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A test normally refers to a series of questions, problems or physical responses designed to determine knowledge, intelligence, or ability.

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1. driving test

2. personality tests

3. intelligence tests

4. aptitude tests

5. school-based tests

Tests are a fact of life- you cannot escape them.

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By the end of Unit 4, you should be able to:-1. Describe what is test anxiety.(TA)

2. Determine your level of test anxiety.(TA)

3. List the effects and causes of test anxiety.(TA)

4. Elaborate the various strategies for reducing your test anxiety.(TA)

5. Describe the types of Objectives and Subjectives test questions and strategies needed for answering.

6. Identify the strategies for reducing test anxiety before, during and after an examination.

7. Explain test-taking at WOU.

8. Explain what is Academic Integrity.

9. List the various forms of Academic Dishonest and its consequences.

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Read the story on page 2.

A lot of students are afraid of exams because exam results determine whether you :-

a. pass or fail.

b. earn a scholarship.

c. earn entry into your desired university.

d. graduate programme or career.

e. afraid of the people who grade their exam scripts-the examiners.

#Examiners would really like to pass candidates!

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1. really deserve it.

2. show them how much you know about the subjects.

3. show them you did study hard.

4. show them you deserve the distinction.

5. answer grammatically correct, coherent, comprehensive and informative.

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1. Test anxiety is related directly to testing situations.

2. It involves experiencing headaches, nausea or feelings of panic, nervousness, tense, distress or worry.

3. Test anxiety = “anticipatory anxiety” =if you feel distress while studying and when thinking about what might happen if you take an exam.

4. As “situational anxiety” if it occurs while taking a test.

5. Test anxiety can both be beneficial and harmful.

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1. really deserve it.

2. show them how much you know about the subjects.

3. show them you did study hard.

4. show them you deserve the distinction.

5. answer grammatically correct, coherent, comprehensive and informative.

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1.Two general types: - a. physical b. emotional

2.Symptoms = signs you are suffering from a disease.

3. If you suffer from TA you will experience certain PS and ES.

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1. Nausea

2. Dizziness

3. Faintness

4. Diarrhoea

5. Tiredness

6. Dry mouth

7. Headaches

8. Stomach aches

9. Rapid heartbeat

10. Breathing difficulties



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1. Fear 15. Feeling frustrated

2. Anger 16. Feeling you are not

3. Irritability fully prepared

4. Confusion 17. Others

5. Depression

6. Disappointment

7. Crying or laughing

8. Memory problems

9. Difficult concentrating

10.Feeling tense

11.Feeling helpness

12.Feeling panicky

13. Insomnia

14.Negative thoughts

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Now go back to Mei Ling’s experience at the beginning of the unit.

Can you list the P and E symptoms she experienced ?



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Here is a list of negative effects of test anxiety commonly experienced by sudents.

Tick (/) on the ones that you have experienced

Cannot organise your thoughts.

Cannot remember/recall the facts.

Remembering the facts after the test.

Mind going blank on and off during a test.

Difficulty in understanding the questions.

Worry about failing during a test.

Feeling pressured or trapped.

Difficulty sleeping the night before the test.

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1. A little anxiety and stress can motivate us to perform better.

2. There is an “inverted U” shaped curve between anxiety and performance.

3. Look at the graph.

4. The higher the anxiety (x-axis), the higher the performance (y-axis)

Figure 4.1 Relationship between performance and anxiety



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1. Would you study hard if you were not worried at all for your future ?

2. Would you bother to study if you knew you could succeed easily?

3. By experiencing some anxiety and facing the challenges that come with it, you learn to cope better with other areas of life.

4. Therefore, if you still experience a little bit of anxiety before or during an exam, look at it +vely.

5. It can actually be good for you!

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Nist and Diehl (1990) developed a short questionnaire to determine whether a student experiences a mild or severe case of test anxiety.

Never Rarely Sometimes Often Always

1 2 3 4 5• _______ I have visible signs of nervousness such as sweaty palms, shaky hands, and so on right before a test.

• _______ I have “butterflies” in my stomach before a test.

• _______ I feel nauseous before a test.

• _______ I read through the test and feel that I do not know any of the answers.

• _______ I panic before and during a test.

• _______ My mind goes blank during a test.

• _______ I remember the info that I blanked on once I get out of the testing situation.

• _______ I have trouble sleeping the night before a test.

• _______ I made mistakes on easy questions or put answers in the wrong places.

• _______ I have difficulty choosing answers.

Now add up your score.

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Over 35 = you are experiencing an unhealthy level of test anxiety

Source: http://www.muskingum.edu/%7Ecal/

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Test anxiety is stress felt before an exam or while taking a test.

This section highlighted that people with test anxiety may display some combination of physical and emotional symptoms.

Test anxiety also produces –ve and +ve effects.

So, it is not necessarily bad; it can be good as well.

Some anxiety can actually push you to perform better.

However too much anxiety may cause serious problems.

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1. Explain briefly what “test anxiety” is.


2. A student suffering from test anxiety experiences both physical and emotional symptoms.

Give two examples of physical symptoms.

a. ___________________________________________________________

b. ___________________________________________________________

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3. Test anxiety can bring about both negative and positive effects.

Give two examples of the negative effects :

a. ______________________________________________________

b. ______________________________________________________

Give two examples of the positive effects:

a. ______________________________________________________

b. ______________________________________________________Web references:

1. http://www.sdc.uwo.ca/learning/mcanx.html

2. http://www.couns.uiuc.Brochures/testanx.htm

3. http://www.studygys.net/tstprp8.htm

4. http://www.campusblues.com/test.asp

5. http://www.ericdigests.org/2005-2/anxiety.html

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• A cause is a producer of an effect, result or consequences.

Causes of test anxiety

1. Fear of failure

2. Feelings of helplessness- blame external factors for poor performance.

3. Threats to self-worth- self-esteem tied too closely to grades

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Not well-prepared.

Poor study habits.

Poor organisation.

Poor time management.

Bad experience from previous tests.

Studying at the last minute.

Afraid you cannot remember.

Worrying about your past performances in tests.

Thinking about the negative consequences of failing.

Unrealistic expectations for yourself.

Expectations from others (Your family expects you to do well).

You feel you need to perform well to please others.

You are competing with others- students and siblings.

You cannot understand or master the materials you are studying.

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Being well-prepared – have good knowledge of test, not behind schedule, prepared notes and prioritised tests, assignments or projects.

Avoiding procrastination

Preparing a revision planner

Revising – do effective revision

Getting info on the test

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a. Think of one thing you are currently procrastinating in, and write it on the space provided below. It might be personal, study or work-related.

b. Now, write all the reasons for your delay.

c. In the ‘ Argument Against Delay’ column, argue against all the reasons for delay. If you can argue against them carefully, you will be able to start the task.

I’m delaying __________because

Reasons for Delay Arguments Against Delay1234

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The following are group activities. Form a group of four or five and discuss the following:

1. The things that you can do in a study group to help you study better.



2. What are the similarities and differences in each other’s monthly, weekly and daily planner?



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Fill in the table with info about the test paper you are going to sit for at the end of your course.

Name of Test E.g. WUC131 Learning Skills for University Studies

1 Date of Test.

2 Time & Place of the Test

3 Number of sections

4 Number of questions in each section

5 Marks allocated to each section.

6 Types of objective questions

7 Types of subjective questions.

8 Units which will be tested.

9 Are questions identical or almost similar to those in course book?

10 How much must I write?

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This section discussed some of the main causes of test anxiety such as

poor study habits,

poor organisation

poor time management

fear of failure

bad experience from previous test

studying at the last minute

4 strategies to reduce T.E.

1. be well-prepared

2. don’t procrastinate

3. prepare a revision planner

4. get info from test

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1. List two main causes of T.E.

a. _____________________________________

b. _____________________________________

2. Briefly describe the 3 strategies that are used to reduce T.E:

a. Be well-prepared.



b. Don’t procrastinate._______________________________________


c. Get info about the test._______________________________________


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For further info on the topic refer to:

1. http://www.answers.com/procrastination

2. http://www.ets.org/Media/Tests/PRAXIS/pdf/0361anxiety.pdf

3. http://www.studygs.net/tstprp1.htm

4. http://www.studygs/tstprp2.htm

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Types of T.Qs.

1. Objective Tests (OT)

2. Subjective Tests (ST)

OT ST Multiple-Choice Questions Matching Questions True/False Questions Fill-in-the-Blank Questions

Short-Answer Questions Essay Questions

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1. Include MCQ, matching,true/false and fill-in-the-blank questions

2. Only 1 right answer

3. Evaluation is fair as it is “objective”

1. Example = writing essay of 300 words

2. There is no one definite answer.

3. Examiners expect a wide range of answers.

4. Examiners exercise a certain amount of subjective judgement.

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1. Plan

A conscious intended course of action often made in advance of the actions to which it applies.

2. Ploy

A specific manoeuvre intended to outwit an opponent or competitor.

3. Perspective

A way of acting and responding.

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• Relies heavily on your ability to read quickly and choose the answer.

• Consists of 3 parts:-

1. Root-contains the underlying facts.

2. Stem- call of the questions or direction-tells you what to do

3. Options –choices given.

if y = (x + 3)², then (-2x-6)² must equal which of the following?

root stem

A. -4y2

B. -2y2

C. -4y

D. 4y


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1. Eliminate the wrong answers

2. Make an educated guess

3. Pay attention to “All of the above” and “None of the above” statements.

4. Matching questions (objective type)


i. Use one list as starting pt and study the 2nd list to find a match

ii. Make the matches you know first.

iii. Keep doing until you are left with a few times.

iv. Your chances of finding the right answer increases when you are

left with fewer options.

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5. True/False questions (objective type)


1. Pay close attention to negatives

2. Look for parts that will make the statement false.

3. Extreme modifiers usually make the statement


4. Qualify words usually make the statement true

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1. If the blank has the letter ‘an’ in front of it, that means you look for a word that starts with a/e/i/o/u.

2. If the blank has the letter ‘a’ in font of it, you look for a word that starts with a consonant like c,d,f,g,h, etc.

3. Check the tense form used in the text. E.g. , blank no. 1. The answer to this blank should be in the present tense.

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Strategies:1. Read the instructions.

2. The length of your answer depends on the marks allocated.

3. Divide your time wisely.

4. Understand what type of info you have to provide.

e.g. Analyse,Compare,Criticise,Define etc.

5. Prepare an outline

6. Write legibly

7. Enumerate your points or use transition markers.

e.g. 5 reasons = 5 paragraphs

8. Do not use SMS lingo.

e.g. B4, TQ,” u r”

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1. Tests at WOU include both continuous assessments and final exams.

2. Online format allows you to complete assignments or even sit for test when it is convenient to you.

Strategies for online test-taking.

Before the test

• Take rest, review course objectives and mastered them.

• read course guide, course materials and texts

• Mail tutor or coordinator doubts/questions

• Do not enter site until you are ready

• Ascertain test duration.How long to attempt test?

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During the test

Find suitable time to take test and let family members know.

Read the instructions carefully.

Check how many attempts allowed.

Check the time limit.

Check answers before submitting.

After the test

Pay attention to feedback received.

If you find errors in the test, inform tutors or CC immediately.

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1. Did you face any problems accessing the test? If you did, what were they?


2. How many times did you attempt the test?


3. Were you able to complete the test on time?


4. Did you find the online test relevant and interesting ? Why?


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1. http://www.byu.edu/ccl/learning/strategy.php

2. http://www.coun.uvic.ca/learn/program/hndouts/multicho.html3. http://www.stfx.ca/campus/stu-serv/disabled-students/success/exam-startegies.html

4. http://mentalhelp.net/psyhelp/chap13/cahp13b.htm

5. http://www.herald-dispatch.com/apps/pbcs.dll/articles?AID=/20060426/NEWS04/604260323/1001/NEWS

6. http://www.twu.edu/o-sl/counseling/SelfHelp024.html

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By the end of this section, you should be able to:

1. List the strategies to reduce test anxiety on the day of the exam.

2. List the strategies for reducing anxiety during the exam.

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1. Eating well – nutritious food

2. Dressing comfortably-so your concentration & performance not affected

3. Getting materials ready- make a checklist before exam.

Checklist: Date of test:____________

Time of test:___________

Scientific Calculator

Other mathematical instruments

Several 2B pencils (sharpen them)


Pens (must be in working order)


Identity card

Test slip (with index number)



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4. Being early on the day of the examination- make allowance for traffic jam etc.

5. Positive thinking- “Whether you think that you can, or that you can’t, you are usually right.”...Henry Ford.

- avoid people who have negative thoughts.

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1. Read instructions carefully

2. Previewing the test paper-go through the questions, correct paper?

3. Answering easy questions first-confidence level will go up

4. Asking for clarification- if unsure ask invigilator

5. Trying to answer all the question

6. Studying other questions for clues

7. Checking your answers-to detect and correct errors

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1. Give yourself a treat.

2. Go for a hearty lunch or dinner.

3. See a movie.

4. Do not discuss the test with family, friends or course mates.

5. Maintain a positive feeling throughout.

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This is a powerful visualisation activity to reduce anxiety. Dr. Maxwell Maltz, in his book Psycho-Cybernetics, reports that mentally performing skill-developing activities is nearly the same as the actual performance. For example, a person practising throwing darts mentally improves his aim as much as a person actually darts. In an experiment, Dr. Maltz reported that a group of students who practised 20 minutes sinking basketball free throws every day improved their scoring by 24 percent. Another group of students who practised the same skill in their imagination improved by 23 percent.

C.G. Kop, a recognised authority on teaching piano, recommends that all pianists “practise in their heads.” What is the relevance of this information to you? If you want to reduce anxiety on the day of the examination, you should:• mentally visualise yourself sitting calmly for the test.

• see yourself place in the examination centre.

• see the invigilators distributing the examination booklets to the candidates.

• hear the chief invigilator giving the instruction to begin writing.

• see yourself writing calmly and without anxiety.

• at all times, see yourself being calm and happy.

Allocate 10 to 20 minutes daily to practise this visualisation exercise until the day of the examination and see if it works for you.

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1. http://www.utexas.edu/student/utlc/Irnres/handouts/1305.html

2. http://www.yorku.ca/cdc/Isp/eponline/exam6.htm

3. http://gwired.gwu.edu/counsel/index.gw/Site_ID/5176/Page_ID/14095/

4. http://fhss.byu.edu/anthro/Anthropology/tstanaxiety.htm

SummaryThe section deals with strategies to reduce T.A. on the day of the exam,

during and after the exam. Some of the strategies include being prepared, being early and thinking positively. The strategies for reducing anxiety during the exam are also highlighted such as previewing the test paper, clarifying doubts and checking answers. The strategies suggested for reducing anxiety after the exam are avoiding discussion on the paper and giving yourself a treat.

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By the end of this section, you should be able to:

1.Define Academic Integrity (AI)

2.State the various forms of Academic Dishonesty.(AD)

3.State the consequences of AD.

4.Explain the importance of AI.

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1. Integrity relates to all areas of our lives.

2. It is an integral component of our spiritual, political and economic well-being.

3. The Integrity Institute of Malaysia (IIM) set up in 2003 by Datuk Seri Abdullah Hj Ahmad Badawi to enhance integrity as a way of life for Malaysian society.

4. The Business Ethics Institute of Malaysia (BEIM) promote ethics thru’ education, and nurturing values such as honesty, fairness, integrity among businesses.

5. The Malaysian Medical Association uphold the image and credibility of the medical profession.

6. One of the greatest problems faced by schools, colleges,universities is AI.

7. We want to obtain high grades or just fair grade and when that does not seem possible, we think of an easy way out- cheating.

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1. AI involves honesty, trust, fairness, respect and responsibility at school, college or university level.

2. Integrity cannot really be “taught”.

3. Integrity is a quality that you need to nurture and put into practise every day.

4. As a student you must maintain the highest AI.

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1. Cheating : Getting someone to do your assignment,copying, etc

2. Fabrication: making up false info or data.

3. Facilitation: to make an activity easier-provide test answers to another student, etc.

4. Plagiarism: intentionally or unintentionally using an author’s words, ideas or research.

To avoid plagiarism every quotation you use must be indicated by quotation marks and cited in the text or in the reference section.

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1. Some forms of AD are considered criminal. Example:

a. gaining info of the contents of a test before the actual exam (eg buying photocopies of stolen test papers.)

b. Breaking into an institution and stealing or making copies of test.

c. Using bribes, threats, close personal relationships and other illegal means to earn grades.

d. Denying other students to academic resources and materials e.g. making books unavailable by stealing etc,giving other students false info etc.

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students will be punished.

Examples: i. student given failing grade or barred from exam.

ii. students may be suspended or expelled.

WOU want you to be committed to AH

AD put an end to your career now or eventually.

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1.Suspension from the institution.

2.Expulsion from the institution.

3.Being awarded a zero in the test or exam.

4.Reduction of marks in a test or assignment.

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Read the 2 newspaper articles on landmark cases in dishonesty and answer the questions below.

Article 1Hwang Woo-Suk was a professor at Seoul National University. He became famous after claiming a series of remarkable achievements in the field of stem cell research. Hwang first caught media attention in South Korea when he announced that he had successfully created a cloned dairy cow in February 1999. Hwang’s next claim came 2 months later in April 1999, when he announced the cloning of a Korean cow, Jin-i. On both occasion he did not provide any scientically verifiable data. Even though the validity of his research could not be examined, Hwang’s claims were well received by the SK media and public.

In 3 August 2005, Hwang announced that his team of researchers had become the first team to successfully clone a dog. The dog, an Afghan Hound, was named Snuppy. Shortly after his so-called groundbreaking 2005 work, Hwang was appointed to head the new World Stem Cell Hub, a facility that was to be the world’s leading stem cell research centre.

But months later, he and his team were embroiled in controversy. Hwang was forced to admit that female researchers in his own lab had supplied eggs for his research. Subsequently, 2 of his key scientific papers published in Science Magazine, were found to have been fabricated. In the paper published in February 2004, he claimed that he had created the world’s first cloned human embryos. In the May 2005 paper, he claimed he had created 11 stem cell lines from patients- each tailored to that individual.

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On 23 December, 2005 Hwang apologised for “creating a shock and adisappointment” and announced that he was resigning his position as professor at the university. However, Hwang maintained that patient-matched stem cell technology remains in SK, and his countrymen shall see it.

On 9 February, 2006, the university suspended Hwang’s position as the university’s professor, together with 6 other faculty members who participated in Hwang’s team. Subsequently, Hwang was dismissed from the university on 20 March, 2006.

1. What form(s) of dishonesty do you detect in Dr. Hwang’s work?


2. Will prominent international scientists be willing to collaborate with South Korean scientists in future ? Why ?


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Kaavya Viswanathan is an Indian-American undergraduate student in Harvard. In April 2006, Kaavya’s first novel, How Opal Mehta Got Kissed, Got Wild and Got a Life, was published. Shortly after publication, the Harvard crimson published allegations that the author had lifted materials from 2 novels by Megan Mccafferty.

On April, 2006, The Harvard Crimson reported that several portions of How OpalMehta Got Kissed, Got Wild and Got a Life appeared to have been taken from Sloppy Firsts and Second Helpings, both written by Megan McCafferty.In a statement issued by her publisher, Viswanathan admitted she accidentally borrowed some passages from Megan McCafferty’s novels. The subsequent national publicity led her publisher, Little, Brown and Company, to withdraw all editions of the book and stop plans by Dream Works SKG to develop the book into a movie.

Viswanathan began writing Opal Mehta while attending Bergen County Academics, a public high school in New Jersey. After receiving an early acceptance to Harvard, she showed her work to her private college admissions adviser, Katherine Cohen. Cohen contacted the William Morris agency, which suggested that Viswanathan work with a division of Alloy Entertainment. Viswanathan eventually signed a two-book deal with Little, Brown and Company for an advance originally reported to be $500,000. Michael Pietsch, the senior vice president and publisher of little, Brown, told the New York Times that the

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advance was less than the reported sum, and was split between Kaavya and Alloy Entertainment. She sold the movie rights to the book to Dream Works. As of 27 April, Little, Brown has recalled all copies of the novel and has cancelled Viswanathan’s UK publicity tour. Though the publishing house initially indicated plans to release a revised version of the novel, these plans were soon cancelled. Finally,, DreamWorks has halted development of the movie.

On 2 May, 2006, Michael Pietsch, Little, Brown’s senior vice president, released a statement sayingthat Little, Brown and Company will not be publishing a revised edition of How Opal Mehta Got Kissed, Got Wild and Got a Life by Kaavya Viswanathan, as well as the second book under contract.

3. What form(s) of dishonesty did Ms. Viswanathan resort to ?


4. What action do you think should be taken against Ms. Viswanathan ?


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While it is alright to search for necessary info to complete your tasks, make a commitment to present your assignment honestly.

If you copied you need to acknowledge.

AI requires you do 2 of these:-

i. Use your own effort to complete your tasks and assignments.

ii. Cite the source when you are quoting someone else’s work.

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You need to tell the world where you found the info.

You need to give credit to the various people you consulted in the advancement of your academic growth. e.g. your tutor and Course Coordinator.

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The following are findings of a survey on AI undertaken by Don McCabe from the Centre for AI (CAI). Read the findings carefully and answer the questions below.

As part of CAI’s Assessment Project, almost 50,000 undergraduates on more than 60 campuses have participated in a nationwide survey of AI since the fall of 2002. The most recent results (released in June 2005) are disturbing, provocative, and challenging.

o On most campuses, 70% of students admit to some cheating. Close to one-quarter of the participating students admitted to serious test cheating in the past year and half admitted to one or more instances of serious cheating on written assignments.

o Academic honor codes effectively reduce cheating. Surveys conducted in 1990, 1995 and 1999, involving over 12,000 students on 48 different campuses, demonstrate the impact of honor codes and student involvement in the control of academic dishonesty. Serious test cheating on campuses with honor codes is typically 1/3 to ½ lower than the level on campuses that do not have honor codes. The level of serious cheating on written assignments is ¼ to 1/3 lower.

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Internet plagiarism is a growing concern on all campuses as students struggle to understand what constitutes acceptable use of the Internet.

Faculty are reluctant to take action against suspected cheaters.

Longitudinal comparisons show significant increases in serious test/exam cheating and unpermitted student collaboration.

Studies of 18,000 students at 61 schools, conducted in the last 4 years, suggest cheating is also a significant problem in high school.

Source: http://www.academicintegrity.org/cai_research.asp

1. Comment on the findings of this survey.


2. In your opinion, how can we overcome the problem of academic dishonesty among college and university students.


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This section dealt with academic integerity which involves honesty; trust, fairness, respect and responsibility at school or university level. The four main forms of academic integrity covered in this section are cheating, fabrication, facilitation and plagiarism. The usual forms of punishment for academic dishonesty are suspension or expulsion from the institution or being awarded a zero in the test or exam.

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1. Recently, I was accused of plagiarism despite the fact that I included a reference page which clearly listed all websites and books used. The assignment was to compile background information to be used in relation to one of the novels I read this year. Unfortunately, my reference page was not in the correct format and the sources were not written directly on the documents. Is this a case of bad citing or plagiarism ?

How would you answer this question ?


2. In the examination centre, a close friend, who happens to be seated beside you, keeps looking at your answers. Would you permit your friend to look at your answers or will you keep your answers covered because you feel it is dishonest?


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1. http://depts.washington.edu/grading/issue1/honesty.htm

2. http://www.nd.edu/~msander1/plag.html

3. http://www.umanitoba.ca/student/advocacy/academic/_honesty_quiz.shtml

4. http://www.usask.ca/honesty/

5. http://www.princeton.edu/pr/pub/integrity/

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This unit examined issues related to taking tests and exams. The topics discussed included types of test anxiety, that is positive and negative test anxiety. It also looked at the causes of namely fear for failure, feelings of helplessness and threats to self-worth. It also provided 5 strategies that you can adopt for overcoming these anxieties. Finally, the unit focused on Aademic Integrity. The 4 main forms of Academic Dishonesty discussed were cheating, fabrication, facilitation, and plagiarism. The consequences of academic dishonesty are suspension or expulsion form the institution, being awarded a zero in the test or axam or a reduction of marks in a test or assignment.

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Tutor-marked Assignment 2 (TMA 2 - 30%) Submission Date: 25 October, 2013 (2400 hrs) Evidence

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Q2.Compare and contrast the teaching strategies used in the conventional learning system andthe open distance learning system. In your essay include at least 8 pointthat differentiate the two systemsYour answer must have an introductionand a conclusion.

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8 main points

1.Self-managed learning - learners have to be independent and organise their own learning. In the conventional system, they are teacher dependent

2. Synchronous and asynchronous learning- teaching and learning may take place simultaneously or at different times. In the conventional system- the times are fixed

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3. Unlimited access to course- 24 hours a day, seven days a week, 52 weeks a year. In the conventional system- access only during class lectures

4. “Just in time” and on-demand learning- digital learning is delivering knowledge when and where the student needs it, and as often as they need it.This concept of “anywhere-anytime” learning leads to greater student retention and satisfaction, in addition to significant cost savings for employers. In the conventional system- learning is mostly done during lecture/tutorials, more costly to study in a F2F institution.

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5. Institutional accreditation- both are accredited but are offered in different mediums. Sometimes the programmes are taken from foreign universities and accredited internationally.

6.Use of mixed-media courseware- including print, radio and television broadcasts, video and audio cassettes, computer-based learning and telecommunications. Courseware tends to be pre-tested and validated before use. In the conventional system- mostly lectures only with limited visual aids.

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7. Two-way communication- allows learners and tutors to interact as distinguished from the passive receipt of broadcast signals. Communication can be synchronous or asynchronous. In the conventional system- communication is quite limited to face to face.

8.Face-to-face meetings for tutorials- learner-learner interaction, library study and laboratory or practice sessions. In the conventional system- majority of interaction is face to face.

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Your TMA 2 deadline is Friday, 24th April 2015 by 2400 hours

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Discuss FIVE (5) reasons why open distance learning graduates are in demand. Your answermust have an introduction and a conclusion.

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Explain any FOUR (4) learning styles. Your answer must have an introduction and aconclusion.It is important for you cite and quote appropriately.

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Go through the checklist given by CC on CC Forum

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