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    A. Basic TheoryGametogenesis is the process of diploid and haploid undergo cell division and

    differentiation to form mature haploid gametes. Depending on the biological life cycle of the

    organism, gametogenesis can occur in meiotic division of diploid gametocytes into various

    gametes or haploid gametogen mitotic cells. For example, plants produce gametes through

    mitosis in the gametophyte. Gametophyte grow from haploid spores after meiotic spores(Pahrudin, 2012)

    Spermatogenesis takes place in the male gonads (testes), precisely in the seminiferous

    tubules. Seminiferous tubules are embedded in connective tissue containing Leydig cells,

    blood and nerve uluh cleanin. When stretched, the length of the seminiferous tubules ranges

    from 3200 m. approximately 360 m of the seminiferous tubules can produce 95 million

    spermatozoa per day. In humans the development of spermatogonia to mature sperm takes 16

    days (Adnan, 2008).

    Sperm are formed through a series of cleavage meosis the vas deferens (spermatic

    tubule) is very long but arranged in a coil extensive. Tues intertisial spread in the channel of

    testicles, continuously Secrete testosterone, the main androgen in men. Androgens are

    synthesized and secreted at a high rate after puberty, when the sexual maturity (Fried, 2005).According (Teacher team 2012), Spermatogenesis takes place in the testes, seminiferous

    tubules precisely at the wall. The process takes place starting from the edge of the wall to the

    lumen of the seminiferous tubules. The walls of the seminiferous tubules are composed of

    two main components namely somatic cells of Sertoli cells and cells Germa. The rate of

    progression of cells in the seminiferous tubules Germa are as follows:

    1. Spermatogonia: relatively small size, somewhat oval form, less brightly colored core,lined located near / attached to the basal membrane.

    2. Spermatocytes 1: The largest size, spherical shape, color strong core, lies a short distanceaway from the basement membrane.

    3. Spermatocytes II: The size is rather small (1 / 2 x spermatocytes 1), spherical shape,color stronger core, lies the basement membrane further and further away (near lumen).

    4. Spermatids: small size, somewhat oval shape, color strong core, sometimes piknotis, liesnear the lumen.

    5. Spermatozoid: Spermatozoa young bergerombolan attached to Sertoli cells, which theyoung are in the lumen.

    Mature sperm consists of three parts, namely the head, middle and tail (flagelata). Sperm

    head contains the nucleus. The end of the head contains the acrosome that produce enzymes

    that works to penetrate the layers - a layer of the egg at fertilization. The middle of the sperm

    contains mitochondria that produce ATP as an energy source for sperm motility. Sperm tail

    serves as a tool motion (Scanlon, 2003).

    Spermatogenesis is controlled by sex steroid hormones, namely tostesteron. Tostesteronsynthesized by cells intertisial testis or Leydig cells. Leydig cells of the testis exists between

    the seminiferous tubules. Tostesteron diffuses into the seminiferous tubules, it stimulates

    spermatogenesis. production of testosterone by Leydig cells regulated by gonadotropin

    hormones, namely Luiteinizing hormone (LH) are often called Inteticial Cell Simulating

    Hormone (ICSH) (Adnan, 2008).

    Oogenesis is the process of formation of ova or egg cells that occur in the ovaries by

    follicular cells. The process that occurs in oogenesis are as follows. Oogenesis primordial

    cells or ova which are diploid (2n) mitosis divide many times and became the primary oocyte

    (2n). Primary oocyte meiosis I will do and will be a secondary oocyte and a haploid (n) then

    a polar body or secondary polosit cells (n). While the primary polosit cell divides into two

    cells polosit secondary (n). (Anonymous, 2012)

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    Oogenesis different from spermatogenesis in three important ways. First, during meiosis

    division oogenesis, cytokinesis is not equal (unequal), with nearly all of the cytoplasm

    monopolized by one daughter cell, the secondary oocyte. Large cells can continue to develop

    into ova; another product miosis, that is smaller cells called polar bodies (polar body) will

    degenerate. This is different from spermatogenesis, when the four products meiosis I and II

    develop into mature sperm. Second, while the origin of the sperm cells continue to dividethrough mitosis evolve throughout the life of men, this does not apply to oogenesis in

    females. At birth, the ovaries already contain all the cells that will develop into eggs. Third,

    oogenesis has a period of "rest" long, in contrast to spermatogenesis that produce mature

    sperm from precursor cells in an order that does not stop (Campbell, 2004).

    According (Sherwood, 2001), oogenesis is the process of ripening ova in the ovary.

    Unlike spermatogenesis can produce millions of sperm at the same time, oogenesis is only

    able to produce a mature ovum at a time. Let's look at the process further:

    1. Oogonia which are precursors of the ovum is enclosed in follicles in the ovaries.

    2. Oogonia transformed into primary oocytes, which have 46 chromosomes. Primary

    oocytes do meiosis, producing two daughter cells are not the same size.

    3. Larger daughter cells are haploid secondary oocyte that is. Its size can reach thousands oftimes larger than the others because it contains more cytoplasm of the primary oocyte.

    4. Smaller daughter cells called polar bodies first and then split again.

    5. Secondary oocyte follicles left ovary into the fallopian tubes. If the secondary oocyte

    fertilized, it will undergo the second meiotic division. as well as the first polar body

    divides into two second polar bodies eventually degenerate. However, if fertilization

    does not occur, menstruation will occur quickly and oogenesis cycle repeated.

    6. During the second meiotic division, a secondary oocyte is haploid with 23 chromosomes

    and then called ootid. When the core nucleus of the sperm and ovum ready to merge into

    one, as it also ootid then reaches its final development into a mature ovum.

    7. The two haploid cells (sperm and ovum) unite to form a zygote cell is dipoid (2n).

    According (Teacher team, 2012), oogenesis take place in the ovaries, especially in the

    cortex, and continued in the oviduct in the event of penetration spermatozoid. In oogenesis,

    Germa cell develops in the egg follicles, with levels as follows:

    1. Primordial follicle: a primary follicles contained before it was born, consisting of anoocyte I is coated by a layer of follicle cells shaped flat.

    2. Growing follicles, consisting of:a. Primary follicle consists: of a I oocytes coated with a layer of follicle cells (granulose

    cells) cube-shaped. Between the oocyte and granulose cells separated by the zona

    pellucida.

    b. Secondary follicles: oocyte consists of an I which is coated by several layers ofgranulose cells.3. Tertiary follicles: the volume of the stratum granulosum that line I grow large oocyte /

    lot. There are some gaps (antrum) between granulose cells. Connective tissue stroma

    contained outside the stratum granulose theca arrange themselves to form the internal

    and external.

    4. Mature follicles (follicles Graaf) measure at large, antral cavity into a large, fluid-filledfollicles. Oocytes surrounded by granulose cells called karona radiate, connected by

    edges granulose cells by a stalk connecting the so-called cumulus ooforus.

    In humans, female fetuses begin producing cells (oogonia) were as birth and development,

    will eventually become egg cells (ova) in a woman's ovaries. These cells initiate meiosis

    since the embryo, but its development was offended at the prophase of meiosis I. cells that

    remain in the "delay" until just before fertilization and undergo the second meiotic divisionjust after fertilization. In males, meiosis began only after maturity is reached (Fried, 2006).

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    B. Purpose of PracticumThe purpose of this practicum to study the formation of male and female sex cells

    through the observation of histological preparations.

    C. Work Procedure1. Observing the preparations under a microscope using a magnification of weak and

    strong magnification.

    2. Drawing a seminiferous tubule cells along Germa growing in it and also describe

    intertisial cells (cells Leidyg) contained in the space between the tubules.

    3. Observing ovarian preparations under the microscope with a magnification of weak

    and strong.

    4. Drawing each developing egg follicles in it and mention the parts complete.

    D. Observation Result

    1. Preparat histologis testis mencit (Mus musculus)Tubulus seminiferus

    NOTES :

    1. Spermatozoa

    2. Spermatid

    3. Spermatosit primer

    dalam profase

    4. Sel sertoli

    5. Pembelahan

    spermatogenesis

    1. Spermatogonia

    2. Preparat histologis ovarium mencit (Mus musculus)Folikel primordial

    NOTES :

    1. Sel epitel pipih

    2. Inti sel

    3. Antrum

    4. Oosit primer

    Folikel sekunderNOTES :

    1. Teka interna

    2. Teka eksterna

    3. Antrum

    4. Oosit

    Folikel tersier

    NOTES :

    1. Jaringan epitel2. Sel epitel

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    3. Inti sel

    4. Zona pelusida

    5. Antrum

    6. Oosit

    D. DiscussionIn this lab we will observe the formation of gametes that is spermatogenesis in males

    with testicular histologist observe preparations and oogenesis in female animals by observing

    preparations preserved ovaries.

    1. Testis Mice (Spermatogenesis)Through observations in the lab we have done, with observe under the microscope

    with a magnification of 10 x 40 found that within the seminiferous tubules are Sertoli

    cells.Through our observations, spermatogenesis begins with the division of cells in

    mitotic spermatogonia into primary spermatocytes cells which then had some more

    cleavage to produce secondary spermatocytes and spermatids. This spermatids develop

    into spermatozoa.Spermatogenesis is the process of sperm formation takes place in the male gonads

    (testes), precisely on the walls of seminiferous tubules. Spermatogenesis starts with

    spermatogonia cells actively bermitosis followed by the occurrence of reduction division

    (meiosis) to produce spermatids. Spermatids then differentiate to spermatozoa produced

    through the process of spermatogenesis. Spermatogenesis takes place under the influence

    of hormones. Among the seminiferous tubules contained intersisial tissue containing

    Leydig cells. Leydig cells produce the hormone testosterone under the control of

    gonadrotrophin hormone produced by the pituitary gland, which is LH. Gonadrotrophin

    other hormones that play a role in spermatogenesis is FSH which stimulate Sertoli cells

    to produce ABP. ABP binds testosterone can be a very important role in spermatogenesis

    and sperm maturation (Adnan, 2008).

    Spermatogenesis takes place in the testes, seminiferous tubules precisely at the wall.

    The process takes place starting from the edge of the wall to the lumen of the

    seminiferous tubules. The walls of the seminiferous tubules are composed of two main

    components namely somatic cells of Sertoli cells and cells Germa. The rate of

    progression of cells in the seminiferous tubules Germa are as follows:

    a. Spermatogonia: relatively small size, somewhat oval form, less brightly colored core,lined located near / attached to the basal membrane.

    b. Spermatocytes 1: The largest size, spherical shape, color strong core, lies a shortdistance away from the basement membrane.

    c.

    Spermatocytes II: The size is rather small (1 / 2 x spermatocytes 1), spherical shape,color stronger core, lies the basement membrane further and further away (near

    lumen).

    d. Spermatids: small size, somewhat oval shape, color strong core, sometimes piknotis,lies near the lumen.

    e. Spermatozoid: Spermatozoa young bergerombolan attached to Sertoli cells, which theyoung are in the lumen.

    Sertoli cells also make the walls of the seminiferous tubules and has a function

    Nutritive, protective and regulators. Among the seminiferous tubules contained

    connective tissue, the interstitial tissue with cellular components primarily Leydig cells,

    Leydig cells to synthesize the role of androgen hormones such as testosterone

    (Adnan.2008).

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    The results of our observations was approximately equal to the theory advanced by

    Adnan (2008) which states that cells in mitotic spermatogonia into primary

    spermatocytes cells then produce spermatids. Spermatids is then developed into

    spermatozoa in which the shaping process under hormonal control.

    2. Ovarium Mice (Oogenesis)This experiment we observe the preparat histology of mammal ovary (ovarium

    mamalia). We can see the process of form egg cells (oogenesis). We know the theory,

    oogenesis occurs in ovarium, namely in korteks part and continue in oviduct if happen

    penitrasi spermatozoid.

    According (Adnan.2008), cell germ grow in egg follicles, with stage namely :

    a. Primordial follicle: a primary follicles contained before it was born, consisting of anoocyte I is coated by a layer of follicle cells shaped flat.

    b. Growing follicles, consisting of:1. Primary follicle consists: of a I oocytes coated with a layer of follicle cells

    (granulose cells) cube-shaped. Between the oocyte and granulose cells separated by

    the zona pellucida.

    2. Secondary follicles: oocyte consists of an I which is coated by several layers ofgranulose cells.

    3. Tertiary follicles: the volume of the stratum granulosum that line I grow largeoocyte / lot. There are some gaps (antrum) between granulose cells. Connective

    tissue stroma contained outside the stratum granulose theca arrange themselves to

    form the internal and external.

    4. Mature follicles (follicles Graaf) measure at large, antral cavity into a large, fluid-filled follicles. Oocytes surrounded by granulose cells called karona radiate,

    connected by edges granulose cells by a stalk connecting the so-called cumulus

    ooforus.

    Oocytes II diovulasikan from follicles Graaf in Metaphase stage of meiosis II, if the

    penetration occurs in the oviduct, then there is the completion of meiosis II and II oocyte

    or ovum develops into a mature ootid.

    At first the mitotic proliferation of oogonia experience, then grew into a primary

    oocyte, and then entered the stage of maturation (meiosis). The first division produces

    one cell miosis secondary spermatocytes, and one cell polosit or first polar body. At the

    second meiosis division, the secondary oocyte divides one cell produces one ootid and

    first polar body or polosit. Polar bodies often degenerate before entering meiosis second

    division.Oogenesia in humans is theoretically one primary oocyte produces one

    functional ovum and three polosit (Adnan, 2008).

    E.

    ConclusionAfter doing lab work on Gametogenesis, it can be concluded that:

    1. Spermatogenesis or male sex cell formation process consists of several stages that isconversion of spermatogonia into primary spermatocytes, then become secondary

    spermatocytes, further into spermatids, and finally into spermatozoa. This process takes

    place in the testes precisely on the walls of the seminiferous tubules.

    2. Oogenesis or female sex cell formation process consists of several stages, the oogoniaundergo mitotic proliferation, then grew into a primary oocyte, and then enter the stage

    of ripening. The first mitotic division produces a secondary spermatocyte cells and one

    cell or bada polar polosit first. Second mitotic secondary oocyte divides a single cell and

    single polosit ootid. This process takes place in the female gonads that is the ovaries.

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    F. Suggestion1. Better tools are used constantly updated so that we can perform with good practice.2. Assistant should always explains things concerning gametogenesis and always assist

    the practitioner.

    3. Friends should be more serious when carrying out practical activities.


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