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  • ZIMBABWE BIODIVERSITY STRATEGY AND ACTION PLAN

    STATUS OF BIODIVERSITY, UNMET NEEDS, STRATEGIES AND ACTIONS

  • CONTENTS

    Page 1. BACKGROUND TO THE COUNTRY STUDY 1.1 Contextual framework I 1.2 General considerations 1 1.3 Human population 3 1.4 Infrastructuredevelopment 5 1.5 Theurbanenvironment 6 1.6 Land tenure, property rights and general land use systems 6 1.7 Macro-economicstructureandpolicies 7 1.8 Socialandculturalissues 8 1.9 Environmental education/awareness 8 1.10 Politicalfactors 10 1.11 Government position on the Biodiversity Convention 10

    2. CONSERVATION OF BIODIVERSITY AND SUSTAINABLE USE OF BIOLOGICAL RESOURCES

    2.1 Introduction 13

    2.1.1 Whatisbiodiversity? 13 2.1.2 Biodiversity conservation strategies 13 2.1.3 Whyworryaboutbiodiversity 13 2.1.4 Organisation and thrust of the biodiversity status report 15

    2.2 Forestry 17 2.2.1 Status and trends in forest biodiversity 17 2.2.1.1 Forestecosystems 17 2.2.1.2 Speciesdiversity 18 2.2.1.3 Geneticdiversityin indigenoustree species 25 2.2.1.4 Relevant micro-organisms (fungi and bacteria) 28 2.2.2 Causes of forest biodiversity decline, increase or maintenance 29 2.2.2.1 Abioticfactors 29 2.2.2.2 Bioticfactors 30 2.2.2.3 Cultural and ethnic value factors 33

    2.2.2.4 Effects of technology on biodiversity 33 2.2.3 Conservationandsustainableuse measures 34

    2.2.3.1 Status of monitoring approaches 34 2.2.3.2 In-sim conservation 36 2.2.3.3 Ex-situ conservation 37

    2.2.3.4 Access to biological and genetic resources 39 2.2.4 Legislative and policy frameworks 40 2.2.5 Institutional framework, sectoral linkages and the human

    resourcebase 43 2.2.5.1 Institutional framework 43

    2.2.5.2 Crosssectorallinkages 44 2.2.5.3 Human resources 45 2.2.6 Economic factors 45

    i

  • 2.2.6.1 Valuation of forest biodiversity 45 2.2.6.2 Economic incentives and disincentives for conservation of forest

    biodiversity 47

    2.3 Wildlife 49 2.3.1 Status and trends of wildlife biodiversity 49 2.3.1.1 Relevantecosystems 49 2.3.1.2 Vertebrates 49 2.3.1.3 Invertebrates 51 2.3.1.4 Identificationof trends in wildlifediversity 53 2.3.2 Causes of wildlife biodiversity decline, increase or maintenance 55 2.3.2.1 Abiotic factors 55 2.3.2.2 Bioticfactors 56 2.3.2.3 Effects of technology on biodiversity 57 2.3.3 Conservationandsustainableuse measures 58 2.3.3.1 Status of monitoring approaches 58 2.3.3.2 In-situ conservation 58 2.3.3.3 Access to biological and genetic resources 59 2.3.3.4 Local participation 60 2.3.4 Legislative and policy frameworks 61 2.3.5 Institutional framework, sectoral linkages and the human

    resource base 63 2.3.5.1 Institutional framework and cross sectoral linkages 63 2.3.5.2 Human resources 64 2.3.6 Economic factors 64 2.3.6.1 Valuationofwildlifebiodiversity 64 2.3.6.2 Economic incentives and perverse incentives 65

    2.4 Aquatic fauna and flora 66 2.4.1 Statusandtrendsof aquaticbiodiversity 66 2.4.1.1 Relevant ecosystems 66 2.4.1.2 Genetic and species diversity 68 2.4.1.3 Status and trends of biodiversity in fish 70 2.4.1.4 Status and trends of biodiversity in aquatic insects 71 2.4.1.5 Status and trends of biodiversity in aquatic flora 72 2.4,2 Causesof aquaticbiodiversitychanges 73 2.4.2.1 Abioticfactors 73 2.4.2.2 Bioticfactors 74 2.4.2.3 Effects of technology on biodiversity 74 2.4.3 Conservationandsustainableuse measures 75 2.4.3.1 Status of monitoring approaches 75 2.4.3.2 Geneticandspeciesdiversity 75 2.4,3.3 In-sim conservation measures 76 2.4.3.4 Ex-situ conservation measures 76 2.4.3.5 Access to biological and genetic resources 77 2.4.4 Legislative and policy framework 77 2.4.5 Institutional framework, cross-sectoral linkages and the

    humanresourcebase 78

    ii

  • 2.4.5.1 Institutional framework and cross-sectoral linkages 78 2.4.5.2 Humanresources 79 2.4.6 Economicfactors 79

    2.4.6,1 Valuationofaquaticbiodiversity 79 2.4.6.2 Economicincentivesand perverseincentives 80

    2.5 Agriculture 82 2.5.1 Statusandtrendsinagriculturaldiversity 82 2.5.1.1 Agro-ecosystems 82 2.5.1.2 Plant genetic diversity 83 2.5.1.3 Animal genetic diversity 86 2.5.1.4 Relevant micro-organisms (fungi and bacteria) 88 2.5.1.5 Dryland cropping 89 2.5.1.6 Irrigated cropping 91 2.5.1.7 Livestock production 92 2.5.1.8 Gameranching 94 2.5.2 Causes of agro-biodiversity decline, increase or maintenance 95 2.5.2.1 Effectsoflanddegradation 95 2.5.2.2 Culturalandsocio-economicfactors 96 2.5.2.3 Effects of technology on biodiversity 96 2.5.3 Conservation and sustainable use measures 97

    2.5.3.1 Statusofmonitoringapproaches 97 2.5.3.2 In-sim conservation 98 2.5.3,3 Ex-situ conservation 99

    2.5.3.4 Access to biological and genetic resources and property rights 101 2.5.3.5 Local participation, indigenous knowledge systems and gender 102 2.5.4 Legislationandpolicy 102 2.5.5 Institutional framework, cross sectoral linkages and the

    humanresourcebase 103 2.5.5.1 Institutional framework and cross sectoral linkages 103 2.5.5.2 Humanresources 104 2.5.6 Economicfactors 105

    2.5.6.1 Valuationofagro-biodiversity 105 2.5.6.2 Economicincentivesand perverse incentives 105

    2.6 Benefits and costs of conserving biodiversity 107 2.6.1 Benefitsofbiologicalconservation 107 2.6.2 Costs of biodiversity conservation 109

    3 UNMET NEEDS ANALYSIS IN ZIMBABWE'S BIODIVERSITY PROGRAMME

    3.1 Introduction 112 3.2 Forestry 112 3.2.1 Conservation of forest biodiversity 112 3.2.2 Equitable sharing of benefits from forest biodiversity conservation 114

    3.3 Wildlife 115

    iii

  • 3.3.1 Conservationof wildlifebiodiversity 115 3.3.2 Equitable sharing of benefits from wildlife biodiversity conservation 115

    3.4 Aquaticlife 116 3.4.1 Conservationof forestbiodiversity 116 3.4.2 Equitable sharing of benefits from forest biodiversity conservation 116

    3.5 Agriculture 117 3.5.1 Conservationofagro-biodiversity 117 3.5.2 Equitable sharing of benefits from agro-biodiversity conservation 118

    3.6 Inter-sectoralissues 119

    4. ZIMBABWE'S BIODIVERSITY STRATEGY AND ACTION PLAN

    4.1 Introduction 122

    4.2 Methodology used in strategy and action plan formulation 122 4.3 Prioritisationofunmetneeds 123

    4.4 Biodiversity strategy and action plan development 124 4.5 Way forward 132

    5 REFERENCES 133

    6 ANNEXES 138

    iv

  • LIST OF TABLES

    Page 1.3.1 Population density and natural resources exploitation by natural region in

    selecteddistrictsinZimbabwe 5 2.1.1 Areas under various land use systems in Zimbabwe 14 2.2.1 Common indigenous fruit trees found in natural woodlands in Zimbabwe 26 2.2.2 Uapaca kirkiana fruit characteristics 27 2.2.3 Information on Strict Natural Reserves established between 1992 and 1995 28 2.2.4 Weight of 1000 seeds and germination % for P. angolensis seeds 28 2.2.5 Hosts of A. glaber in Zimbabwe 31 2.2.6 Listof gazettedforestareasin Zimbabwe 38 2.2.7 Roundwood consumption by plant type in 1995/96 46 2.3.1 Thediversityof mammalspeciesin Zimbabwe 50 2.3.2 The diversity of reptiles in Southern Africa and in Zimbabwe 50 2.3.3 Speciallyprotected mammalspecies in Zimbabwe 53 2.3.4 Specially protected birds in Zimbabwe 54 2.3.5 Comparison of species richness of woody plants, birds, ants, mantises in

    intactand elephantimpactedwoodlandsites 56 2.3.6 National parks and other protected areas 59 2.4.1 FishcatchrecordsinLakeKariba 71 2.4.2 Fish catch records for Lake Chivero, Lake Mutirikwi and Darwendale Dam 72 2.5.1 Land use classification by sector and natural region in Zimbabwe 82 2.5.2 Domesticated animal population in Zimbabwe: 1980-1996 87 2.5.3 Rhizobia and Bradyrhizobia strains kept at Grasslands Research Station 89 2.5.4 Bacterial strains found in the rumen of cattle, sheep and goats 90 2.5.5 Summary of mean area planted and yield by crop and sector: 1987/88 -

    1990/91 90

    2.5.6 Productivity coefficients for beef production by farming sector 93 2.5.7 Distribution of communal area grazing schemes by natural region: 1993 94 2.5.8 Some germplasm stored at plant breeding institutions in Zimbabwe 100 2.5.9 List of vegetable crops collected by the Horticulture Research Institute 101 2.5.10 Estimated crop production values for 1997 by sector 105 2.6.1 Nominal Zimbabwe government expenditure on issues related to

    biodiversity conservation: 1987/88 to 1997/98 110 4.1 Action plans for Zimbabwe's biodiversity strategies 124

    LIST OF FIGURES

    1.1 Natural regions of Zimbabwe 4 2.1 Common vegetation types found in Zimbabwe 19 2.2 Biodiversityconservationareas 38 2.3 Generaldistributionof wetlandsof Zimbabwe 67

    2.4 The concept of "total economic value" 107 2.5 Nominal and real Zimbabwe government expenditure on issues related to

    biodiversity conservation 110

    V

  • LIST OF ANNEXES

    6.1.1 Composition of Project Secretariat, Steering Committee and Consulting Group 138

    6.2.1 Floristic framework used in the Department of Natural Resources' Integrated Resources Information (IRIS) programme 139

    6.2.2 List of reserved indigenous tree species scheduled under the Communal ForestProduceActof1987 140

    6.3.1 Population status of some common mammals based on the 1995 aerial surveysandothersources 141

    6.3.2 Number of some of the species of birds in Southern Africa and in Zimbabwe 142

    6.3.3 Trophy values of larger wildlife species used in the CAMPFIRE programme 144

    6.4.1 Biodiversity trends of macrophytes on Lake Kariba 144 6.5.1 Pasture legume germplasm held at research stations of the Department of

    ResearchandSpecialistServices 145 6.6.1 Organisations consulted during the BSAP formulation process through

    national

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