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The Roman Republic

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509 B.C. Rome becomes a republic.

264 B.C. The First Punic War with Carthage begins.

218 B.C. In the Second Punic War, Hannibal invades Italy.

44 B.C. Conspirators kill Julius Caesar.

A.D. 284 Diocletian, who will divide the Roman Empire, becomes emperor.

A.D. 476 Western Roman Empire falls with the ouster of the last emperor, Romulus Augustulus.

500 B.C.

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Rome’s growth and decline over the years.

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According to legend, Rome was founded Romulus and Remus, twin sons of Mars

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Ancient Rome-3 Groups

• Latins-Farmers, Shepherds• Settled Latium (on Tiber River)• Built original settlement at Rome• First “Romans”

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Ancient Rome-3 Groups

• Greeks-Settled southern Italy and Sicily• Prosperous in trade and business

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Ancient Rome-3 Groups

• Etruscans-Northern Italy• Skilled metalworkers/engineers

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Rome, in the beginning, was a monarchy

• King was the head of the religion and held most of the power. Etruscan Kings

• Romans declared they would never again be ruled by a king!

• Romans establish a new government called a republic “res publica”-public affairs.

• Power rests with the citizens who vote to select leaders.

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Early Roman Republic

• Patricians-Wealthy landowners who held most of the power. Inherited wealth and social status.

• Plebeians- Commoners, artisans, and merchants who made up the majority of the population. They were citizens of Rome who could vote.

• Tribunes-representatives of the Plebeians who protected them from power of the Patricians.

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So instead of a king, they had two consuls-this was the executive branch of the government.

• Each consul had to consult the other before acting and one could veto the other.

• Were patricians elected to one year terms

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• Supreme commanders of the military

• Took care of daily affairs and kept other officials in line. Also presided over the Senate.

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The Senate

• A body of 300 patricians from the wealthiest families.

• Served for life.

• Advised consuls, approved projects, did foreign policy.

• Was the main power in Rome.

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The Twelve Tables

• The first written Roman law.

• Made around 450 BC in response to plebians’ complaints that the patricians were forming and interpreting laws to their own benefit.

• They were written down on 12 bronze tablets that were posted in the Roman forum.

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Here’s a sampling from the Twelve Tables:

• If someone is called to go to court, he is to go. If he doesn't go, a witness should be called. Only then should he be captured. If he shirks or flees, he should be captured. If illness or old age is an impediment, let him be given a carriage. If he doesn't want it, it should not be covered.

• An obviously deformed child must be put to death.

• If a father sells his son into slavery three times, the son shall be free of his father.

• If a person dies intestate without heirs, the nearest male kinsman shall inherit. If there is no near male kinsmen, his clansmen shall inherit.

• If one has maimed another and does not buy his peace, let there be retaliation in kind.

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• Someone who breaks another's bone by hand or club must pay 300 sesterces; for a slave, 150; if he has done simple harm against another, 25.

• No dead man may be cremated nor buried in the City.

• Marriages between plebeians and patricians are forbidden.

• Men in the army may not wed until training is complete.

• Someone who has brought a false claim shall be brought before three judges, and shall pay a double penalty.

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• Expands through trade and conquest!• Romans defeat Etruscans in the North and

Greek City-States in the South• They now control the Italian Peninsula! • 265 B.C.E.

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• Treatment of conquered territories varied, but was lenient:

• Some given full citizenship• All rights except to vote• “Allies”-must send troops to Rome and

could not make treaties with any other state.

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• Location of Rome essential to trade-merchants moved by land and sea

• Traded Roman wine and olive oil for other foods, raw materials, and manufactured goods from other lands.

• Biggest competitor-CARTHAGE!

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Carthage’s areas of influence before the First Punic War.

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The Punic Wars (3 of them)

• 264 B.C.-1st Punic War for control of Sicily (grain growing) and control of western Mediterranean Sea.

• Lasted 23 years• Rome-VICTOR!

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They weren’t all that far apart.

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The Punic Wars (3 of them)

• 218 B.C.-2nd Punic War• Hannibal (Carthage)-wanted revenge!• 50,000 infantry, 9000 cavalry, and 60 elephants.• Went through Spain and France to cross Alps

and invade Rome.• Defeated in 202 B.C. by Scipio Africanus

(Rome)-attacked Carthage forcing Hannibal to return from Italy-VICTOR ROME!

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The Punic Wars (3 of them)

• 149-146 B.C.E.-3rd Punic War• Carthage no longer threat, but Romans

wanted revenge.• Siege of Carthage-set afire and its 50,000

residents sold into slavery-land salted

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• Rome’s victory over Carthage gave it control over the western Mediterranean

• Rome then took over eastern half-Macedonia, Greece, and parts of Anatolia.

• By 70 B.C.E. the empire stretched from Anatolia to Spain!

• #2 on p. 145

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Answer the Following Questions: 6.1

• How did geography affect the development of Rome?

• Which were the main groups that competed for power in early Rome?

• What is the significance of the Twelve Tables?

• What were the causes of the 1st Punic War?• What was the significance of the Punic

Wars for Rome?

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The Roman Empire brings Change!

• Problems with expansion• Gap between rich and poor!• 1/3 of the population were slaves• Small farmers could not compete with

large landowners• Class tensions lead to collapse of the


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Gracchus Brothers

• Tiberius and Gaius• Their mother was the daughter of Scipio• Tribunes (Plebians)• Proposed reforms to help the poor• Both met violent deaths• Period of Civil War followed!• Rise of politically powerful military leaders-

Julius Caesar.

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Julius Caesar

• At first, ruled with Crassus and Pompey as the first Triumvirate.

• Caesar-strong leader and military genius-conquered all of Gaul-popular with the people of Rome.

• Ordered by Senate to disband his legions and return home-he defies Senate and leads a civil war against Pompey.

• Wins-appointed Dictator for Life by Senate

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Julius Caesar• Rules with Absolute Power-total control• Reforms:• Citizenship to people in the provinces• Expanded the Senate• Helped poor by creating jobs through

construction of new buildings• Started colonies so landless could have land• Increased pay for soldiers.• Caesar assassinated in Senate chamber-

Brutus and Cassius-many troubled by his growing power and feared losing their own power!

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Octavian• Caesar’s Grand-Nephew

Mark Antony• General

Lepidus• Politician

The Second TriumvirateCivil War after death of Julius Caesar destroyed what was

left of the Republic

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The 3 ruled for 10 years-Executed many senators to put down


Octavian and Mark Antony lead Roman

Legions in battle against the legions of Brutus and Cassius

Octavian returns to Rome

Antony goes on victory tour-Meets


Octavian and Mark Antony are

VICTORIUS!-Cassius & Brutus commit suicide.

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Declares war on Cleopatra Defeats combined forces of Mark Antony & Cleopatra

Mark AntonyFollows her to Egypt Accused by Octavian of plotting

against Rome-outlawed by Senate


Queen of Egypt Captures heart of Mark Antony

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Antony & CleopatraAntony-Kills himself with a sword

Cleopatra-Commits suicide (Poison/Asp)

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• Octavian-The unchallenged ruler of Rome• Becomes AUGUSTUS-The “exalted one”• 27 B.C.E. to 180 C.E. – Peace reigned

throughout the Empire “Pax Romana”• During this time:• Empire was 3 million square miles,

population of 60-80 million, 1 million in Rome itself!

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p. 150-152• Who were the 5 “good” emperors? How did they

appoint their successors? Who were 3 of the “bad” emperors? What was wrong with them?

• What is the paterfamilias? What could he do?• What rights did women have?• How were female children named?• How was education different for boys and girls?• How were government and religion linked?• What are “bread and circuses?” Why were they

necessary? By A.D. 250, how many holidays per year were there?