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Page 1: Drug  Abuse

Drug Abuse

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Drug Abuse

Effects &Symptom

sShort and Long Term Effects

& Withdrawal Symptoms

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What is a 'Drug' ?

A pharmaceutical preparation or a naturally occurring substance used primarily to bring about any change in the existing process or state (physiological, psychological or biochemical ) is called a ‘drug’.

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USE: Intake of drugs to :- Treat an Illness Prevent a Disease Improve Health Condition

ABUSE: Intake of drugs, for reasons other than medical, in such a manner that the drugs affects the physical or mental functioning of the person.

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Stay Stay away away from from

them !them !

DrugsDrugsKill !Kill !

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Classification of Addictive Drugs

Narcotic Analgesics Cannabis Stimulants Depressants Hallucinogens Volatile Solvents Other Drugs of Abuse

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Pain Killing orRelieving drugs with the Opium like effects.

Natural Sources

OpiumMorphine Codeine

Semi Synthetic

Heroin(Brown Sugar)




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Modes of Intake

CodeineOral (tablets & cough


HeroinInjection, Inhalation,


OpiumOral, Inhalation


BuprenorphineOral, Injection

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Mood Instability Reduced Libido Constipation Respiratory Impairments Physical Deterioration

In female abusers, menstrualirregularity and fetal addiction / abnormality. Infections like serum hepatitisand HIV can occur among IV users.

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Tolerance and Psychological Dependence Develop

Feeling Of Unpleasantness Severe Pain Diarrhea Dilation of Pupils Insomnia Hallucinations

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Drugs which Excite or Speed up the Central Nervous System : Amphetamines Cocaine

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Drugs which Depress or Slow Down the Functions of the Central Nervous System : Sedative - Hypnotics

o Barbiturateso Benzodiazepines


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DEPRESSANTS : Long Term Effect

Long-term Effects of Depressants: Depression Chronic Fatigue Respiratory Impairments Impaired Sexual Function Decreased Attention Span Poor Memory and Judgement Chronic Sleep Problems

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Hallucinogens are drugs which affect Perception, Emotions and Mental Processes. Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) Phencyclidine (PCP) Mescaline Psilocybin

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Cannabis includes : Ganja / Marijuana Hashish / Charas Hashish Oil Bhang.

The most common mode

of intake is SmokingSmoking .

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CANNABIS : Long-term Effects

Decreased Cognitive Ability Amotivational Syndrome Respiratory Problems Sterility/Impotence Psychosis In women abusers,

Fetal damage

can occur

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Tolerance and Psychological Dependence Develop

Sleep Disturbances Loss of Appetite, Irritability Depression or psychotic

symptoms may become prominent


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Muscle Relaxants Analgesics Anti-Histamines Anti-Emetics Anti-Depressants / Anti-Psychotics

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EFFECTSA few examples of

possible effects of Drugs !

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Physical Deterioration Psychiatric Problems Safety Risks (Accidents and highly

Risky Behaviour) Intellectual Impairment Personality Deterioration Legal Risks

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Drug Addiction

Tolerance Psychological

Dependence Physical Dependence Withdrawal Symptoms

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Impact on

FamilyHow the drugs impact or affect the family ?

Featuring a discussion on The Altered Family Dynamics

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Happy Family Portrait by – Rani

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Suffers as financial resources are diverted for alcohol / drugs

Loses self esteem due to growing criticism and provocations

Isolates from external contacts to protect itself from further embarrassment

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boql nwlI’c roHV qI !

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Enabling Behaviour

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swfy cwcw jI dI dvweI

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In their attempts to eliminate the problem, the family unknowingly enables the addict to continue with his inappropriate behaviour.

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Enabling Behaviour : few examples

Justifying addict’s use

of drugs / alcohol.Calling the employer and

making excuses on addict’s

behalf to explain his

irresponsible behaviour.Paying Debts Incurred

by the addict.

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inSwnI vI geI !

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Loss of Daily StructureLack of Personal CareIndifference to Health

ProblemsLoss of Priorities

in Life

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... co-dependency traits

Inability to Maintain Interpersonal Relationships

Inability to Set and Maintain Limits Inability to Make DecisionsDefensiveness

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Feelings Experienced by the Family

Repeated problems and failures lead to : Shame and Loneliness Hopelessness Fear Hurt Grief Anger Guilt

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Impact on

ChildrenHow the parent’s addiction

affects the children ?

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a) Problems Faced by Childrenb) The Self-imposed Commands

(the Self-protection Roles)c) Guidelines to Parents

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(a) Problems Faced by Children

Lack of Care and WarmthLack of a Role ModelLoss of Self - EsteemDifficulty with Intimate

RelationshipsLiving in Constant Fear

and Anxiety

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(b) The Self-imposed Commands

Three Painful, Self - Imposed Commands

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ADJUSTING CHILD ... the lost child

Very TimidIndulges in Solitary Activities‘Invisible’ and WithdrawnGets Sick too often

(stress related illnesses)

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PLACATING CHILD ... the mascot

Provides Humour / Fun to Reduce Tension in the Family

Fear of Not BelongingFear of Breaking Down

Has Not Learnt :- to take Care of

his Emotions to express his Needs

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REBELLIOUS CHILD ... the scapegoat

DefiantActs OutLow AchieverThrows ‘Tantrums’

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(c) What Parents can do for the Child

Bitter are the Tears of your childSoothen them.

Ruffled are the Thoughts of your child

Quieten them. Heavy is the Grief of your child

Lighten it. Soft is the Heart of your child

Embrace it.

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Identifying the Child of an Addict

Poor attendance without any valid reason

Drop in school grades Pre-occupation in class, sleepy

unable to concentrate Friendlessness and isolation or being


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… identifying the child of an addict

Sudden temper and other emotional outbursts

Extreme fear about situations involving contact with parents

Presence of bruises quite often on the child’s body

Agitation, rebelliousness

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… identifying the child of an addict

Inability to pay school fees on time despite father holding a job

Unable to comply with school regulations such as bringing in permission slips, materials for project

Nobody present during the parent– teacher meeting

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DO’s &DONT’sWhat the family members

should :-Avoid Doing !Need to Do !

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Avoid Doing This !

Hiding or throwing away alcohol / drugs. Arguing when he is under the influence. Asking reasons for alcohol / drug use.Lecturing or making Emotional Appeals.(Sticks) - Punishing, Threatening(Carrots) - Bribing

In the long run, none

of these methods work.

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What Family Need to Do !

To accept that addiction is a serious problem which requires professional help

To calmly discuss addiction and related problems openly

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… need to do !

To stop protecting by covering up the consequences of drug / alcohol use.

Don’t feel or give the impression that the addict is doing a favour by not ‘using’

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… need to do !

Start communicating openly to the other family members about their concerns

To plan one day at a time and start executing them

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… need to do !

Let him start looking after their own needs and the needs of other family members

Let him understand that he is not alone and that all our help is available

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… need to do !

Try To identify healthy leisure activities

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