World Geography East Asia Notes Slide 2 Slide 3 Physical Slide 4 Mainland China occupies 81% of East Asia Also has the worlds largest population Mongolia size of Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, and Colorado combined Population of only 2,400,000 Slide 5 Peninsulas and Islands Korean Peninsula - North Korea Communist Government - South Korea Democratic Government Taiwan Island that once belonged to mainland China, which still claims it today Japan- small island nation with large economic power Hong Kong Chinese Territory - Hong Kong was Britains, but was returned to Chinas control in 1997 Slide 6 Mountains Himalayas Located along the western border of East Asia - Worlds highest mountains Kunlun Mountains - located in west China - source of Huang He (Yellow) and Chang Jiang (Yangtze) rivers Qinling Shandi Mountains - divide northern China from the south Slide 7 Slide 8 Rivers Huang He (Yellow River)Located in northern China flows into the Yellow Sea - Called Yellow River because it carries tons of loess ( yellowish brown topsoil) Slide 9 Slide 10 Rivers Chang Jiang(Yangtze River) Asias longest river - Flows through China and empties into the East China Sea - major trade route, but floods often cause great damage Japan and Korea have many short swift flowing rivers Slide 11 Slide 12 Water Resources Chinas long river systems are important to its economy - provide crop irrigation, hydroelectric power, transportation Slide 13 Slide 14 Water Resources Three Gorges Dam on Chang Jiang will control floods & create power (worlds biggest) - Negative effectsare that one to two million people will have to move - hundreds of historical sites & factories will be submerged (Water Pollution?) - some species (alligator, river dolphin, others) may vanish -Dam could cost $75 billion rather than original $11 billion estimated Slide 15 Water Resources Sea is important food source for East Asia - Japan has one of worlds largest fishing industries Slide 16 Resources of East Asia East Asia is rich in Natural resources, but has uneven distribution - China, Mongolia, North Korea have natural & mineral resources - Japan, South Korea, Taiwan have limited natural resources Forests -Abundant in China, Japan, Taiwan, North and South Korea - Japan reserves forests by buying timber from other regions China has large petroleum, coal, natural gas reserves (makes it self-sufficient) Slide 17 Climates Desert - Gobi Desert located in Mongolia is often cold and windy Slide 18 Slide 19 Slide 20 Climates Subarctic - Small subarctic zones on Mongolias and Chinas Russian borders Humid Continental - northeastern China, northern Japan, North Korea, & northern South Korea Humid Subtropical - Southeastern China, southern South Korea, south Japan, north Taiwan Slide 21 Climates Tropical climate zone in East Asia is small - strip of land along Chinas southeastern coast - island of Hainan, southern tip of Taiwan Typhoontropical storm that occurs in western Pacific Slide 22 Slide 23 Climate Review Questions Which East Asian country has the worlds largest population? What type of landform is Taiwan? What type of Landform are North & South Korea? What are the worlds highest mountains & where are they located in relation to East Asia? What is Asias longest River? What river is also known as he Yellow River? Where would you find a subarctic climate in East Asia? On what river is the Three Gorges dam being built? What are the positive effects that the Three Gorges dam will have on China? What are the negative effects the Three Gorges Dam will have on China? Slide 24 China Slide 25 History Oldest continuous civilization - A settled society for 4,000 years -Stone Age cultures later ruled by dynastiesseries of family rulers 1200s - arrived Europeans (Marco Polo) 1800s- European powers sought access to Chinese markets (Treaties) 1949 China became communist - Mao Zedong ruled mainland Peoples Republic Slide 26 Slide 27 Chinas Rural and Industrial Economies China is largely rural society & agriculturally self-sufficient - river valleys have rich soil; 60% of workers on farms Can only farm 13% of land due to mountains, deserts - grows enough to feed population The Industrial Economy - industrial growth stunted under planned economy through 1970s -1980s open marketplace created fast-growing economy Slide 28 Slide 29 Culture Chinese Inventions - Paper, printing, gunpowder, compass, porcelain, silk cloth Confucianism inspired by Chinese philosopher Confucius (551479 B.C.) - orderly, educated society has respect for past, ancestors - children obey parents; parents obey government, emperor Taoismfrom Tao-te Ching book of Lao-tzu teachings (500s B.C.) - preserve, restore harmony in individual, universe Indian Buddhism grew in China & was influenced by Confucianism & Taoism Slide 30 Slide 31 Chinas Population One-fifth of worlds people live in China population is about 1.3 billion Many of Chinas 22 provinces are bigger than most countries -70% of people live in 12 eastern provinces Slide 32 Slide 33 Slide 34 Slide 35 Health Care China has provided health care for huge populace since 1950 China has dual strategy in developing health-care system People use traditional herbal remedies & acupuncture Doctors use modern medicine, Western drugs & surgery - most cities have hospitals - village clinics have trained medical workers (barefoot doctors) Slide 36 Slide 37 China Review Questions What does Confucianism believe that all children should do? What does Taoism believe is important? What is a dynasty? Who was the leader of Communist China until 1976? Slide 38 Mongolia Slide 39 History Mongols were nomadic herders until Genghis Khan conquered Central Asia 1227 - Genghis Khan died & successors expanded empire 1300s - Empire broke up Slide 40 History 1600s - China gained control of Mongolia - 1911 - Mongolians achieved independence 1924 - Mongolia became Communist - remained Communist until 1989 (fall of USSR) Mongolia now moving toward democracy Slide 41 Economic Prospects for Mongolia Many people herd & manage livestock (sheep, goats, camels, horses, cattle) - nomadic herding was economic base for centuries - cashmere industry uses soft wool of local goats Developing industries while making difficult shift to market economy - Soviets guided economy for 70 years (state owned factories) Slide 42 Slide 43 Daily Life in Mongolia Nomads once guided animals from grassland to grassland Nomads live in tents called yurts, made of felt, leather - yurts are even found in capital of Ulaanbaatar Many still raise sheep, cattle, goats; some are still nomadic - most live on farms and ranches with small villages in center Slide 44 Slide 45 Slide 46 Mongolia Review Questions What do goats in Mongolia produce? What is a yurt & in what East Asian country are they used? Slide 47 Tawain Slide 48 Taiwans Link to China Prehistoric people migrated to Taiwan from China, southeast Asia 1949 - Chinese Nationalists lost to Communists & fled to island - established Republic of China (not recognized by China) Slide 49 Slide 50 Slide 51 Slide 52 Taiwans Economic Success Prosperity based on manufacturing industries and trade Has few resources but trained, motivated workers Taiwan, Singapore, South Korea are economic tigers - nations with cheap labor, high technology, & aggressive exports Slide 53 Taiwans Economic Success Pacific Rim - economic, social region surrounding Pacific Ocean - East and Southeast Asia, Australia, New Zealand, Chile, U.S. coast Slide 54 Slide 55 Slide 56 Taiwans Culture Population and culture is almost exclusively Chinese - capital city of Taipei has Buddhist temples, Chinese art museums Well-educated population: many universities, 30 daily newspapers Slide 57 Slide 58 Taiwans Culture Most speak official language of Northern Chinese (Mandarin) People combine a number of religious, ethical beliefs - 90% practice blend of Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism Baseball is popular in Taiwan, other parts of Asia (especially Japan) Slide 59 Taiwan Review Questions What three things are needed in order for a country to become an economic tiger? What is the Pacific Rim? Slide 60 North & South Korea Slide 61 Koreas History Manchurians& Chinese migrated to area by 2000 B.C. Korea was often invaded by China & Japan 1910 - Japan conquered Korea & ruled until WWII defeat in 1945 After WWII, northern Korea is controlled by USSR, southern by U.S. 1950 - North Korean troops invaded South Korea & began Korean War -1953 treaty ended war & divided peninsula Slide 62 Culture Korea adopted many philosophical & religious ideas from China - Confucian, Buddhist influences Communism molds North Korean culture South Korea is influenced by Western culture North Korean government only allows Communist or folk art South Korean artists have more freedom of expression Slide 63 Slide 64 Population Patterns Most people live on coastal plains & river valleys South Korea has 45% of peninsulas land & 66% of population Slide 65 Slide 66 Japan Slide 67 Japans History First people came from South Pacific, or from Siberia 1853 - U.S. Commodore Matthew Perry ended Japans isolation By the early 20th century, Japan is a major power (Fought U.S in WWII) Expanding empire put Japans interests in conflict with U.S After WWII - U.S. occupied Japan & brought political & economic reforms Japan became democracy Slide 68 Slide 69 An Economic Powerhouse Japan has worlds 2 nd largest economy Japan imports resources to manufacture products for export - exports autos, electronics, computers Strong ties between business and government help economy Slide 70 Japanese Culture Chinese influence early language, religion, art, music, government Japan has been open to Western influences since 1800s Popular sports are baseball, golf, sumo wrestling, soccer, tennis Slide 71 Japanese Culture Most clothes are Western; traditional clothes for special occasions Western music is popular, including rock, classical, & jazz - younger Japanese form rock bands Slide 72 Life in Todays Japan Highly structured educational system - students in school six days a week; six weeks of summer vacation - six years of elementary, three of junior high, three of high school - Japan has more than 1,000 universities and technical schools 75% live in cities & 60% live on 2.7% of land Slide 73 Life in Todays Japan Houses are small & sparsely furnished Many people in cities live in apartments - family of four in a one-bedroom apartment is common Some move to suburbs, but must commute several hours to work Coastal cities reclaim land with landfill landfill is solid waste buried in layers of dirt - Tokyo puts factories, refineries on landfill Slide 74 Slide 75 Slide 76 Physical Forces in the Ring of Fire Many Japanese cities are threatened by earthquakes - Japan is on the Ring of Firechain of volcanoes around Pacific Rim Subduction -oceanic plate slides under continental plate Since first records, at least 60 Japanese volcanoes have been active - Mt. Fuji, Japans best- known landform is a volcano Slide 77 Slide 78 Slide 79 Physical Forces in the Ring of Fire Earthquakes and Tsunamis - An average of 1,000 earthquakes occur in Japan each year - most are mild, but some cause many deaths, great destruction 1923 - Great Kanto earthquake and its fires killed 140,000 people - left Tokyo in ruins, damaged or destroyed 700,000 homes Slide 80 Slide 81 Physical Forces in the Ring of Fire Underwater earthquakes move ocean floor; can create tsunami - huge wave of great destructive power that can reach over 100 feet Slide 82 Slide 83 Slide 84 Slide 85 Slide 86 Industrialization and Globalization Nations industrialized & East- West trade increased after WWII - Made in China, Made in Japan labels are common in West Regional economies merged &, global economy developed - global economy- nations are interdependent for goods & services Economically powerful nations in Pacific Rim zone of prosperity - called the Jakota Triangle Japan, Korea (South), Taiwan Slide 87 Slide 88 Slide 89 Slide 90 Economic Problems Arise Asian economies run on efficiency, innovation, and cheap labor 1995 report from UNICEF (the United Nations Childrens Fund) - over 500,000 East Asian children work in factories & beg on streets Slide 91 Economic Problems Arise Japan entered recessionan extended decline in business activity - Asian economic crisis spread through the world World Bank lent money to East Asian countries that promised reform - ban on child-labor & forced-labor practices - Ending the use of sweatshops - places where people work long hours in poor conditions for pennies Slide 92 Slide 93 Japan Review Questions What percentage of Japanese people live in cities? What is Japans best known landform? What is the Ring of Fire? What is subduction? How are landfills created in Japan? What is a recession? What is a sweat shop? What did the World Bank do & what was the stipulation behind its action? What did a UNICEF report say that East Asian children were doing? What is a global economy? What happened during the Great Kanto Earthquake? What is a Tsunami? What is the Jakota Triangle? What were shoguns?