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    Consumer Behavior Models in Tourism

    Analysis Study

    Muhannad M.A Abdallat, Ph.D.

    Assistant Professor 

    Hesham El –Sayed El - Emam, Ph.D.

    Assistant Professor

    Department of Tourism and Hospitality, Faculty of Tourism and Archeology

    King Saud University

    ABSTRACT

    The theories of consumer decision-making process assume that the

    consumer’s purchase decision process consists of steps through which the

    buyer passes in purchasing a product or service. However, this might not be

    the case. Not every consumer passed through all these stages when making a

    decision to purchase and in fact, some of the stages can be skipped depending

    on the type of purchases.

    The reasons for the study of consumer’s helps firms and organizations improve

    their marketing strategies by understanding issues such as

    • The psychology of how consumers think, feel, reason, and select between

    different alternatives !e.g., brands, products"#

    • The psychology of how the consumer is influenced by his or her 

    environment !e.g., culture, family, signs, media"#

    • The behavior of consumers while shopping or making other marketing

    decisions#

    • $imitations in consumer knowledge or information processing abilities

    influence decisions and marketing outcome#

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    • How consumers’ motivation and decision strategies differ between products,

    that differ in their level of importance or interest that they entail for the

    consumer# and

    • How marketers can adapt and improve their marketing campaigns and

    marketing strategies to more effectively reach the consumer.

    2.2Consumer Behavior 

    The study of consumer behavior focuses on how individuals make decisions to

    spend their available resources !time, money, effort" on consumption-related

    items !%chiffman and &anuk, '(()". The field of consumer behavior covers a

    lot of ground. *ccording to %olomon !'((+", consumer behavior is a study of 

    the processes involved when individuals or groups select, purchase, use, or 

    dispose of products, services, ideas, or eperiences to satisfy needs and

    desires.

    The official definition of consumer behavior given by elch !'((" is /the

    process and activities people engage in when searching for, selecting,

    purchasing, using, evaluating, and disposing of products and services so as to

    satisfy their needs and desires’. ehavior occurs either for the individual, or in

    the contet of a group, or an organization. 0onsumer behavior involves the use

    and disposal of products as well as the study of how they are purchased.

    1roduct use is often of great interest to the marketer, because this may

    influence how a product is best positioned or how we can encourage increased

    consumption.

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     *ndreason !'(+2" proposed one of the earliest models of consumer behavior.

    This model is shown in 3igure 4.'.The model recognizes the importance of 

    information in the consumer decision-making process. 5t also emphasizes the

    importance of consumer attitudes although it fails to consider attitudes in

    relation to repeat purchase behavior.

    !

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    Perceived "eliefs,

     #orms,$alues of significant others%

    Other customer

    Decision-makers

    5nformation

    &

    'ntrinsic

    attri"utes

    ()trinsic

    attri"utes

    Price

    availa"ility

    Advocate

    impersonalsources

    'ndependent

    impersonalsources

    Advocate

     personal

    sources

    'ndependent

     personalsources

    'nformation

    storage

    Attitudes

    to*ardssources

    Filtration

    Personality

    Direct

    e)perience

    +eliefs

    antsant strength

    Feelings

    Disposition

    Search

    Select

     #oaction

    Attitudes to*ards

     product, su"stitutes,complement

    'ncome, "udget piorities,

     physical capacity,household capacity

    -*nership

    -ther 

     purchase

    decisions

    ld

    Key

    Direct Flo*s

    Feed"ac.s

    es

    !o

    Fi"ure #.$ Andreason, A.% &$'() Attitudes and *onsumer +ehaior A Decision Model in !e %esearch in

    Marketin" &ed. l. Preston/. 0nstitute o1 +usiness and Economic %esearch, 2niersity o1 *ali1ornia, +erkeley, pp%1/01

    onstraints

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     * second model, which concentrates on the buying decision for a new

    product, was proposed by Nicosia !'()+". This model is shown in 3igure 4.4.

    The model concentrates on the firm6s attempts to communicate with the

    consumer, and the consumers6 predisposition to act in a certain way. These

    two features are referred to as 3ield 7ne. The second stage involves the

    consumer in a search evaluation process, which is influenced by attitudes.

    This stage is referred to as 3ield Two. The actual purchase process is referred

    to as 3ield Three, and the post-purchase feedback process is referred to as

    3ield 3our. This model was criticized by commentators because it was not

    empirically tested !8altman, 1inson and *ngelman, '()9", and because of the

    fact that many of the variables were not defined !$unn, '():".

    1erhaps, the most fre;uently ;uoted of all consumer behavior models is the

    Howard-%heth model of buyer behavior, which was developed in '(+(. This

    model is shown in 3igure 4.9. The model is important because it highlights

    the importance of inputs to the consumer buying process and suggests ways

    in which the consumer orders these inputs before making a final decision.

    The Howard-%heth model is not perfect as it does not eplain all buyer 

    behavior. 5t is however, a comprehensive theory of buyer behavior that has

    been developed as a result of empirical research !Horton, '(:".

    %chiffman and &anuk !'(()" mentioned that many early theories

    concerning consumer behavior were based on economic theory, on the

    notion that individuals act rationally to maimize their benefits

    !satisfactions" in the purchase of goods and services. * consumer is

    generally thought of as a person who identifies a need or desire, makes

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    a purchase, and then disposes of the product during the three stages in

    the consumption process in 3igure4.4 !%olomon, '((+"

    2.2.1 NICOSIA MODE

    This model focuses on the relationship between the firm and its potential

    consumers. The firm communicates with consumers through its

    marketing messages !advertising", and the consumers react to these

    messages by purchasing response. $ooking to the model we will find

    that the firm and the consumer are connected with each other, the firm

    tries to influence the consumer and the consumer is influencing the firm

    by his decision.

    3ield '

      *ttitude

    3ield 4 %earch  *nd evaluation

    7f mean

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    The Nicosia model is divided into four ma?or fields

    !ield 1' The $onsumer attitude ased on the %irms/ messa"es.

    The first field is divided into two subfields.

    The first subfield deals with the firm’s marketing environment and

    communication efforts that affect consumer attitudes, the competitive

    environment, and characteristics of target market. %ubfield two specifies

    the consumer characteristics e.g., eperience, personality, and how he

    perceives the promotional idea toward the product in this stage the

    consumer forms his attitude toward the firm’s product based on his

    interpretation of the message.

    !ield 2' sear$h and evaluation

    The consumer will start to search for other firm’s brand and evaluate the

    firm’s brand in comparison with alternate brands. 5n this case the firm

    motivates the consumer to purchase its brands.

    !ield 0' T he a$t o% t he ur$hase

    The result of motivation will arise by convincing the consumer to

    purchase the firm products from a specific retailer.

    !ield ' !eed a$3

    This model analyses the feedback of both the firm and the consumer 

    after purchasing the product. The firm will benefit from its sales data as

    a feedback, and the consumer will use his eperience with the product

    affects the individuals attitude and predisposition’s concerning future

    messages from the firm.

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    The Nicosia model offers no detail eplanation of the internal factors,

    which may affect the personality of the consumer, and how the

    consumer develops his attitude toward the product. 3or eample, the

    consumer may find the firm’s message very interesting, but virtually he

    cannot buy the firm’s brand because it contains something prohibited

    according to his beliefs. *pparently it is very essential to include such

    factors in the model, which give more interpretation about the attributes

    affecting the decision process.

    2.2.2 4O5ARD#S4ET4 MODE

    This model suggests three levels of decision making

    '. The first level describes the etensive problem solving. *t this level

    the consumer does not have any basic information or knowledge about

    the brand and he does not have any preferences for any product. 5n this

    situation, the consumer will seek information about all the different

    brands in the market before purchasing.

    4. The second level is limited problem solving. This situation eists for 

    consumers who have little knowledge about the market, or partial

    knowledge about what they want to purchase. 5n order to arrive at a

    brand preference some comparative brand information is sought.

    9. The third level is a habitual response behavior. 5n this level the

    consumer knows very well about the different brands and he can

    differentiate between the different characteristics of each product, and

    he already decides to purchase a particular product. *ccording to the

    Howard-%heth model there are four ma?or sets of variables# namely

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    a- Inuts.

    These input variables consist of three distinct types of stimuli

    !information sources" in the consumer’s environment. The marketer in

    the form of product or brand information furnishes physical brand

    characteristics !significative stimuli" and verbal or visual product

    characteristics !symbolic stimuli". The third type is provided by the

    consumer’s social environment !family, reference group, and social

    class". *ll three types of stimuli provide inputs concerning the product

    class or specific brands to the specific consumer.

    5nputs 1erceptual 0onstructs $earning 0onstructs7utputs

    %timuli display

    !i"ure 2#0 A Simli%ied Des$rition o% the Theory o% BuyerBehavior 

    Sour$e' 4o6ard( and Sheth(&02 )1*,*-

    Significativea% 8uality

     "% Pricec% Distinctive

    d% Service

    e% Availa"ility

    Sym"olic

    a% 8uality "% Price

    c% Distinctived% Service

    e% Availa"ility

    Sociala% Family

     "% 9eferencegroups

    c% Social class

    Purchase

    'ntention

    Attitude

    +rand

    omprehe/

    Attention

    -vert

    search

    Stimulus

    am"iguity

    Attention

    Percept/

    ual "ias

    onfidence

    Attitude

    3otives

    hoice

    riteria

    +rand

    ompre/hension

    'ntention

    :

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    - &er$etual and earnin" Constru$ts,

    The central part of the model deals with the psychological variables

    involved when the consumer is contemplating a decision. %ome of the

    variables are perceptual in nature, and are concerned with how the

    consumer receives and understands the information from the input

    stimuli and other parts of the model. 3or eample, stimulus ambiguity

    happened when the consumer does not understand the message from

    the environment. 1erceptual bias occurs if the consumer distorts the

    information received so that it fits his or her established needs or 

    eperience. $earning constructs category, consumers’ goals, information

    about brands, criteria for evaluation alternatives, preferences and

    buying intentions are all included. The proposed interaction 5n between

    the different variables in the perceptual and learning constructs and

    other sets give the model its distinctive advantage.

    $- Oututs

    The outputs are the results of the perceptual and learning variables and

    how the consumers will response to these variables !attention, brand

    comprehension, attitudes, and intention".

    d- E7o"enous)E7ternal- variales

    =ogenous variables are not directly part of the decision-making

    process. However, some relevant eogenous variables include the

    importance of the purchase, consumer personality traits, religion, and

    time pressure.

    The decision-making process, which Howard-%heth >odel tries to

    eplain, takes place at three 5nputs stages %ignificance, %ymbolic and

    1;

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    %ocial stimuli. 5n both significative and symbolic stimuli, the model

    emphasizes on material aspects such as price and ;uality. These stimuli

    are not applicable in every society. @hile in social stimuli the model

    does not mention the basis of decision-making in this stimulus, such as

    what influence the family decisionA This may differ from one society to

    another.

    3inally, no direct relation was drawn on the role of religion in influencing

    the consumer’s decision-making processes. Beligion was considered as

    eternal factor with no real influence on consumer, which give the model

    obvious weakness in anticipation the consumer decision.

    2.2.0 EN8E#9OAT#BAC95E MODE

    This model was created to describe the increasing, fast-growing body of 

    knowledge concerning consumer behavior. This model, like in other 

    models, has gone through many revisions to improve its descriptive

    ability of the basic relationships between components and sub-

    components, this model consists also of four stages#

    !irst sta"e' de$ision#ro$ess sta"es

    The central focus of the model is on five basic decision-process stages

    1roblem recognition, search for alternatives, alternate evaluation !during

    which beliefs may lead to the formation of attitudes, which in turn may

    result in a purchase intention" purchase, and outcomes. ut it is not

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    necessary for every consumer to go through all these stages# it depends

    on whether it is an etended or a routine problem-solving behavior.

    !i"ure 2#.The En"el#9ollat#Bla$36ell Model o% Consumer Behavior.Sour$e' En"el ( Bla$36ell( and Miniard()1**:- a"e No *:

    Se$ond sta"e' In%ormation inut

     *t this stage the consumer gets information from marketing and non-

    marketing sources, which also influence the problem recognition stage

    of the decision-making process. 5f the consumer still does not arrive to a

    specific decision, the search for eternal information will be activated in

    Stimuli<

    3ar.eter/

    Dominated,other 

    ()posure

      ()ternal

      search

    Attention

    omprehension

    Perception

      =ielding>

      Acceptance

      9etention

    Dissatisfaction  Satisfaction

     3

     

    -

     9 

     =

    Pro"lem9ecognition

     Search'nternalsearch

      -utcomes

      Purchase

     Alternative evaluation

    'ndividualharacteristics

    <

    3otives

    $alues?ifestyle

    Personality

      +eliefs

      Attitude

      'ntention

    Social

    'nfluences<

    ulture9eference

    group

    Family

    Situational'nfluences

    'nput

    'nformation

    Processing Decision Process

    $aria"les 'nfluencing

    Precision Process

    1

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    order to arrive to a choice or in some cases if the consumer eperience

    dissonance because the selected alternative is less satisfactory than

    epected.

    Third sta"e' in%ormation ro$essin"

    This stage consists of the consumer’s eposure, attention, perception,

    acceptance, and retention of incoming information. The consumer must

    first be eposed to the message, allocate space for this information,

    interpret the stimuli, and retain the message by transferring the input to

    long-term memory.

    !ourth sta"e' variales in%luen$in" the de$ision ro$ess

    This stage consists of individual and environmental influences that affect

    all five stages of the decision process. 5ndividual characteristics include

    motives, values, lifestyle, and personality# the social influences are

    culture, reference groups, and family. %ituational influences, such as a

    consumer’s financial condition, also influence the decision process.

    This model incorporates many items, which influence consumer 

    decision-making such as values, lifestyle, personality and culture. The

    model did not show what factors shape these items, and why different

    types of personality can produce different decision-makingA How will we

    apply these values to cope with different personalitiesA Beligion can

    eplain some behavioral characteristics of the consumer, and this will

    lead to better understanding of the model and will give more

    comprehensive view on decision-making.

    1!

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    2.2. Bettman/s In%ormation &ro$essin" Model o% Consumer 

    Choi$e

    ettman !'()(" in his model describes the consumer as possessing a

    limited capacity for processing information. He implicate that the

    consumers rarely analyze the comple alternatives in decision making

    and apply very simple strategy.

    5n this model there are seven ma?or stages.

    Sta"e No. 1' &ro$essin" $aa$ity

    5n this step he assumes that the consumer has limited capacity for 

    processing information, consumers are not interested in comple

    computations and etensive information processing. To deal with this

    problem, consumers are likely to select choice strategies that make

    product selection an easy process.

    Sta"e No. 2' Motivation

    >otivation is located in the center of ettman model, which influence

    both the direction and the intensity of consumer choice for more

    information in deciding

    3otivation

      @oal  hierarchy

    Processing

    capacity

      Attention

    'nformation

    acuisitionand

    evaluation

      Decision

    Processes

    onsumption

    andlearning

     processes

     Perceptual

    encoding

    Perceptual

    Scanner and

    interrupt

    mechanisms

    interrupt

    interpretationand

    response

    3emorysearch

    ()ternal

    search

    Scanner 

    and

    interruptmechanisms

      'nterrupt

    interpretation

      and  response

    Scanner 

    and

    interruptmechanisms

    'nterrupt

    interpretation

    andresponse

      Scanner 

      and  interrupt

      mechanisms

    'nterrupt

      interpretation  and

    response

    1&

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    !i"ure 2.: the Bettman In%ormation#&ro$essin" Model o% Consumer Choi$e

    Sour$e' Bettman. )1*+*-. & ;2

    etween the alternatives >otivation is provided with hierarchy of goals’

    mechanism that provides a series of different sub-goals to simplify the

    choice selection. This mechanism suggests that the consumers own

    eperience in a specific area of market and he doesn’t need to go

    through the same hierarchy every time to arrive at a decision, which

    make this mechanism serves as an organizer for consumer efforts in

    making a choice. No concern was given on religious motives, and how

    religion may motivate the consumer in his decision. >ost of the general

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    theories of motivation such as >aslow’s hierarchy of needs !'()C"

    emphasizes self-achievement, the need for power, and the need for 

    affiliation.

    Sta"e No. 0' Attention and er$etual en$odin".

    The component of this step is ;uite related to the consumer6s goal

    hierarchy. There are two types of attention# the first type is voluntary

    attention, which is a conscious allocation of processing capacity to

    current goals. The second is involuntary attention, which is automatic

    response to disruptive events !e.g., newly ac;uired comple

    information". oth different types of attention influence how individuals

    proceed in reaching goals and making choices. The perceptual

    encoding accounts for the different steps that the consumer needs to

    perceive the stimuli and whether he needs more information.

    Sta"e No. ' In%ormation a$

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    this informations is not sufficient, no doubt he will start looking again for 

    eternal sources.

    Sta"e No. ,' De$ision &ro$ess

    This step in ettman’s model indicates that different types of choices are

    normally made associated with other factors, which may occur during

    the decision process. %pecifically, this component deals with the

    application of heuristics or rules of thumb, which are applied in the

    selection and evaluation of specific brand. These specific heuristics a

    consumer uses are influenced by both individual factors !e.g.,

    personality differences" and situational factors !e.g., urgency of the

    decision"# thus it is unlikely that the same decision by the same

    consumer will apply in different situation or other consumer in the same

    situation.

    Sta"e No. +' Consumtion and earnin" &ro$ess

    5n this stage, the model discusses the future results after the purchase

    is done. The consumer in this step will gain eperience after evaluating

    the alternative. This eperience provides the consumer with information

    to be applied to future choice situation. ettman in his model emphasize

    on the information processing and the capacity of the consumer to

    analyze this information for decision making, but no eplanation was

    given about the criteria by which the consumer accepts or refuses to

    process some specific information.

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    2.2.: Sheth#Ne6man 8ross Model o% Consumtion =alues

     *ccording to this model, there are five consumption values influencing

    consumer choice behavior. These are functional, social, conditional,

    emotional, and epistemic values. *ny or all of the five consumption

    values may influence the decision. Darious disciplines !including

    economics, sociology, several branches of psychology, marketing and

    consumer behavior" have contributed theories and research findings

    relevant to these values, !%heth et al . '(('". =ach consumption value in

    the theory is consistent with various components of models advanced

    by >aslow !'()C", &atona !'()'", &atz !'(+C", and Hanna !'(C". 3ive

    consumption values form the core of the model

    !i"ure 2#,' The %ive values in%luen$in" Consumer Choi$e Behavior 

    Sour$e' Sheth( Ne6man( and 8ross )1**1- &1:*#1+;

    The %irst value' !un$tional value

    To %heth et al. !'(('" the functional value of an alternative is defined as

    EThe perceived utility ac;uired from an alternative for functional,

    utilitarian, or physical performance. *n alternative ac;uires functional

    onsumer hoice +ehavior 

    Functional $alue onditional

    $alue

    Social

    $alue

    (motional $alue (pistemic

    $alue

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    value through the possession of salient functional, utilitarian, or physical

    attributes. 3unctional value is measured on a profile of choice

    attributes.E

    Traditionally, functional value is presumed to be the primary driver of 

    consumer choice. This assumption underlies economic utility theory

    advanced by >arshall !'(C" and %tigler !'(2C" and popularly

    epressed in terms of Erational economic man.E *n alternative’s

    functional value may be derived from its characteristics or attributes,

    !3erber, '()9" such as reliability, durability, and price. 3or eample, the

    decision to purchase a particular automobile may be based on fuel

    economy and maintenance record.

    y identifying the dominant function of a product !i.e., what benefits it

    provides", marketers can emphasize these benefits in their 

    communication and packaging. *dvertisements relevant to the function

    prompt more favorable thoughts about what is being marketed and can

    result in a heightened preferences for both the ads and the product,

    !%olomon '((+#'+C".

    &atz !'(+C" developed the functional theory of attitudes. He identifies

    four attitudes based on the functional values

    '" Ftilitarian function. The utilitarian function is related to the basic

    principles of reward and punishment. @e develop some of our attitude

    toward products simply based on whether these products provide

    pleasure or pain.

    1:

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    4" Dalue-epressive function. *ttitude that performs a value-epressive

    function epresses the consumers’ central values or self-concept. *

    person forms a product attitude not because of its ob?ective benefits, but

    because of what the product says about him or her as a person.

    9" =go-defensive function. *ttitude formed to protect the person, either 

    from eternal threats or internal feelings, perform an ego-defensive

    function. =ample of this function is deodorant campaigns that stress

    the dire, embarrassing conse;uences of being caught with underarm

    odor in public.

    :" &nowledge function. %ome attitude is formed as a result of a need for 

    order, structure, or meaning. This need is often present when a person

    is in an ambiguous situation or is confronted with a new product.

    The se$ond value' So$ial value

    %heth et al. !'(('#'+'" defined social value of an alternative as

    EThe perceived utility ac;uired from an alternative association with one

    or more specific social groups. *n alternative ac;uires social value

    through association with positively or negatively stereotyped

    demographic, socioeconomic, and cultural-ethnic groups. %ocial value is

    measured on a profile choice imagery.E

    %ocial imagery refers to all relevant primary and secondary reference

    groups likely to be supportive of the product consumption. 0onsumers

    ac;uire positive or negative stereotypes based on their association with

    varied demographic !age, se, religion", socioeconomic !income,

    ;

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    occupation", cultural

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    associated with aesthetic alternatives !e.g. religion, causes". However,

    more tangible and seemingly utilitarian products also have emotional

    values. 3or eample, some foods arouse feeling of comfort through their 

    association with childhood eperiences, and consumers are sometimes

    said to have Elove affairsE with their cars.

     * number of different attempts have been made to identify the various

    emotions that people eperience. 5zard !'())" develops the taonomy

    of affective eperience approach that describes the basic emotion that

    people feel. He measures emotions using ten fundamental categories

    interest, ?oy, surprise, sadness, anger, disgust, contempt, fear, shame,

    and guilt. This approach has been used etensively by consumer 

    researchers, for eample, @estbrook and 7liver !'(('".

    The %ourth value' Eistemi$ value

    %heth et al. !'((' #'+4" defined epistemic value as

    EThe perceived utility ac;uired from an alternatives capacity to arouse

    curiosity, provide novelty, and

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    with epistemic value. The alternative may be chosen because the

    consumer is bored or satiated with his or her current brand !as in trying

    a new type of food", is curious !as in visiting a new shopping comple",

    or has a desire to learn !as in eperiencing another culture".

    The concept of epistemic values has been influenced by theory and by

    several important areas of research. =ploratory, novelty seeking, and

    variety seeking motives have been suggested to active product search,

    trial, and switching behavior, !Howard and %heth '(+(". 7ne of the most

    significant contributors to the study of the optimal stimulation and

    arousal has been erlyne !'()C", who contends that individuals are

    driven to maintain an optimal or intermediate level of stimulation. 3inally,

    Hirschman !'(C" has advanced innovativeness, or a consumer’

    propensity to adopt new products.

    The !i%th value' Conditional value

    %heth et al. !'(('#'+4" defined the conditional value as

    EThe perceived utility ac;uired by an alternative is the result of the

    specific situation or set of circumstances facing the choice maker. *n

    alternative ac;uires conditional value in the presence of antecedent

    physical or social contingencies that enhance its functional or social

    value. 0onditional value is measured on a profile of choice

    contingencies.E

     *n alternative’s utility will often depend on the situation. 3or eample,

    some products only have seasonal value !e.g., greeting cards", some

    !

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    are associated with once in a life events !e.g., wedding dress", and

    some are used only in emergencies !e.g., hospital services". %everal

    areas of in;uiry have also influenced conditional value. ased on the

    concept of stimulus dynamism advanced by Hall !'(+9", Howard !'(+("

    recognized the importance of learning that takes place as a result of 

    eperience with a given situation. Howard and %heth !'(+(" then

    etended Howard’s earlier work by defining the construct inhibitors as

    noninternalized forces that impede buyers’ preferences. The concept of 

    inhibitors was more formally developed by %heth !'():" in his model of 

    attitude-behavior relationship as anticipated situations and unepected

    events. Becognizing that behavior cannot be accurately predicted based

    on attitude or intention alone, a number of researchers during the '()Cs

    investigated the predictive ability of situational factors !e.g., %heth

    '():".

    The five consumption values identified by the theory make differential

    contributions in specific choice contets. 3or eample, a consumer may

    decide to purchase coins as an inflation hedge !functional value", and

    also realize a sense of security !emotional value" from the investment.

    %ocial, epistemic, and conditional values have little influence. 7f course,

    a choice may be influenced positively by all five consumption values 3or 

    eample, to a first-time home buyer, the purchase of a home might

    provide functional value !the home contains more space than the

    present apartment", social values !friends are also buying homes",

    emotional values !the consumer feels secure in owning a home",

    &

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    epistemic value !the novelty of purchasing a home is en?oyable", and

    conditional value !starting a family".

    2.2., Solomon Model o% $omarison ro$ess

    !i"ure 2.+ Model o% $omarison ro$essSour$e' Solomon )1**,- &00

    3igure 4.) eplains some of the issus that are addressed during each stage of 

    the consumption process. The /echange’, in which two or more organizations

    Ho* does a consumer decide

    that he>she needs a productB

    hat are the "est sources of

    information to learn more

    a"out alternative choicesB

    Ho* are consumer attitudes

    to*ard products formed

    and>or changedBhat cues do consumers use

    to infer *hich products are

    superior to othersB

    -#SU3(9CS P(9SP(T'$( 3A9K(T(9CS P(9SP(T'$(

    's acuiring a product a

    stressful or pleasant

    e)perienceB hat does the

     purchase say a"out the

    consumerB

    Ho* do situational factors,

    such as time pressure or

    store displays, affect the

    consumers purchase

    decisionB

    Does the product provide

     pleasure or perform its

    intended functionB

    Ho* is the product

    eventually disposed of, and

    *hat are the environmental

    conseuences of this actB

    hat determines *hether a

    consumer *ill "e satisfied

    *ith a product and *hether

    he>she *ill "uy it againB

    Does this person tell others

    a"out his>her e)periences

    *ith the product and affecttheir purchase decisionsB

    P9(PU9HAS(

    'SSU(S

    PU9HAS(

    'SSU(S

    P-STPU9HAS(

    'SSU(S

    2

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    or people give and receive something of value, is an integral part of 

    marketing. He also suggested that consumer behavior involves many

    different actors. The purchaser and user of a product might not be the same

    person. 1eople may also act as influences on the buying processes.

    7rganizations can also be involved in the buying process. >uch of marketing

    activity, they suggest, concentrates on adapting product offerings to particular 

    circumstances of target segment needs and wants. 5t is also common to

    stimulate an already eisting want through advertising and sales promotion,

    rather than creating wants. The definitions and models, which have been

    presented so far, have been from general marketing theory. Tourism is, by its

    very nature, a service rather than a product, which may have a considerable

    effect on consumer behavior.

    2.2.+ Stimulus#Resonse Model o% Buyer Behavior 

    >iddleton !'((:" presented an adapted model of consumer behavior tourism,

    which was termed the stimulus-response model of buyer behavior. The model

    is shown in 3igure 4.. This model is based on the four interactive

    components with the central component identified as 6buyer characteristics

    and decision process6.

    9ange of

    competitive

     produced and

    mar.eted "y

    the tourist

    industry

    Advertising

    Sales promotion

    +rochures

    Personal selling

    P9 

    Friends

    Family9eference

    @roup

    Product

    +randPrice

    -utlet

    Post/purchase and

     post/consumption feelings

    Stimulus 0n3ut *ommunication

    channels

    +uyer characteristics and

    decision 3rocess

    Purchase out3uts

    &res3onse/

    *ommunication

    1ilters Motiation

    0

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    !i"ure 2.> a Stimulus#Resonse Model o% Buyer Behavior Sour$e' Middleton )1**- & 1;#112

    The model separates out motivators and determinants in consumer buying

    behavior and also emphasizes the important effects that an organization can

    have on the consumer buying process by the use of communication channels.

    %chmoll !'())" ;uoted in 0ooper et al. !'((9", developed a model which

    hypothesized that consumer decisions were a result of four elements as

    follows

    • travel stimuli, including guide books, reports from other travelers and

    advertising and promotion

    • personal and social determinants of travel behaviour including motivators,

    desires and epectations

    • eternal variables, including destination images, confidence in travel trade

    intermediaries and constraints such as cost and time

    Demographic

    economic and

    social position

    Psychographiccharacteristic

     #eeds

    ants

    @oals

    Attitudes

    ?earning

    Perception

    ()perience

    6

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    • 0haracteristics and features of the service destination such as the

    perceived link between cost and value and the range of attractions and

    amenities offered.

    2.2.> Model o% Travel#Buyin" Behavior Mathieson and 5all

    >athieson and @all !'(4" suggested a linear five-stage model of travel

    buying behaviour, which is shown in 3igure 4.(.

    !i"ure 2.* Model o% Travel#Buyin" BehaviorSour$e' Mathieson and 5all )1*>2- *:

    2.2.* Model o% Consumer De$ision#Ma3in" !rame6or3

     Gilbert !'(('" suggested a model for consumer decision-making in which is

    shown in 3igure 4.'C This model suggests that there are two levels of factors

    that have an effect on the consumer. The first level of influences is close to

    the person and includes psychological influence such as perception and

    learning. The second level of influences includes those, which have been

    developed during the socialization process and include reference groups and

    family influences. *ll these models that have been adapted for tourism offer 

    some into the consumer behavior process involved during the purchase post-

    purchase decision stages.

    Felt need>travel

    desire

    'nformation

    collectionand

    evaluation

    image

    Travel

    decision4choice

     "et*een

    alternatives5

    Travel

    satisfaction

    outcome and

    evaluation

    Travel

     preparation

    and travel

    e)periences

    7

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    !i"ure 2.1; Consumer De$ision#Ma3in" !rame6or3

    Sour$e' 8ilert( )1**1- In Cooer )Ed.-. &.+>#1;:

    2.2.1; Inte"rated Model o% Sel%#Con"ruity and !un$tional Con"ruity inE7lainin" and &redi$tin" Travel Behaviour 

     * more encompassing approach to the understanding of 0%

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    reduce an eisting dissatisfaction state and

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    Belatedly, %irgy !'(4b" argues that 0%

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    epressive attributes of a given product and the consumer self-concept on

    consumer decisions such as product preference, purchase intentions,

    purchase behavior, product satisfaction

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    image". 5n this situation the individual might be motivated to purchase the

    product but hisodel of self-congruity and travel behavior is depicted in 3igure4.'' the

    model posits that various aspects of the destination and its atmosphere are

    related to the destination visitor image. The destination visitor image is then

    evaluated in light of specific dimensions of the tourist’s self-concept to

    determine the degree of self-congruity which is systematically related to travel

    behavior.

    Destination

    $isitor 'mage

    !!

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    !i"ure 2.11 an Inte"rated Model o% Sel%#Con"ruity and !un$tionalCon"ruity in E7lainin" and &redi$tin" Travel Behaviour 

    Sour$e Si"ry and 8re6al )1**+- & 22*#21.

    2.0Desi$$ation

    ifferent models of consumer behavior describe satisfaction as the final

    output of the decision process or incorporate it in the feedback mechanism

    linking completed eperiences to future behavior. 3or eample# Nicosia !'()+"

    Destination

    (nvironment

    TouristSelf/oncept

    Self/ongruity

    Functional/

    ongruity

    Self/ongruity

    Tourist

    PerceivedUtilitarian

    Destination

    Attri"utes

    Tourist

    'deal

    Utilitarian

    Destination

    Attri"utes

    !&

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    attributes the state of 0%

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    and a positive self-image", or negative self-congruity !match between a

    negative product image and negative self-image". %irgy et.al !4CCC" added on

    further by stating that tourists’ perception of the destination !type and ;uality

    of resorts, prices, hotel ambiance, atmosphere, etc" is likely to influence the

    formation and change of the destination visitor image. Given that self-concept

    is multidimensional in nature !actual, ideal, social, ideal social self", at issue is

    the particular dimension of the self-concept evoked in the psychological

    process of self-congruity J the matching of the tourist’s self-concept with the

    destination visitor image.

    5n addition to evaluating a destination by focusing on the symbolic !person-

    like" attributes of the destination, tourists may also evaluate destinations

    based on the destination’s functional or utilitarian attributes. The match

    between the destination’s level of a utilitarian attribute and the tourist’s

    epectation of the attribute is referred to as functional congruity J may also

    affect destination travel and may be related to self-congruity.

    Re%eren$es

     *ndeason,*.B. !'(+2" *ttitudes and 0onsumer ehaviour * ecision >odel

    in New Besearch in >arketing ! 1reston". 5nstitute of usiness and

    elch, G.=. !'()".Ielief %ystem and the ifferential Bole of the %elf-

    0oncept

    !0

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    5n *dvances in 0onsume Besearch, Dol .2 ed . &eith H.Hunt, *nn *rbor,

    >ichigan *ssociation for 0onsumer Besearch.

    elch,G.=.,and $andon, =.$., !'())"I iscriminate Dalidity of a 1roduct.

     *nchored %elf-0oncept >easure.I Kournal of >arketing Besearch,

    ':424-2+.

    erlyne. .3 !'()C" @ovelty. 0ompleity and Hedonic Dalue perception

    psycnophysics November 4)-4+

    ettman, K.B. !'()(". *n 5nformation 1rocessing Theory of 0onsumer 0hoice

    Beading, >* *ddison-@esley, *dvances in >arketing %eries, :C4

    0ooper, 0.1. !'((9" Tourism 1rinciples and 1ractice. 1itman, $ondon.

    =ngel, K.3., lackwell, B. and >iniard, 1.@. !'((2" 0onsumer ehavior.

    3erber. Bobert !'()9" 0onsumer =conomics a %urvey a Kournal of economics

    $iterature '' ecember, '9C9-'9:4

    Gilbert, .0. !'(('" L*n =amination of the 0onsumer ehavior 1rocess

    Belated to Tourism. L 5n 1rogress in Tourism, Becreation and

    Hospitality >anagement, edited by 0.1. 0ooper .$ondon elhaven,

    pp.)-'C2

    Hall =leanor B. !'((C" >arketing taa growing minority population market facts

    a !'" 2+-2(

    Hann Kanice G, !'(C" a Typology of 0onsumer Needs 5n Besearch in

    >arketing Dol.9, 9-'C:

    Hirschman 0. =lizabeth and >ills >ichael &. !'(C" %ource %hoppers use to

    pick store Kournal of advertising research volume 4C No'

    !6

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    Horton, B.$. !'(:" uyer ehaviour. * decision >aking *pproach. 0harles =.

    >errill 1ublishing 0ompany, 0olumbus

    Howard K.* and %heth K.N.!'(+)". ETheory of uyer ehavior,E 1roceedings,

     *merican >arketing *ssociation

    Howard K.* and %heth K.N !'(+(", the Theory of uyer ehavior, New Mork

    Kohn @iley and %ons.(-4

    Howard K.* and %heth K.N !'()9", The Theory of uyer ehavior, in H.H

    &assara?ian and T.%. Boberton !eds." 1erspectives in 0onsumer

    ehavior, Glenview, 5llinois %cott, 3oresman and 0ompany.

    Hughes, G. and. Guerrero, K.$ !'()'"I*utomobile %elf- 0ongruity >odels

    Beeamined,I Kournal of >arketing Besearch, ,'42-).

    Hughes, G. and.Naert, 1.* !'()C"I* 0omputer 0ontrolled =periment in

    0onsumer ehavior,I Kournal of usiness, :9, 92:-)4.

    Hunt, H. &eith !'())", L0%c Graw Hill NM

    &atz aniel !'(+C" The 3unctional *pproach The %tudy *ttitude 1ublic

    7pinion O.4: summer '+-4C:

    !7

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    $unn, K.* . !'():" 0onsumer ecision 1rocess >odels in >odels of uyer

    ehaviour!ed N. %heth Kagdish". Harper and Bow , new Mork, 9:-+(

    >arshall *lfre !'(C" principle of =conomic, an 5ntroductory Dolume

    >acmillian $ondon.

    >athieson, *. and @all, G, !'(4" Tourism =conomic, 1hysical and %ocial

    5mpacts. $ongman, Harlow. (2

    >cneal, K.F. !'()9". 5ntroduction to 0onsumer ehavior, New Mork Kohn

    @iley and %ons.

    >iddelton, D.T.0 !'((:" >arketing for Travel and Tourism. 4nd edn.

    utterworth-Heinemann, $ondon .'C:-''4

    Nicosia, 3.>. Bobert, @ !'()+". 0onsumer ehavior Toward %ociology 7f

    0onsumption ?ournal of 0onsumer Besearch .

    7liver Bichard $ !'(C". L* 0ognitive >odel of the *ntecedents and

    0onse;uences of %atisfaction ecisions,I Kournal of >arketing

    Besearch, November, :+C-:+(.

    Bosenberg, >, !'()(". 0onceiving the %elf f, !New Mork asic ooks.

    %chhiffman K. and &anuk $ealie $azar !'(()" 0onsumer ehavior published

    by 1rentice Hall %ith edition .::+

    %heth, K.N..5. and Newman .$ Gross, .$. !'(('" .@hy @e uy @hat @e

    uy a Theory of 0onsumer ehavior. Kournal of usiness Besearch

    Dol 44. '2(-')C

    %irgy, >.K. !'()(",I%elf-0oncept in 0onsumer ehavior,I unpublished 1h..

    dissertation, epartments of 1sychology, Fniversity of >assachusetts,

    and *mherst

    !:

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     %irgy, >.K. !'(C". L%elf-0oncept in Belation to 1roduct 1reference and

    1urchase 5ntention,I in evelopments in >arketing %cience, Dol. 9,

    ed.D.D. ellur, !>ar;uette, >ichigan *cademy of >arketing %cience,

    . %irgy.>.K !'('a", L%elf concept in 0onsumer ehavior * 0ritical Beview,I

    Kournal of 0onsumer Besearch, !forthcoming".

     %irgy, >.K. !'(lb" L%elf-0oncept Theory for 0onsumer ehavior,I @orking

    paper, epartment of >arketing, Dirginia Tech

    . %irgy, >.K !'(lc", L5ntroducing a /%elf-Theory’ to 0onsumer 1ersonality

    Besearch,I K%*%. 0atalog of %elected ocuments in 1sychology, ''

    99,>s .442C.

     %irgy, >. K. !'('d". I Testing a 0onsumer %elf 0oncept >odel Fsing

    Tangible 1roducts,I paper presented at *merican 1sychological

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    %igry >.K and Grewal T.3. !'(()" *ssessing the 1redictive Dalidity of Two

    >ethods of >easuring %elf-5mage 0ongruence. Kournal of the

    academy of marketing science, 42 !9", 44(-4:'.

    %irgy, >, Koseph , and. %aml *.0 !'(2".I* 1ath *nalytic >odel of %tore

    $oyalty 5nvolving %elf-0oncept. %tore 5mage, %ocioeconomic status,

    and Geographic $oyalty.I Kournal of the *cademy of >arketing

    %cience.'94+2-('.

    %irgy, >, Koseph. Kohar K. %, %amli *.0 and.0laiborn, 0. !'(('". L%elf-

    0ongruity versus 3unctional 0ongruity 1redictors of 0onsumer

    ehavior.I Kournal of the *cademy of >arketing %cience.'(9+9)2.

    .%irgy, >., Koseph, Kohar, K.% and.0laiborne 0. !'((4".I%elf-0oncept

    >otivation as >ediator between %elf-0ongruity and *ttitude < 5ntention.I

    &;

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    5n evelopments in >arketing %cience. Dol.'2, edited by D.$. 0ritten

    .0hestnut Hill, >* *cademy of marketing %cience, :C4-+.

    %irgy, >. Koseph and 0henting %u !4CCC" The =thics of 0onsumer

    sovereignty in an *ge of High Tech Kournal of usiness =thics,

      4, '-':.

    %ommers,>.% L1roduct %ymbolism and the 1erception of %ocial %trata,I

    1roceedings, @inter 0onference, *merican >arketing *ssociation,

    !'(+:", 4CC-4'+.

    %olomon !'((+" consumer behaviour, 9rd edn 1rentice Hall =nglewood 0liffs.

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    %tigler . G. K !'(2C" The development of utility theory Kournal of 1olitical

    =conomy 2 *ugust 7ctober 9C)-94).9)9-9(+

    %uprenant, *. !'())" L1roduct %atisfaction as a 3unction of =pectation and

    1erformance,I in B. $. ay !=d", 0onsumer satisfaction, issatisfaction

    and 0omplaining. 9+-:'.

    @estbrook Bobert *. and 7liver Bichard $. 7 !'(('" . The dimensionality of

    consumption emotion pattern and consumer satisfaction . Kournal of

    0onsumer Besearch, ', :-('

    8altman,G. 1inson, 0.* .*nd *gelman, B. !'()9" ethodology and 0onsumer

    Besearch. Holt Binehart and @inston, New Mork


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