You can develop your own modules for self-instruction Are you interested in developing learning modules for inservice or orientation programs? The self-instructional learning laboratory of- fered at Congress this year was a huge suc- cess. Many of you who completed the Self- paced Learning Programs asked for a learning module on developing self-instruction mate- rials.
This column is written in an autotutorial for- mat so readers will have practice in self- instruction while learning about the develop- ment process. Information written in italics in- dicates the components of this self-instruction module. The normal typeface, which follows each component, gives explanations of the various parts that all learning modules should contain.
Developing self-instruction modules The title is a succinct statement of the topic.
Catchy titles are useful i f they grab the learners attention as well as clearly reveal the subject matter.
Target audience: Operating room nurses who are responsible for staff development or who are interested in self-instruction
The choice of the target audience for this module was based on a needs assessment consisting of written and verbal requests by operating room nurses at Congress.
Objectives 1. Define self-instruction.
State three advantages and three dis- advantages of self-instruction as a teaching and learning methodology. List the seven basic components of self- instruction modules. Describe the process of developing a self-instruction module.
Learner objectives should be written in be- havioral or measurable terms. Guidelines for writing behavioral objectives were outlined in this column in May (pages 1130 to 1134). The learner should be able to accomplish the ob- jectives by the end of the module.
The objectives of this module describe ex- pectations of cognitive skills. A module on a topic such as gowning and gloving might in- volve learning psychomotor skills. Such a module might be written to include actual prac- tice in the technique. An appropriate objective might be: Glove according to the steps out- lined in the module. This objective would alert the learner that she actually would be practic- ing gloving as part of the module and that she would be evaluated on her psychomotor skills.
Module instructions 1 . Read Table 1, Glossary of terms. 2. Study Figure 1 , Module creation-A
chronological approach. 3. Read Table 2, Advantages and disad-
vantages of self-instruction. 4. If they are available, read the following
articles: Hinthorne, R. Methods of teaching-
Revisited: Self-instructional modules. Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing 11 (July-August 1980) 37-39.
Thompson, M A. A systematic approach to module development. Journal of Nursing Education 17 (October 1978)
102 AORN Journal, July 1981, Vol34, No I
Module creation- A chronological approach
I USe module
\ Determine general title
20-26. plete. If i t is available, listen to the tape: Swendsen, L A. Self-instructional pro-
grams for the OR nurse. AORN 28th annual Congress, Dallas 1981.
It is agood idea to provide some educational content with the module so the individual does not have to search for learning materials im- mediately. This helps ease the learner into the self-instruction format. Complete the learner activity.
Read the learner feedback. Instructions give the sequence of events the
learner is to follow. It is important to write clear instructions since the self-instruction concept is new to many learners. What seems obvious to the person preparing the self-instructional materials may be confusing to the learner un- less instructions are precise.
Try to include a variety of learning experi- ences. The use of different types of media often helps to maintain the learners interest. Be sure all bibliographic references are com-
Learner activity Instructions: Please write the answers to the following on a separate sheet of paper. 1. Define self-instruction in your own
words. 2. What are three advantages and disad-
vantages of self-instruction? 3. List the components of self-instruction
modules. 4. What is the step-by-step process of de-
veloping a self-instruction module?
104 AORN Journal, July 1981, Vol34, No 1
Glossary of terms Learner Activity: Posttest, the evaluation
portion of the learning experience. Relates directly to the objectives. Some people like to include a pretest as a learner activity to be completed before any educational content is given.
Learner feedback: The correct responses to the learner activity. Answers to pretest (if given) and posttest. If the learner activity can be completed in several ways, the feedback must include the various possible answers.
Media: Audiovisual aids to learning. Includes written information, films, video cassettes, slides, audiotapes, computers, etc.
Module: An instructional package that includes a title, target audience, objectives, instructions, educational content, learner activity, and learner feedback.
Self-instruction: Learning on ones own. The pace of learning and responsibility for learning is up to the individual. The learner usually uses prepared materials or modules.
Advantages and disadvantages of self-instruction
Advantages adaptable to individuals self-paced active participation in learning immediate feedback
0 independent learning efficient for learner, ie, can do when time
efficient for teacher, ie, no repeating classes appeals to characteristics of adult learners
Disadvantages new mode of learning-people may resist time consuming to develop independent learning does not appeal to all learner may have less direct input from
operation of audiovisual equipment, if used,
may intimidate learner
The learner activity evaluates the accom- plishment of objectives. It can include straightforward questions like those in this module. Hypothetical situations with appropri- ate questions are useful for evaluating objec- tives as well. The more creative the learner activity, the more interesting it will be for the learner. Try to relate the activity to the learners own individual experiences whenever possi- ble.
Learner feedback 1. Your answer should be similar to the one
below. It should contain at least two of the basic concepts listed below.
Self-instruction is the process of learn- ing on ones own. The person engaging in self-instruction is responsible for her own learning. She can complete the module at her own pace. Self- instruction is usually based on an al- ready prepared module.
2. See Table 2, Advantages and disad- vantages of self-instruction. I Your an- swer should include any three advan- tages and disadvantages.
3. The components of self-instruction mod- ules are title, target audience, behavioral objectives, instructions, educational con- tent, learner activity, and learner feed- back.
4. See Figure 1 , Module creation-A chronological approach. Your answer should include all of the steps in proper chronological order.
End of module The learner feedback gives the answers to
the questions in the learner activity. Include all possible responses. Tell the learner how much of the answer she is expected to know. Refer to educational content or bibliographic refer- ences in the module when providing learner feedback. Finish with the word end or indi- cate in some way that the learner has com- pleted the module.
Leslie R Grosser, RN, MS Program specialist1
106 AORN Journal, July 1981, Vol34, No 1