YK Centrifugal Chillers

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  • YK - Centrifugal Chiller

  • YK - Centrifugal Chiller

    JCI M.E2

  • Refer to Training Agenda on a Separate Sheets

    Topics :

    YK - Centrifugal Chiller

    JCI M.E3

  • Centrifugal Chiller

    YK chillers are designed and built within an EN ISO 9001 accredited design and manufacturing organization and, within the limits specified in conformity with the essential health and safety requirements of the

    Moving & Installation Pressurized System A.C & D.C Electrical Voltage

    Be careful when working on:Safety

    JCI M.E4

    health and safety requirements of the following European Union Directives:

    Machinery Directive (89/392/EEC)

    Low Voltage Directive (73/23/EEC, EN 60204)

    EMC Directive (89/336/EEC)

    A.C & D.C Electrical Voltage and Charges. Earth connection. Rotating Parts Sharp Edges parts High Temperature parts Refrigerant. Refrigerant Oil. etc.

  • Were All at Different Levels

    YK - Centrifugal Chiller

    Let Me Tell You About Myself

  • Three Laws from Science Class

    Matter

    Can Not be Created or Destroyed

    YK - Centrifugal Chiller

    Matter being (Heat Energy)

    Warm Place to a Cool Place

    Vapor Density

    Changes with Pressure

  • Heat Flows Down Hill

    YK - Centrifugal Chiller

    From a Warm Place to a Cold Place

  • Vapor Pressure

    1 lb 1 lb

    100 psig

    50 psig

    1 lb

    R-22

    1 lb

    R-22

  • The pressure that a gas exerts on the walls of its container is determined by the momentum of the atoms and molecules of the gas, which in turn is determined by the temperature. As the temperature increases the atoms and molecules move faster, and so exert a greater pressure on the walls.

    Charlies Law

    the walls.

  • If the volume of a container is increased, the pressure decreases.

    If the volume of a container is decreased, the pressure increases.

    Why?

    Suppose the volume is increased. This means gas

    Boyles Law

    Suppose the volume is increased. This means gas molecules have farther to go and they will impact the container walls less often per unit time. This means the gas pressure will be less because there are less molecule impacts per unit time.

    If the volume is decreased, the gas molecules have a shorter distance to go, thus striking the walls more often per unit time. This results in pressure being increased because there are more molecule impacts per unit time.

  • What is Refrigeration ?

    Refrigeration is....

    Johnson Controls11

    Cooling by the Removal of HEAT.

  • Unfortunately We Must Learn

    Some

    TERMSConduction

    Specific Heat

    BTUs

    Change of StateConduction

    Convection

    Radiation

    Change of State

    Sensible Heat

    Latent Heat

  • Heat Flows 3 Ways

    1. Conduction

    2. Convection

    3. RadiationALL Three Take Place Within A Cooling System

  • Conduction:

    Is the transfer of heat between the closely between the closely packed molecules of a SOLID substance

  • Convection:

    Is the transfer of heat by motion of the heated motion of the heated material itself and is limited to a LIQUID or GAS

  • Radiation:

    Is the transfer of heat by waves similar to light or waves similar to light or sound; Traveling in a straight path without heating the intervening matter of air.

  • The Ice Tea Absorbs the HeatThe Ice Tea Absorbs the Heat

    Heat Flows Down Hill

    From a Warm Place to a Cold Place

  • The Same Theory Applies

    55 entering air absorbs the the 75the the 75room air.

  • Specific Heat:

    Is the quantity of heat (in BTUs) required to change BTUs) required to change the temperature of 1lb of a substance 1 F .

  • BTU: (British Thermal Unit)

    Is the amount of heat necessary to change the necessary to change the temperature of 1lb of water 1 F .

    Therefore making the SPECIFIC HEAT of WATER equal t o 1

  • Sensible Heat:

    The heat that can be felt or measured. The heat that measured. The heat that causes a change in temperature, but NOT a change in STATE.

  • Latent Heat: (Hidden Heat)

    The heat required to change a substance change a substance STATE (solid to liquid; liquid to vapor) without changing its temperature.

  • Specific Heat:

    Ice = 0.50

    Water = 1.00 Water = 1.00

    Steam = 0.48

  • Water Boils @ 212

    1 BTU for every 1 Increase in Temperature

    Only a 1 To 1 Ratio

  • Change in State

    Over a 900 to 1 Over a 900 to 1 RatioRatio

    Never Increased Never Increased the Temperaturethe Temperature

  • R-22Boils @ -44 degrees

    Thats COLD ! ! !

    We would like to see something around

    R 134a Boils @ -15 degrees

    We would like to see something around

    45-50 degrees

    Solution ??????

    The Pressure Cooker

  • Boiling Pointsfor

    BOILING TEMPERATURE OF WATER AT VARIOUS COMPARATIV E PRESSURES

    TEMPERATURE 0F INCHES/MERCURY MICRONS

    212 0 759,990205 3.921 660,400200 6.451 596,140195 8.771 537,210190 10.904 483,030185 12.851 433,580180 14.626 388,490175 16.245 347,370170 17.718 309,960165 19.054 276,020160 20.265 245,250155 21.36 217,440150 22.348 192,350145 22.238 169,750140 24.037 149,460

    forWater

    60 29.399 13,25055 29.485 11,07050 29.599 9,20045 29.621 7,63040 29.673 6,29035 29.718 5,17030 29.757 4,18025 29.791 3,31020 29.818 2,61015 29.848 2,05010 29.858 1,6005 29.872 1,2400 29.883 960-5 29.892 730-15 29.904 420-25 29.912 240-35 29.916 127-60 29.920 25.4-70 29.9705 12.7-90 29.9209 2.54

  • Johnson Controls30

  • Pressure

    Pressure - Enthalpy ChartPressure - Enthalpy Chart

    Enthalpy

  • Pressure

    Pressure - Enthalpy ChartPressure - Enthalpy Chart

    Enthalpy

    Heat Content(BTU / lb.)

  • Pressure

    Pressure - Enthalpy ChartPressure - Enthalpy Chart

    Enthalpy

  • Pressure

    Pressure - Enthalpy ChartPressure - Enthalpy Chart

    Enthalpy

  • Pressure

    Pressure - Enthalpy ChartPressure - Enthalpy Chart

    Enthalpy

    Liquid - VaporMix

  • Pressure

    Pressure - Enthalpy ChartPressure - Enthalpy Chart

    Enthalpy

  • Pressure

    Pressure - Enthalpy ChartPressure - Enthalpy Chart

    Enthalpy

  • Pressure

    Pressure - Enthalpy ChartPressure - Enthalpy Chart

    Enthalpy

    100% Liquid

  • Pressure

    Pressure - Enthalpy ChartPressure - Enthalpy Chart

    Enthalpy

  • Pressure

    Pressure - Enthalpy ChartPressure - Enthalpy Chart

    Enthalpy

    100% Vapor

  • Pressure

    Pressure - Enthalpy ChartPressure - Enthalpy Chart

    Enthalpy

  • Pressure

    Pressure - Enthalpy ChartPressure - Enthalpy Chart

    Enthalpy

    20% Liquid 80% Vapor

  • Pressure

    Pressure - Enthalpy ChartPressure - Enthalpy Chart

    Enthalpy

  • Pressure

    Pressure - Enthalpy ChartPressure - Enthalpy Chart

    Enthalpy

    Evaporator

  • Pressure

    Pressure - Enthalpy ChartPressure - Enthalpy Chart

    Enthalpy

    Evaporator

  • Pressure

    Pressure - Enthalpy ChartPressure - Enthalpy Chart

    Enthalpy

    Evaporator

  • Pressure

    Pressure - Enthalpy ChartPressure - Enthalpy Chart

    Enthalpy

    Evaporator

    Refrigerant absorbs heat from load

  • Pressure

    Pressure - Enthalpy ChartPressure - Enthalpy Chart

    Enthalpy

    Evaporator

    Refrigerant absorbs heat from load

  • Pressure

    Pressure - Enthalpy ChartPressure - Enthalpy Chart

    Enthalpy

    Evaporator

    Net Refrigeration Effect

  • Pressure

    Pressure - Enthalpy ChartPressure - Enthalpy Chart

    Enthalpy

    Compressor

  • Pressure

    Pressure - Enthalpy ChartPressure - Enthalpy Chart

    Enthalpy

    Compressor

  • Pressure

    Pressure - Enthalpy ChartPressure - Enthalpy Chart

    Enthalpy

    CompressorHead Pressure

  • Pressure

    Pressure - Enthalpy ChartPressure - Enthalpy Chart

    Refrigerant rejects heat to atmosphere

    Enthalpy

    Condenser

  • Pressure

    Pressure - Enthalpy ChartPressure - Enthalpy Chart

    Enthalpy

    Metering Device

  • Pressure

    Pressure - Enthalpy ChartPressure - Enthalpy Chart

    Enthalpy

    - Thermal expansionvalve

    - Orifice

    Metering Device

  • Pressure

    Pressure - Enthalpy ChartPressure - Enthalpy Chart

    Condenser

    Enthalpy

    Evaporator

    CompressorMetering Device

  • Pressure

    Pressure - Enthalpy ChartPressure - Enthalpy Chart

    Condenser

    Refrigerant rejects heat to atmosphere

    Enthalpy

    Evaporator

    CompressorMetering Device

    Refrigerant absorbs heat from load

  • Pressure

    Pressure - Enthalpy ChartPressure - Enthalpy Chart

    Enthalpy

  • Pressure

    Pressure - Enthalpy ChartPressure - Enthalpy Chart

    85

    Enthalpy

    95

    54

    4444

  • Pressure

    Pressure - Enthalpy ChartPressure - Enthalpy Chart

    85

    Enthalpy

    95

    44

    54

    44

    54

  • Pressure

    Pressure - Enthalpy ChartPressure - Enthalpy Chart

    85

    Enthalpy

    95

    44

    54

  • Pressure

    Pressure - Enthalpy ChartPressure - Enthalpy Chart

    85

    Enthalpy

    44

    54

    95

  • Pressure

    Pressure - Enthalpy ChartPressure - Enthalpy Chart

    85

    Cooling Tower

    Enthalpy

    44

    54

    95

  • Pressure

    Pressure - Enthalpy ChartPressure - Enthalpy Chart

    85

    Cooling Tower

    Enthalpy

    95

    44

    54

  • Pressure

    Pressure - Enthalpy ChartPressure - Enthalpy Chart

    Enthalpy

  • Pressure

    Pressure - Enthalpy ChartPressure - Enthalpy Chart

    Adding a subcooler

    Refrigeration

    Effect

    Enthalpy

    Adding a subcooler

  • Pressure

    Pressure - Enthalpy ChartPressure - Enthalpy Chart

    Adding a subcooler

    Refrigeration

    Effect

    Enthalpy

    Adding a subcooler

  • Pressure

    Pressure - Enthalpy ChartPressure - Enthalpy Chart

    Adding a subcooler

    Refrigeration

    Effect

    Enthalpy

    Adding a subcooler

    Increases refrigeration effect

  • Pressure

    Pressure - Enthalpy ChartPressure - Enthalpy Chart

    Adding a subcooler

    Refrigeration

    Effect

    Enthalpy

    Adding a subcooler

    Increases refrigeration effect

    Increases energy efficiency

  • Head PressureHead Pressure

    Pressure

    Enthalpy

  • Condenser

    Pressure

    Head PressureHead Pressure

    Evaporator

    Compressor

    Enthalpy

  • Condenser

    Pressure

    Head PressureHead Pressure

    Head Pressure

    Evaporator

    Compressor

    Enthalpy

  • Lowering condenser Lowering condenser water temperaturewater temperature

    Condenser

    Pressure

    Head PressureHead Pressure

    Evaporator

    Compressor

    Enthalpy

    Head Pressure

  • Lowering condenser Lowering condenser water temperaturewater temperature

    Condenser

    Pressure

    Head PressureHead Pressure

    Lowers head Lowers head pressurepressure

    Evaporator

    Compressor

    Enthalpy

    Head Pressure

  • Lowering condenser Lowering condenser water temperaturewater temperaturePressure

    Head PressureHead Pressure

    Lowers head Lowers head pressurepressure

    Head Pressure

    Evaporator

    Compressor

    Condenser

    Enthalpy

  • Lowering condenser Lowering condenser water temperaturewater temperaturePressure

    Head PressureHead Pressure

    Lowers head Lowers head pressurepressure

    Evaporator

    Compressor

    Condenser

    Enthalpy

    Head Pressure

  • Lowering condenser water Lowering condenser water temperaturetemperature

    Lowers head pressureLowers head pressure

    Pressure

    Head PressureHead Pressure

    Reduces compressorReduces compressorworkwork

    Reduces energyReduces energyconsumptionconsumption

    Evaporator

    Compressor

    Condenser

    Enthalpy

    Head Pressure

  • SAT DISCH = 100FPRE

    138.8

    Operation Theory -Lift

    LIFT = 60F

    SAT SUCT = 40F4038F

    ESSURE

    PSIA ENTHALPY Btu/lb

    49.7

  • SAT DISCH = 100FPRE

    138.8

    Operation Theory -Lift

    LIFT = 60F

    SAT SUCT = 40F4038F

    ESSURE

    PSIA ENTHALPY Btu/lb

    49.7

  • Intersection of Discharge Temp and Condenser Pressure

  • Intersection of Discharge Temp and Condenser Pressure

    Net Refrigeration

    Effect

  • Flashgas

  • Reduced Flash Gas with lower Condenser Temps

  • Net Refrigeration

    Effect Extra BTUs Absorbed

  • Two Stages with Intercooling

  • Single Stage Cycle

    SUBCOOLING

    PR SAT

    ENTHALPY

    RESSURE

    SATLIQUID

    SATVAPOR

    Refrigeration Effect

  • Two Stage Cycle

    SUBCOOLING

    PR SAT

    ENTHALPY

    RESSURE

    SATLIQUID

    SATVAPOR

    Refrigeration Effect

  • Why Do We Need Chillers ?

    To Remove unwanted Heat From a Certain Area to

    an Area where we do not care if its heated . i.e. the an Area where we do not care if its heated . i.e. the

    outside of the building

  • Centrifugal Chiller

    Why do we need Centrifugal chiller?

    o Reciprocating compressors use in high and medium pressure ( High LIFT )with low and medium current flow.

    o Centrifugal compressors use in low and medium pressure ( Low LIFT ) and

    JCI M.E99

    high current flow.

    o In a place which we need high refrigerant flow ( High capacity ) with medium pressure ( Low LIFT ) we should use centrifugal compressor.

    o Centrifugal compressors (non-positive displacement) have a fixed amount of lift for a given set of operating conditions.

  • Centrifugal Chiller

    Compressor Types :

    Positive Displacement ( Recip , screw )

    Non Positive Displacement , Centrifugal (Dynamic)

    Positive displacement compressors use a piston or other device to reduce the

    volume of refrigerant vapor in a compressor chamber. PROCESS:

    Power is applied

    Chamber volume is reduced

    JCI M.E100

    Chamber volume is reduced

    Refrigerant pressure is increased

  • Centrifugal Chiller

    Positive Displacement Operating Characteristics

    Lift

    JCI M.E101

    Capacity

    It means : By increase the LIFT the Capacity will decrease.

  • Centrifugal Chiller

    In Positive Displacement compressors ,Compression chamber reduces in volume to compress gas ( LIFT up )

    Unlimited lift

    Limited Capacity

    ScrewReciprocatingScroll

    JCI M.E102

    ScrewReciprocatingScroll

  • Compressor Designs

    Reciprocating Screw Centrifugal

    Head Variable Variable Fixed

    Volume Fixed Fixed Variable

    Volume Capacity Low Medium High

    Volume flow up to 1000 m3/hr up to 600 CFM

    120 7,000 m 3/hr 70 4,000 CFM

    700 42,000 m 3/hr 400 25,000 CFM

    to 250 kW 40 1,500 kW 200 11,000 kW

    JCI M.E103

    Driver power to 250 kW to 350 HP

    40 1,500 kW 50 2,000 HP

    200 11,000 kW 300 15,000 HP

    Pumping action

    Reciprocating Rotary Rotary

    Pressure Ratio 10:1 depends on

    refrigerant 20:1 3.5:1 per stage

    Min suction temperature

    -76F -60C

    -76F -60C

    -240F -150C

    Max discharge pressure

    350 psig 24 barg

    350 psig 24 barg

    600 psig 41 barg

    Capacity Control Step Control Variable Variable

  • Compressor Designs

    Centrifugal Rotary Screw Reciprocating

    Head Fixed Variable Variable

    Volume Variable Fixed Fixed

    Volume Capacity High Medium Low

    JCI M.E104

    Range (CFM) 1,000-25,000 70 4,000 25 600

    Power (HP) 300 10,000 50 2,000 30 - 350

    Motion Rotary Rotary Reciprocating

    Control InfinitelyVariable

    Variable Step Control

  • What the chiller codes tell us (Nomenclature)?

    YK CB CB G4 5 CM E S

    YK Model ( centrifugal)

    CB Cooler code

    CB Condenser code

    G4 Compressor code

    JCI M.E105

    5 Frequency

    CM Motor code

    E Design level

    S Special Code

  • system component

    JCI M.E106

  • system component (Front side)

    JCI M.E107

  • system component (Rear side)

    JCI M.E108

  • Location

    YK -- chiller

    600 mm Rear view

    4900 OR 4275 mm 4900 OR 4275 mm

    Minimum Requirement area, with room temperatures range from 4.4C to 43.3C.

    JCI M.E109

    YK -- chiller

    900 mm - Font view

  • Installation, Piping

    Cooler connections

    Condenser connections

    Refrigerant Relief Valve connection

    Oil return pips ( only for Dismantled unites)

    Water stop valve ( condenser, cooler)

    JCI M.E110

    Water Flow switches OR Pressure differential controller

    Drain & vent Valve on ( condenser, cooler) water connections

    Air vent

    Water Box ( will discuss in Evaporator Slides)

    Motor cooler

  • Piping

    Schematic of a typical Piping connection

    JCI M.E111

  • CondenserCondenser

    Cooling Tower

    JCI M.E112

    EvaporatorEvaporator

    CoilCoil

  • CondenserCondenser

    Cooling Tower

    JCI M.E113

    EvaporatorEvaporator

    CoilCoil

    44

  • CondenserCondenser

    Cooling Tower

    JCI M.E114

    EvaporatorEvaporator

    CoilCoil

    44

    7255

  • CondenserCondenser

    Cooling Tower

    JCI M.E115

    EvaporatorEvaporator

    CoilCoil

    4454

    7255

  • CondenserCondenser

    Cooling Tower

    4137

    JCI M.E116

    EvaporatorEvaporator

    CoilCoil

    4454

    7255

    4137

  • CondenserCondenser

    Cooling Tower 95

    JCI M.E117

    EvaporatorEvaporator

    CoilCoil

    4454

    7255

    4137

  • CondenserCondenser

    Cooling Tower

    9585

    4137

    JCI M.E118

    EvaporatorEvaporator

    CoilCoil

    4454

    7255

    4137

  • CondenserCondenser

    Cooling Tower

    9585

    37

    12486

    JCI M.E119

    EvaporatorEvaporator

    CoilCoil

    4454

    7255

    4137

  • CondenserCondenser

    Cooling Tower

    9585

    37

    12486Refrigerant Loop

    JCI M.E120

    EvaporatorEvaporator

    CoilCoil

    4454

    7255

    4137Loop

  • Centrifugal ChillerCentrifugal Chiller

    How does it Work!

    JCI M.E121

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