Zooplankton Assemblages in Melaban and Sebayor Assemblages in... Zooplankton Assemblages in Melaban

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  • Zooplankton Assemblages in Melaban and Sebayor River, Sarawak

    Nurma Sarah bt. Jaaffar (24682)

    Bachelor of Science with Honour

    Aquatic Resource Science and Management

    (2012)

  • i

    ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

    First and foremost, a very special thanks and appreciation to my supervisor, Mr. Mohd

    Nasarudin Harith for being an understanding, helpful and patient lecturer. I have come to

    know and value his supervision during the process to complete this final year project. I also

    would like to give appreciation to the laboratory assistants Mr. Zaidi Ibrahim, Mr. Richard

    Toh, Mr. Zulkifli Ahmad as well as other lecturers for their help and support during the

    fieldwork.

    Not forgetting my lovely family that are always by my side to support me especially the

    most important person in my life, my father Mr. Jaaffar Bin Mohamad, and my mother,

    Mdm. Minah Bt. Salleh for giving me the moral, financial and encouragement in finishing

    this project

    My appreciation is also dedicated special to Nur Athirah bt Saidi, Siti Nadiah bin Salleh ,

    Nur Iliyana Jusoh, Norfarizan bt. Mohmad, Nur Atiqah bt. Mohd Yusoff for their help

    during the period of which project was conducted. In addition, their precious comments in

    helping me to improve this thesis writing.

  • ii

    DECLARATION

    I hereby declare that no portion of work referred to in this dissertation has been submitted

    in support of an application for another degree of qualification of this or any other

    university or institution of higher learning.

    ………………………

    Nurma Sarah Binti Jaaffar (24682)

    Aquatic Resource Science and Management

    Department of Aquatic Science

    Faculty of Resource Science and Technology

    Universiti Malaysia Sarawak

  • iii

    TABLE OF CONTENTS

    Acknowledgement…………………………………………………………………..….......i

    Declaration……………………………………………………………………………........ii

    Table of Content..................................................................................................................iii

    List of Abbreviations............................................................................................................v

    List of Tables........................................................................................................................vi

    List of Figures………………………………………………………………………….…vii

    Appendix ………………………………………………………………………………...viii

    Abstract…………………………………………………………………………………….1

    1.0 INTRODUCTION....................................................................................................2

    2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW........................................................................................4

    2.1 Distribution of Zooplankton in Freshwater Habitat.......................................4

    2.2 Classification of Zooplankton........................................................................4

    2.3 Groups of Freshwater Zooplankton................................................................6

    2.4 Zooplankton Migration…………………………………………….………10

    2.5 Importance of Zooplankton..........................................................................11

    2.6 Relationship between Zooplankton and Physico- Chemical characteristic..13

    3.0 MATERIAL AND METHODS.............................................................................14

    3.1 Sampling Site……………………………………………………………...14

    3.2 Sampling Collection……………………………………………………….16

    3.3 Zooplankton Identification and Enumeration………………………….…..17

    3.4 Water Quality Analysis………………………………………………........17

    3.5 Statistical Analysis.......................................................................................20

    4.0 RESULT ………………………………………………………………….…….22

    4.1 Zooplankton Assemblages…………………………………………..…….22

    4.1.1 Zooplankton Composition…………………………………………22

    4.1.2 Zooplankton Distribution ………………………………...……….23

    4.1.3 Zooplankton Abundance…………………………………………..26

  • iv

    4.1.3 The comparison of zooplankton in different sampling dates…...…27

    5.0 Zooplankton Diversity………………………………...…………………29

    6.0 Water Quality Parameters……………………………………………....31

    6.1 Selected Physico- Chemical Parameters………………….…….....31

    6.2 Nutrient Analysis…………………….…………………….………39

    7.0 Correlation between the zooplankton diversity and water quality…...42

    parameters

    8.0 Discussion……………………………………………………...………….44

    9.0 Conclusion……………………………………………………...……...….48

    10.0 References……………………………………...……………………...….49

    11.0 Appendix………………………………………...………………...……...54

  • v

    List of Abbreviation

    pH Potential of Hydrogen

    TSS Total Suspended Solid

    BOD5 Biological Oxygen Demand for five days

    Log Logarithm

    ºC Degree celcius

    µm Micro meter

    L Liter

    mg/L milligram per Litre

    GPS Global Positioning System

    DO Dissolved Oxygen

    NO3-N Nitrate

    NO2-N Nitrite

    PO4 -3

    Orthophosphate

    DVM Diel Vertical Migration

    NDVM Normal Diel Vertical Migration

  • vi

    List of Tables

    Table Descriptions Page

    Table 1: The classification of zooplankton based on size 4

    Table 2: The classification of zooplankton based on life cycle 5

    Table 3: The classification of zooplankton based on taxonomy 5

    Table 4: Brief description of the sampling stations 14

    Table 5: The paramaters and instrument involved during fieldwork 16

    Table 6: The nutrient analysis 20

    Table 7: Zooplankton Composition in Melaban and Sebayor River 22

    Table 8: Zooplankton Distribution 24

    Table 9: Zooplankton Abundances at study areas 26

    Table 10: The Composition of zooplankton in two different 28

    Table 11: Zooplankton diversity 30

    Table 12: Correlation analysis (r) between zooplankton diversity 43

    and water quality

  • vii

    List of Figures

    Figure Description Page

    Figure 1: Proposed sampling stations in Melaban and Bayor River 15

    Figure 2: The percentages (%) of zooplankton group in Melaban and 25

    Sebayor River

    Figure 3: The zooplankton composition in Melaban and Sabayor River 27

    during different sampling date

    Figure 4: Zooplankton Diversity in Melaban and Sebayor River 29

    Figure 5: Temperature value recorded at six stations in Melaban and 31

    Sebayor River

    Figure 6: pH value recorded at six stations in Melaban and Sebayor 32

    River

    Figure 7: Salinity value recorded at six stations in Melaban and Sebayor 33

    River

    Figure 8: Dissolved Oxygen at six stations in Melaban and Sebayor River 34

    Figure 9: The Biological Oxygen Demand5 in six stations in