World War I 1914-1919. Europe – late 19c Peace Efforts Peace Efforts Pacifism Pacifism Nobel Peace Prize est. (1895) Nobel Peace Prize est. (1895) Olympic

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  • World War I 1914-1919
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  • Europe late 19c Peace Efforts Peace Efforts Pacifism Pacifism Nobel Peace Prize est. (1895) Nobel Peace Prize est. (1895) Olympic games (1896) Olympic games (1896) Hague Tribunal set up (1899) Hague Tribunal set up (1899)
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  • Europe
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  • Tension & Rivalry in Europe Impact of nationalism Impact of nationalism France, Germany = rivals France, Germany = rivals Franco-Prussian War 1871; Alsace & Lorraine Franco-Prussian War 1871; Alsace & Lorraine Eastern Europe Eastern Europe Pan-Slavism; duty of Russia to protect Pan-Slavism; duty of Russia to protect Austria-Hungary feared rebellion in its empire Austria-Hungary feared rebellion in its empire Ottoman Empire threatened; recent independent nations like Serbia and Greece Ottoman Empire threatened; recent independent nations like Serbia and Greece
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  • Tension & Rivalry in Europe Imperialism Imperialism France & Germany fight over Morocco France & Germany fight over Morocco Brought to the brink of war in 1905 and 1911 Brought to the brink of war in 1905 and 1911 Britain came to Frances aid Britain came to Frances aid Militarism Militarism Social Darwinism Social Darwinism The stronger has to rule and must not mate with the weaker; Only the born weakling can consider this cruel. The stronger has to rule and must not mate with the weaker; Only the born weakling can consider this cruel. - Adolf Hitler War and soldiers were glorified, portrayed romantically War and soldiers were glorified, portrayed romantically Britain and Germany increased naval spending Britain and Germany increased naval spending Economic rivalry also Economic rivalry also
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  • Tension & Rivalry in Europe Alliance System Alliance System Causes paranoia, sense of security??? Causes paranoia, sense of security??? Triple Alliance Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy Triple Alliance Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy Triple Entente France, Britain, Russia Triple Entente France, Britain, Russia Others Others Japan and Great Britain Japan and Great Britain Germany and Ottoman Empire Germany and Ottoman Empire
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  • Event that triggered WWI Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand Heir to Austro-Hungarian throne Heir to Austro-Hungarian throne Visiting Sarajevo (Bosnia) Visiting Sarajevo (Bosnia) Killed by a Serbian nationalist Gavrilo Princip of the Black Hand Killed by a Serbian nationalist Gavrilo Princip of the Black Hand Large Serb minority there Large Serb minority there Wanted Slavic freedom from A-H rule Wanted Slavic freedom from A-H rule A-H issues ultimatum let us investigate or war! A-H issues ultimatum let us investigate or war!
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  • WWI Alliances Allied Powers (Triple Entente) - Britain - France - Russia - Italy (1915) - United States (1917) Central Powers - Germany - Austria Hungary - Ottoman Empire *Italy withdrew from Triple Alliance prior to war
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  • And so war begins A-H declares war on Serbia A-H declares war on Serbia Russia mobilizes troops to help Serbia Russia mobilizes troops to help Serbia Germany says, Stop mobilization or well declare war! Germany says, Stop mobilization or well declare war!
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  • WWI Fronts Western front (Germany, France, Belgium) Western front (Germany, France, Belgium) Germanys plan Germanys plan Avoid a two front war; take care of France first via Belgium Avoid a two front war; take care of France first via Belgium Eastern Front (Germany, Austria-Hungary, Russia) Eastern Front (Germany, Austria-Hungary, Russia) Problems Problems Trench warfare caused a stalemate Trench warfare caused a stalemate
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  • WWI First mechanized war Rapid fire machine guns Rapid fire machine guns Couldnt go through no mans land Couldnt go through no mans land Chemical warfare Chemical warfare Aircraft Aircraft Zeppelins (reconnaissance mostly) Zeppelins (reconnaissance mostly) Airplanes Airplanes Tanks Tanks U-boats most damage U-boats most damage
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  • Mechanized warfare = total war Total war = Total war = a nation uses all its resources for war effort its resources for war effort Raised taxes and Raised taxes and borrowed, rationed goods borrowed, rationed goods Censored media Censored media All citizens involved All citizens involved
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  • US declares war on Germany 1917 Reasons Reasons Propaganda Propaganda Sinking of the Lusitania 1915 Sinking of the Lusitania 1915 Zimmerman telegram Zimmerman telegram Germany appealed to Mexico for help Germany appealed to Mexico for help Britain revealed message to US Britain revealed message to US US troops provided morale boost US troops provided morale boost Germany signs an armistice Nov. 11, 1918 Germany signs an armistice Nov. 11, 1918 Formal treaties signed in June, 1919 Formal treaties signed in June, 1919