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Lesson 17 - ������ ������ ������

Introduction – ����������In this lesson we will learn the following things, In-Shā’-Allâh (God willing):

We will learn that there are two groups or types of noun in Arabic that are treated

differently - Rational and Irrational nouns. We will learn how to distinguish the type of a

given noun:

English Transliteration Arabic

A student /ŧâlibun/ ������ ���������� � �!��(Rational)

Students /Ŧullābun/ �"#$� �����%��

A book /Kitābun/ �"�&�' ���������� ( �!�� ���)�*(Irrational)

Books /Kutubun/ ���&$' �����%��

We will learn a new pattern of the broken plural:

Plural Pattern Singular

���+���� $ ������ ���%����

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(Mosques) (A mosque)

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Lesson 17 - ������ ������ ������

Continued

In this section we will learn about a new form of nouns In-Shā’-Allâh (God willing).

In Arabic, nouns are divided in two categories that do not exist in the English Language. In Arabic

nouns are either Rational or Irrational.

Rational Nouns are those which refer to human beings. They are also called intelligent i.e.,

������. Besides human beings, angels, Jinn (in Islam), the devil and such are included inthis class. Some examples of rational nouns are (doctor, boy, man) - i.e. ������� ��������������.Irrational Nouns are those which refer to non human beings. They are also called

non-intelligent i.e., ������ ����� . Irrational nouns refer to non living objects, animals,concepts and non human beings like trees and plants etc. Some examples of irrational

nouns are: tree, notebook, book - i.e. �!���"�# ����$%&�' ��(�$�).In the singular form there is no difference between these two groups, however, there is a very

important difference in the plural form of these two groups. The plurals of Rational Nouns are

treated as Plural, whereas the plurals of irrational nouns are treated as feminine singular. This

concept takes some practice to understand and we will cover some examples below In-Shā’-Allâh

(God willing):

Below we can see how the pronouns that relate to the singular rational nouns are changed in plural

form, e.g. /Hādhā/ �*�+ (this) becomes �,-�.�+ (those) in plural form.������ �*�+ (this is a boy) if changed to plural will become �'-���/ �,-�.�+ (these are boys)������ �0�+ (he is a man) will become �1���� �2�+ (they are men) ��3����4 �5���6 (that is a teacher) will become �70�83����4 �5�9���:/ (those are teachers)�;������ �<�+ (she is a student) will become �=������ >�+. (they are students)

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We can compare this to the plural of Irrational Nouns. We can see below that despite the nouns

being plural, the pronouns that relate to these nouns are singular feminine - this does not change

the plural word itself, only how the plural is treated and includes adjectives - i.e. an adjective

following an irrational noun will be feminine singular:

��%?�) �*�+ (this is a dog) if changed to plural will become �(@�) �A�*�+ (those are dogs).�B�C�D ���E�F �0�+ (he is a small donkey) will become �<�+ �!�B�C�D �B�E�F (they are small

donkeys)

Let’s look at some examples to understand this rule further:

English Arabic

This is a new student, he is

from Belgium

.�H��"%?�� �>�4 �0�+ ���I���� ������ �*�+ �'��%J�E%�

These are new students, they

are from Belgium

.�H��"%?�� �>�4 �2�+ ��'���� �(@:� �,-�.�+ ���E�"%�

This is a new book, it is from

Belgium

.�H��"%?�� �>�4 �0�+ ���I���� �(�$�) �*�+ �'��%J�E%�

These are new books, they are

from Belgium

.�H��"%?�� �>�4 �<�+ ��!��I���� ���$:) �A�*�+ ���E�"%�

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Lesson 17 - ������ ������ ������

Exercise - ���������In this section, we will have multiple questions to test your understanding of the principles we have

learnt In-Shā'-Allâh (God-Willing). To answer the questions:

o Type the complete answer for the following questions by selecting the question and using the

on-screen keyboard or your actual keyboard.

o Use the Shift key to enter characters on the upper portions of the letters and use full

diacritics in your answers – e.g. fathah, kasrah, sukūn etc.

o Do not use diacritics in the following cases:

§ The Alif followed by laam � (while the laam itself can be signed with a vowel)§ The laam followed by alif � (while the Alif itself can be signed when it comes with

hamzah).

§ Do not put the small Alif on words like ���. § Do not put diacritics on long vowels.

o Upon completion of all questions, click on the Mark button to see the correct answer and to

get your mark.

· For more instructions click here.

��� � ����) ������� !�� "��#�$�% "&���'�( �)�#�� �*�+��, �-�.�#/0 1���( ���'�2(�-��4�� ��5�

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The Arabic sentence above means "Fill in the blanks with the appropriate Demonstrative Pronoun

for near objects". In each of the boxes below simply type the demonstrative pronoun and word

again using the on-screen keyboard including the vowel-marks and punctuation.

Mark Reset

�67 8�2 ..... �:�#;����% ......

<=�>�� ..... �?�@�A .....

B�� �C�D�2 ..... �E�+�� .....

�:�F+�F�G ..... ���@HA ......

<��>�� ...... <*�>�>�I ......

: ��+�# ...... �J�.�# ......

<*�K;��.�% ..... ���L�@�M�% ......

<��F�> .....

Mark Reset

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Lesson 17 - ������ ������ ������

Continued

We have already learnt in Lesson 13 section 7 that the Broken Plural is the plural form of a word in

which the original form of the word is changed to a great extent:

E.g.: Some examples of English nouns as broken plurals are:

Man ======> Men

Woman ======> Women

In contrast with sound plurals:

Book ======> Books

Door ======> Doors

For Arabic Nouns and Adjectives:

There are more than twenty patterns of the broken plural for Arabic Nouns and Adjectives.

We have learnt some of them in previous lessons and will learn one more pattern in this

part of lesson In-Shā’-Allâh (God willing).

Plural Pattern Singular

��������(Mosques)

����������������

(A mosque)

Let’s take some examples to memorize this pattern:

Picture English Arabic

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This is Hamid's note book .������ ����� �! �"�# �!�����$��

These are Hamid's note books �%�"�#���&� �!.������ ���$����

This is the teacher's desk .��'����$�� �(���)�� �"�# �!�����$��

These are the teacher's desks �%�"�#�(�&�)��.��'����$�� ���$����

This hotel is expensive .�*+ �,���-� �"�# �!�����$��

These hotels are expensive �%�"�#�,�!�-� ../0�1��+ ���$����

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Lesson 17 - ������ ������ ������

Exercise - ���������In this section we will have multiple questions to test your understanding of the principles we have

learnt In-Shā'-Allâh (God-Willing). To answer the questions:

o Type the complete answer for the following questions by selecting the question and using the

on-screen keyboard or your actual keyboard.

o Use the Shift key to enter characters on the upper portions of the letters and use full

diacritics in your answers – e.g. fathah, kasrah, sukūn etc.

o Do not use diacritics in the following cases:

§ The Alif followed by laam � (while the laam itself can be signed with a vowel)§ The laam followed by alif � (while the Alif itself can be signed when it comes with

hamzah).

§ Do not put the small Alif on words like ���. § Do not put diacritics on long vowels.

o Upon completion of all questions, click on the Mark button to see the correct answer and to

get your mark.

· For more instructions click here.

�� ����� �� ���! "��#�$ %&��' �(����) �*�#�+,� �-�! .*/0 1�2 &3���4�5�#,� ��67�8:��&:�#,� 1�2 �#&0 ���5�;

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The Arabic sentence above means "Change the subjects of the following sentences to plural, also

change the predicates where necessary as in the example". In each of the sentences below type

out the sentences again changing the relevant parts of the sentence based on the rules you have

learnt on rational / irrational nouns.

�<7�4,=�! �>�5,� :/�&:�#,� ?(�87�4,=�! �> �7����

Mark Reset

?*��#�$ �@�+A� ������$ �@&B&C,� &���

?*��#�$ �D���5,� �E��&F �G��&H �>�4�I,� �E��&F

����J�� /*�5�+,� �E��&F

Mark Reset

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Lesson 17 - ������ ������ ������

Revision – ������ ����In this lesson we have learnt the following:

The Rational and Irrational Nouns

A new pattern for the broken plurals

Vocabulary Revision – �� ���������� ������ ����

Irrational ��� �� ���!"# Rational ��� ��

Dog / Dogs $%&�' \ $)�*"'Donkey /

Donkeys

$+���, \ $����,

Belgium "-!�.�*��Note-book /

Note-books

���/"0�� \ $��1�0��

Desk / Desks �)�/"-�� \ $)�1�-�� Hotel / Hotels �2���3"0 \ $2���3�0

Expensive

(masculine)

�4"#Expensive

(feminine)

���!��"#

Now that you have covered this lesson, please also try some of the additional features we have

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including:

o Discussion Forum– Discuss the grammatical topics learnt and any areas of confusion.

o Vocabulary Flashcards– Practice your vocabulary by category.

o Questions Flashcards– Practice questions related to the grammatical topics covered in the

lessons.

We will be updating the features above to help you throughout the course In-Shā’-Allâh (God

willing).

Next Lesson

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