob to the postsynaptic neurone.

    P9 : Mitochondria in the synaptic knob generate ATP

    / energy to synthesis neurotransmitter molecules.

    Any 6

    1

    1

    1

    1

    1

    1

    1

    1

    1

    Max

    6

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    9

    No. Marking Scheme Mark

    7 (b) P1 : The receptor at the terminal of X stimulated by the heat.P2 : The receptor generates a nerve impulse.

    P3 : The nerve impulse travels along X / afferent neuroneTo the spinal cord.

    P4 : In the spinal cord, the nerve impulse is transmitted to

    an interneurone.

    P5 : From the interneurone, the nerve impulse is

    transmitted to an efferent neurone/ neurone Y.

    P6 : Nerve impulse travels along efferent neurone / Y and

    reach the effector / muscle tissue / fingers.

    P7 : Muscles contract to withdraw the hand / finger.

    Any 4

    1

    11

    1

    1

    1

    1 Max 4

    7 (c) P1 : The receptors in the eyes detect the dog.P2 : Nerve impulses are generated and transmitted to the

    brain via the afferent neurone.

    P3 : The hypothalamus in the brain is stimulated.

    P4 : It actives the sympathetic nervous system to generate

    nerve impulses.

    P5 : Nerve impulses are transmitted to the adrenal medulla

    to stimulate secretion of adrenaline.P6 : Adrenaline carried / transported by blood circulatory

    system to the targeted organs.

    P7 : Adrenaline promotes the breakdown of glycogen to

    glucose.

    P8 : (Adrenaline) increases the breathing rate.P9 : More oxygen will be taken into the body

    P10 : (Adrenaline) increases the rate of heartbeat/ blood

    pressure.

    P11 : Rate of the blood flow increase.

    P12 : More glucose and oxygen will be supplied to the muscles.

    P13 : More energy produced by the muscles.

    // metabolic rate increase.

    P14 : Body has enough energy to face the fight or flight

    situation.

    Any 10

    11

    1

    1

    1

    1

    1

    11

    1

    1

    1

    1

    1 Max 10

    Total 20

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    10

    No. Marking Scheme Mark

    8 (a)(i) P1 fish have streamline shapes // the anterior of the fish issmooth and rounded // the body is long and tapers

    towards the end.

    P2 the body of a fish is covered with scales that have aslimy coating

    1

    1 2

    (a)(ii) P1 myotomes muscles are arranged in both side of the bodyP2 the vertebral column of the fish is flexible and can bent

    from side to side

    P3 myotome muscles act antagonistically in fish./ carry outopposite action in a fish

    P4 when the muscles on right side contract, the muscle onthe left side relax

    P5 the tail/body will be bent to the right.P6 when the muscles on left side contract, the muscle on

    the right side relax

    P7 the tail/body will be bent to the left.P8 alternate contraction of the right and left myotome blockenable its tail to move left and right

    P9 to produce a force that propel the fish forward.[ any 6]

    1

    1

    1

    1

    1

    1

    11

    1 Max

    6

    (b)(i) Similarities:

    F1 Both Joint S and Joint T has a cavity filled with

    svnovial fluid // lined with synovial membrane

    El Synovial fluid acts as lubricant to reduce friction

    between bones // absorbs shock of the movement.

    F2 The end surfaces of the humerus bone ofJoint S and

    Joint T are covered with cartilage

    E2 To protect the bone / reduce friction between the bonesF3 Both Joint S and T are connected with ligaments

    E3 to absorb shock // strengthen the articulation of bones/ joint.

    Differences:

    D1 Joint Sis hinge jointE4 Joint S allows the movement of bones in one plane /

    directionD2 Joint T is ball-and-socket joint.

    E5 Joint T allows rotational movement of bones in

    all directions.

    [ any 8 ]

    1

    1

    1

    11

    1

    1

    1

    1

    1

    Max

    8

    8 (b)(ii) OsteoporosisP1 : the bone become thinner / more brittle / porous / fragile.

    P2 : Loss of bone mass.

    P3 : Lack of calcium / phosphorus / vitamin D

    Arthritis

    P4 : Cartilage between bones become thinner.

    P5 : Ligaments become shorter / loss elasticity

    P6 : Less production of synovial fluid.

    P7 : The joints become swollen / stiff / painful[ any 4 ]

    1

    1

    1

    1

    1

    1

    1

    Max

    4

    Total 20

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    11

    No. Marking Scheme Mark

    9 (a)

    (b)

    The tree

    F1 : Less tree will be chopped / felledP1 : More CO2 absorbed by the trees for photosynthesis

    P2 : Avoid the increasing of CO2 in the atmosphere.P3 : Reduce the impact of Green house effect // global warming

    P4 : Less habitat of fauna and flora will be destroyed.

    P5 : Reduce / avoid the extinction of fauna and flora.

    P6 : To maintain / preserve the biodiversity.

    The oil / fuel // Save Energy

    F2 : Reduce the burning of oil / fuel

    P7 : More fuel/energy can be preserved for future.

    P8 : Less green house gases / acidic gases released.

    P9 : Reduce / avoid the impact of green house effect / acid rain.

    The LandfillF3 : Less landfill will be opened

    P10 : Landfill cause leaching / ground water pollution.

    P11 : Less diseases / health problem caused by the improper managed

    landfill.

    The Water

    F4 : Less used water / effluent / untreated sewage released into river.

    P12 : Reduce / avoid the impact of water pollution / avoid the

    extinction of aquatic organisms.

    Any 10

    Good Effect

    G1 : Generate hydropower electricityG2 : As reservoir / to store water / supply fresh water

    G3 : Supply water for agricultural / industries.

    G4 : Place/site for recreation / tourismG5 : Reduce the flood problem at the downstream.

    Bad Effect

    B1 : Flooded / submerge trees / habitat of the fauna and flora

    B2 : Less tree / plants to carry out photosynthesis

    // Less CO2 absorbed for photosynthesis

    B3 : Amount of CO2 in the atmosphere increase

    B4 : Increase the impact of green house effect / global warming.

    B5 : Many species of fauna and flora extinct

    // Reduce the biodiversity.B6 : Reduce the flow of water at the downstream.

    B7 : Cause the population of aquatic life at the downstream reduce.

    B8 : Reduce the land used for residential / agricultural

    B9 : Flooded / destroy / loss of historical building / site.

    Any 10

    11

    11

    1

    1

    1

    1

    1

    1

    1

    1

    1

    1

    1

    1

    11

    1

    11

    1

    1

    1

    1

    1

    1

    1

    1

    1

    max

    10

    max

    10

    Total 20

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    SULIT 4551/1

    1. Which organ consists of cells which has the highest density of rough endoplasmicreticulum ?Organ manakah mengandungi sel-sel yang mempunyai kepadatan jalinanendoplasmik kasar paling tinggi?

    A Stomach C Brain

    Perut Otak

    B Heart D KidneyJantung Ginjal

    2. Diagram 1 shows three types of cells. Rajah 1 menunjukkan tiga jenis sel.

    P Q R

    Diagram 1

    To which systems do the cells shown above belong?Kepada system manakah sel-sel di atas dipadankan ?

    P Q R

    A. Digestive systemSistem pencernaan]

    Respiratory systemSistem respirasi

    Nervous systemSistem saraf

    B. Nervous systemSistem saraf

    Reproductive systemSistem pembiakan

    Circulatory systemSistem peredaran

    C.

    Respiratory systemSistem respirasi

    Circulatory systemSistem saraf

    Digestive systemSistem pencernaan

    D.

    Reproductive systemSistem pembiakan

    Digestive systemSistem pencernaan

    Nervous systemSistem saraf

    [Turn over

    CONFIDENTIAL

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    SULIT 4551/1

    3. Diagram 2 shows a unicellular organism living in freshwater pond.Rajah 2 menunjukkan sejenis organisma unisel yang hidup di dalam kolam air tawar.

    Which process involves in the movement of water ?

    Apakah proses yang terlibat dalam pergerakan air.

    A Diffusion C Active transportResapan Pengangkutan aktif

    B Osmosis D Facilitated diffusionOsmosis Resapan berbantu

    4. Diagram 3 shows a cross section of a leaf.Rajah 3 menunjukkan keratan rentas daun

    Diagram 3

    Which of the cell labelled A, B, C and D does not contain chloroplast?

    Antara sel yang berlabel A, B, C dan D yang manakah tidak mengandungi kloroplas?

    [Turn over

    CONFIDENTIAL

    Diagram 2

    WaterAir

    A

    B

    C

    D

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    5. Diagram 4 shows a type of plant tissue.Rajah 4 menunjukkan sejenis tisu tumbuhan.

    Diagram 4

    What is the importance of the thickening of substance X to the plant tissue?Apakah kepentingan penebalan bahan X terhadap tisu tersebut ?

    A To transfer photosynthesis products Untuk memindahkan hasil fotosintesis

    B To give turgidity to the tissues Untuk memberikan kesegahan kepada tisu

    C To transfer water and mineral salts Untuk memindahkan air dan garam mineral

    D To give support and mechanical strength Untuk memberikan sokongan dan kekuatan mekanikal

    6. Which of the following sequence of organelles involved in the synthesis ofextracellular enzymes is correct?

    Manakah di antara urutan berikutbetul yang melibatkan organel dalam sintesis enzimluar sel?

    A Golgi apparatusRibosomes Rough endoplasmic reticulum

    Alat Golgi - Ribosom Jalinan endoplasmik kasarB Rough endoplasmic reticulumRibosomesGolgi apparatus

    Jalinan endoplasmik kasar Ribosom Alat GolgiC RibosomesGolgi apparatusRough endoplasmic reticulum

    Ribosom Alat GolgiJalinan endoplasmik kasarD RibosomesRough endoplasmic reticulumGolgi apparatus

    RibosomJalinan endoplasmik kasar Alat Golgi]

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    7. Carrot slices are immersed in 0.1% sucrose solution. After 4 hours, the slices arefound to be turgid and hard.Hirisan lobak merah direndam di dalam larutan sukrosa 0.1%. Selepas 4 jam, hirisanitu didapati segah dan keras.

    Which of the following statement explains this phenomenon? Antara pernyataan berikut, yang manakah menerangkan fenomena ini ?

    A The carrot cell wall prevent it from shrinking . Dinding sel karot menghalangnya dari mengecut.

    B The high concentration of the cell sap in the vacuole causes water to diffuse. . Kepekatan yang tinggi dalam sap sel vakuol menyebabkan air meresap ke dalam

    Sel.C The cell sap is hypotonic towards the sucrose solution.

    Sap sel adalah hipotonik kepada larutan sukrosa. D The carrot cell wall allows the sucrose molecules to diffuse into the cell.

    Dinding sel karot membenarkan molekul selulosa meresap ke dalam sel.8. Diagram 5 shows a cell after immersed into a particular solution. Rajah 5 menunjukkan sel yang telah direndamkan ke dalam larutan

    tertentu.

    Diagram 5

    Which is experienced by the cell? Apakah yang dialami oleh sel itu ?

    A Crenation C Deplasmolysis Krenasi Deplasmolisis

    B Plasmolysis D Haemolysis

    Plasmolisis Hemolisis

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    9. Diagram 6 shows the action of an enzyme on a substrate.Rajah 6 menunjukkan tindakan enzim ke atas suatu substrat.

    What is represented by K?Apakah yang diwakili oleh K?

    A Enzyme C Products of reaction

    Enzim Hasil tindak balasB Enzyme-substrate complex D Substrate

    Kompleks-enzim substrat Substrat

    10. Based on the information below, name the enzyme that can be used.Berdasarkan maklumat di bawah, namakan enzim yang sesuai digunakan.

    Extracting agar jelly from seaweeds Mengasingkan agar-agar daripada laut.]

    Removing the seed coats from cereal grains

    Mengeluarkan kulit dari bijirin

    A Zymase C CelulaseZimase Selulosa

    B Amylase D Protease Amilase Protease

    11. Diagram 7 shows a graph between the rate of reaction at different substrateconcentration when factor Q is changed.

    Rajah 7 menunjukkan graf diantara kadar tindak balas dan kepekatan substrat

    apabila faktor Q diubah.

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    Diagram 6

    K

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    Diagram 7

    What is factor Q ? Apakah faktor Q ?

    A pH C InhibitorpH PerencatB Time D Enzyme concentration

    Masa Kepekatan enzim

    12. The following information shows starch molecules undergoing process M.Maklumat berikut menunjukkan molekul kanji melalui proses M.

    Process M Process M

    Starch ------------------ Maltose -------------------- Glucose[Kanj] Maltosa Glukosa

    What is process M ?Apakah proses M ?

    A Photosynthesis C CondensationFotosintesis Kondensas]

    B Hydrolisis D Polymerisation

    Hidrolisis Pempolimeran

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    Factor QFaktor Q

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    13. Diagram 8 shows a cell cycle of an organism. Rajah 8 menunjukkan kitar sel bagi suatu organisma.

    Diagram 8

    Which of the following represent X and Y ?

    Yang manakah di antara berikut mewakili X dan Y ?

    Phase X Phase YA Meiosis InterphaseB Interphase MitosisC Mitosis InterphaseD Interphase Meiosis

    14. The diploid chromosomes in a leaf cell of a maize plant is 20. If one of thehomologous chromosome pair does not separate during the Meiosis 1, how manychromosomes can be found in the male nucleus of a pollen grain of maize ?

    Nombor kromosom diploid dalam daun jagung ialah 20. Jika satu daripadaPasangan kromosom homolog tidak terpisah semasa Meiosis 1, berapakahbilangan kromosom yang mungkin didapati pada debunga daun jagung ?

    A 9 B 10 C 20 D 18

    15. Which of the following statements explain the importance of mitosis to cells?Yang manakah di antara pernyataan berikut menerangkan kepentingan mitosiskepada sel ?

    I . To ensure the chromosomal number is constant in all somatic cells. Untuk memastikan bilangan kromosom adalah tetap dalam semua sel somatik.

    II To ensure the daughter cells have the same number of chromosomes as theparent cell.

    Untuk memastikan billangan kromosom adalah sama dengan biangan kromosomsel induk.

    III To ensure that the genetic material in the daughter cells is the same as in theparent cellUntuk memastikan bahan genetik sel anak dalah sama dengan sel induk.

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    IV To contribute to the genetic variation in the daughter cells. Untuk menyumbangkan kepada variasi genetik dalam sel anak.

    A I and II only C I , II and III only

    B II and III only D I , III and IV only

    16. Diagram 9 shows the correct proportion for the various classes of food in the foodpyramid.Rajah 9 menunjukkan nisbah yang betul bagi pelbagai kelas makanan dalampiramid makanan.

    Which of the following shows the correct classes of food in the pyramid? Yang manakah di antara berikut menunjukkan kelas makanan yang betul dalam

    piramid makanan di atas?

    1 2 3 4

    A Fats Proteins Carbohydrates Vitamins andminerals

    B Carbohydrates Vitamins andminerals

    Proteins Fats

    C Proteins Carbohydrates

    Fats Vitamins andminerals

    D Carboh