Download pdf - EPD Assignment

  • 8/6/2019 EPD Assignment


    Submitted by,

    Robin Thomas(s7 A)[33]Pranoy T. Jose(s7 A)[29]

    Rejo George Varghese(S7 A)[30]

    Nithin Alex John(S7 A)[26]

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    o Semiconductor industry manufactures large variety of Integrated

    circuits with different packaging requirements.

    o Package attributes taken into consideration when choosing a package

    type for a particular semiconductor device include:


    lead count,

    power dissipation,

    field operating conditions &


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    o Two Primary and Fundamental functions :

    1) the IC package protects the die from physical damage

    2) redistributes the I/O to a more manageable pitch in assembly

    o Number of potential secondary roles :

    1) providing a structure more amenable to standardization

    2) providing a thermal path away from the die

    3) providing protection from the potential of soft errors due to alpha


    4)providing a structure more easily disposed to electrical test and


    o The IC package has several roles to play as keeper of the chip

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    o package can also serve to interconnect multiple IC :

    1)directly to each other using standard interconnectiontechnologies, such as wire bonding

    2) indirectly using interconnection pathways provided on the

    package, such as those used in hybrid packages and MCMs

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    o broadly separated and defined by their basic construction :

    1) lead frame-type packages

    2) substrate-type packages

    a) organic-laminate

    b) ceramic-base materials

    o There is now package product family concerned with the assembly of ICs

    on the wafer called wafer-level packaging (WLP

    ) -packaging elements

    typically are constructed on the face of the wafer, resulting in a true chip-

    size package.

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    o depending on next level of interconnection :

    1) lead frame and the dual in-line package (DIP), are designed for

    either pin-in-hole solder assembly

    2) pin-grid array (PGA), are designed for socketing

    3) compliant-lead-type lead frame packages are designed for surface


    Eg: quad flat pack (QFP),

    the leadless-type lead frame package,

    quad flat no-lead (QFN) package

    o QFP and QFN are representatives of peripherally leaded packages

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    Area Array Packages

    o ADV : handle high I/O without sacrificing performance & natural area


    E.g.: Ball grid array


    made using organic

    laminate substrates

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    1) Ceramic Ball Grid Array :square-shaped or rectangular ceramicpackage that uses solder balls for external electrical connection

    instead of leads. These solder balls are arranged in a grid or array at

    the bottom of the ceramic package body, hence the name 'ceramic

    ball grid array

    2) Ceramic Column Grid Array :CCGA, is a square-shaped orrectangular ceramic package that uses solder columns for external

    electrical connection instead of leads or solder balls. These solder

    columns are arranged in a grid or array at the bottom of the ceramic

    package body, hence the name 'ceramic column grid array' .

    3) Ceramic Dual-in-Line Package :It is a rectangular ceramicpackage that has leads extending from both of its longer sides, thus

    forming two sets of in-line pins.

    4) Ceramic Package : is a hermetically sealed rectangular ceramicpackage that has leads extending from both of its longer sides, thus

    forming two sets of in-line pins

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    5) Ceramic Leadless Chip Carrier :is a square or rectangular

    surface-mount ceramic package that has no leads

    6) Ceramic Pin Grid Array :CPGA, is a square or rectangularthrough-hole ceramic package whose pins or leads are

    arranged in a square array at the bottom of the package body.

    7) Ceramic Quad Flat Pack :CQFP, is a ceramic IC package

    with leads extending from all four sides of the package body.

    8) Dual Flat No Leads Package: a very small square-shaped or

    rectangular surface-mount plastic package with no leads. Metal

    pads or lands along two sides of the bottom of the DFN

    package serve as electrical connection points to the outside

    world . The DFN is similar to the QFN, except that the latter

    has lands all around the periphery of the package instead of

    just two sides like the DFN.

    9)Decawatt Package :C package developed by Motorola to

    encase discrete high-power devices. The DPAK is also known

    as the 'TO-252'

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    10) Power Quad Flat No Leads Package :PQFN, is a small square-shaped orrectangular surface-mount plastic package with no leads that is capable of high

    power dissipation. Instead of leads, it uses metal pads around the periphery of

    the bottom of the package body for electrical connection to the outside world. It

    is basically a 'high-power' version of the quad flat no leads (QFN) package.

    11) Plastic Pin Grid Array :PPGA, is a square-shaped plastic package whose

    pins or leads are arranged in a square array at the bottom of the package body.

    12) Plastic Leaded Chip Carrier : PLCC is a four-sided plastic package that

    has "J" leads around its periphery. These "J" leads occupy less board space thanthe gull-wing leads that other packages have.

    13) Plastic Dual-in-Line Package : it is rectangular in shape and has leadsextending from both sides along its length, thus forming two sets of in-line pins.

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    14) Plastic Quad Flat Pack :is an IC package with leads extending

    from all four sides of the package body. PQFP's are predominantly

    square in shape, although rectangular variants do exist.

    15) Power Small Outline Package : is a rectangular small outline

    IC package developed by Amkor that integrates a copper heat slug in

    its plastic body. The die is attached to this heat slug, increasing the

    chip's ability to dissipate heat and thus handle more power.

    16) Quad Flat No Leads Package :QFN, is a very small square-

    shaped or rectangular surface-mount plastic package with no leads. It

    is basically a quad flat package, except for the absence of leads

    protruding from its sides. Metal pads or lands around the periphery of

    the bottom of the QFN package serve as electrical connection points

    to the outside world. Because the QFN has no leads and has shorter

    bond wire lengths, it exhibits less inductance than leaded packages

    and therefore provides a higher electrical performance.

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    Printed Circuit Boards are primarily an insulating

    material used as base, into which conductive

    strips are printed

    The base material is generally fiberglass, and theconductive connections are generally copper and

    are made through an etching process

    The main PCB board is called the motherboard,

    the smaller attachment PCB boards are called

    daughter boards or daughter cards


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    PCB board design defines the electrical pathways

    between components

    It is derived from a schematic representation ofthe circuit

    When it is derived, or imported from a schematic

    design, it translates the schematic symbols and

    libraries into physical components and


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    Step 1: Film Generation

    The film is generated from

    the design files (gerber files)which are sent to the

    manufacturing house.

    Step 2: Raw Material

    Industry standard 0.059thick, copper clad panel

    is generated per layer

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    tep 3: Drill HolesUsing NC machines and

    carbide drills to drill holes

    according to the drill specifications

    sent to the manufacturing house

    Step 4: Electroless


    Apply thin copper deposit in

    hole barrels

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    Step 5: Apply Image

    Apply photosensitive dry film

    to panel and use a light

    source and the film to

    expose the panel

    Step 6: Pattern Plate

    Electrochemical process tobuild copper in the holes and

    on the trace areas. Apply tin to


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    Step 7: Strip and EtchRemove the dryfilm, and then

    etch the exposed copper.

    The tin protects the copper

    circuitry from being etched away

    Step 8: Solder Mask

    Apply a solder mask area to the

    entire board with the

    exception of solder pads

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    Step 9: Solder Coat

    Apply solder to pads by

    immersing into tank of

    solder. Hot air knives level

    the solder when removed from thetank

    Step 10: Nomenclature

    Apply white letter markingsusing screen printing


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    A PCB design package allows the

    designer to

    define and design on multiple layersMany of these are physical layers

    such as:

    Signal Layer

    Power plane Layer Mechanical Layer

    And some are special layers such as:

    Solder & Paste Mask Layers

    Silkscreen or Top Overlay Layers

    Drill guides Keep-out Layer

    And some CAD specific display-

    only layers:

    Ratsnest layer

    DRC Errors

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    Providing good grounding is critical to the functionalityof a PCB board

    On a multi layer board, one of the layers should be dedicated

    ground and all ground signals should have ways into this

    ground plane.

    Avoid chaining grounds in order to prevent ground loops

    from occurring

    Use bypass capacitors to smooth out power spikes by

    components that suddenly draw significant current

    Bypass caps should be placed as close to thecomponents power pins as possible

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    Internal layers should be designed at least 15away from the edge of the PCB board.

    This is to ensure that the manufacturer of the

    board does not cut into the copper or short the

    planes.You can employ the keepout layer for this


    Each manufacturing house has their own

    manufacturing guidelines for minimum space

    width, copper-to-edge distance, via and hole sizes,annular ring, etc.

    Many assembly houses require that you provide

    your PCB boards in a panelized format.

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    Component placement is an extremely importantfunction of the designer

    Components should be placed according to their

    connections to other components, thermal

    considerations, mechanical requirements, as well as

    signal integrity and routability

    Components which have connections to each

    other should be placed in the same vicinity

    Components should also be placed on a grid,

    usually a 100 mil grid, in order to provide for asymmetric flow of routing where tracks and

    components are lined up

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    They are the link between the device and the

    power that makes the mechanism run . Most

    transmit signals between electrical

    equipments. The type of signals transmitted

    is based on what type of cable is being used. Different types of cables are:

    Twisted wire cables

    Coaxial cables

    Optical fibre


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    Twisted pair cable

    STP - Twisted pair copper, protected from external

    electromagnetic interference by a metal sheath

    UTP - Twisted pair copper with no shield

    Available in two varieties of wire:


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    Coaxial cable

    High-capacity used for video and communication


    Provides higher bandwidth than twisted pair cable

    Contains a single wire at the center, (stranded or

    solid) surrounded by a metallic shield that servesas a ground

    Thin and thick coaxial cables use baseband


    Thin coaxial cable has a maximum segmentlength of

    185 meters

    Thick coaxial cable has a maximum segment

    length of 500


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    Commonly used as the backbone media when

    implementing a large LAN

    Can accommodate data transmissions much faster

    than coaxial or twisted pair cable Transmission rates in the Gigabits-per-second


    Laser transmitters send the modulated light pulses

    and optical receivers receive them

    Two types of optic fibre cables are single :Single mode-intercity telephone trunks and video


    Multimode-uses a large no: of modes

    used in LANs and WANs

    Fibre optic cable

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    Cable connectors are audio and visual

    connectors used to carry audio and/or video

    signals. These signals are either digital or

    analog. Cables and connectors are necessaryto unite outputs and inputs, and the quality

    of the signal varies with each connector.


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    BNC connector

    British Naval Connector (or

    Bayonet Neil-Concelman)

    Commonly used to connect

    coaxial cable to NICs, hubs andother network devices

    Connector is crimped on the

    cable using a bayonet mount

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    Designed to replace serial and

    parallel ports

    Allows up to 127 devices to be

    daisy-chained using one USB port

    Offers a bandwidth of


    Devices are hot swappable

    Uses a type A socket (4-pins)

    Network adapters using USBconnections are becoming


    Universal serial bus(USB)

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    Two types of connectors:DB-9 (9-pin) - Usually COM1

    DB-25 (25-pin) - Usually COM2

    Usually two serial ports are found on PCs:

    one DB-9 and one DB-25 (some only have2 DB-9)

    Traditionally based on Recommended

    Standard-232 (RS-232)

    Standard cable limit is 50 feet


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    PS/2 connectors

    A computer mini-socket and plug

    used to connect a keyboard and a

    mouse to a computer

    Consists of a 6-pin circular


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    Computer sockets that connect printers or any

    other parallel device, such as removable disks

    and tapes backup devices, to a computers

    Built into the computer motherboard

    Some manufacturers sell network adapters that

    can be connected to a parallel port Now enhanced using IEEE 1284 standard,

    providing bi-directional transfers and increased

    speeds, and it defines a cable type that allows

    data transfers up to 32 feet on a parallel cable

    Uses a DB-25 connector on the computer end,and a Centronics 36-pin connector at the



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    Allows up to 15 devices to be daisy-

    chained using one SCSI controller

    The last device in a SCSI daisy-chain

    must have aS


    I terminator Three types of external SCSI connectors:

    25-pin (SCSI-1) 4 Mbps, DB-25 (8-bit


    50-pin (SCSI-2) 4 Mbps, supports

    multiple chained devices, Centronics 50(8-bit bus)

    68-pin (SCSI-3) 40 Mbps, Ultra Wide

    SCSI, Centronics 68 (16-bit bus)

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