Worksheet Grade 10 Web view Introductory Handout Package – Grade 12 IB. Handout 1 – Safety Handout

Embed Size (px)

Text of Worksheet Grade 10 Web view Introductory Handout Package – Grade 12 IB. Handout 1 –...

Worksheet Grade 10 Chemistry

Introductory Handout Package – Grade 12 IB

Handout 1 – Safety

Handout 2 – Safety

Handout 3 – Polyatomic ions and Polyvalent Ions

Handout 4 – Grade 11 Nomenclature

Handout 5 – Recognizing Patterns 1 and 2

Handout 6 – Combining Patterns 1 and 2

Handout 7 – Types of Reactions

Handout 8 – Net Ionic Equations

Handout 9 – Internal Assessment Marking Grid

Handout 10 – IB Sciences Internal Assessment Marking Form

Handout 11 – Internal Assessment Lab Guidelines

Handout 1 –Safety

Handout 2 – Safety

Handout 3 – Polyatomic Ions

Name

Ion

Ammonium

(NH4)+

Acetate

(CH3COO)-

Bromate

(BrO3)-

Chlorate

(ClO3)-

Cyanide

(CN)-

Cyanate

(OCN)-

Thiocynate

(SCN)-

Hydroxide

(OH)-

Nitrate

(NO3)-

Permanganate

(MnO4)-

Hydrogen Sulfide

(HS)-

Iodate

(IO3)-

Carbonate

(CO3)2-

Oxalate

(C2O4)2-

Chromate

(CrO4)2-

Dichromate

(Cr2O7)2-

Peroxide

(O2)2-

Silicate

(SiO3)2-

Sulfate

(SO4)2-

Thiosulfate

(S2O3)2-

Arsenate

(AsO4)3-

Phosphate

(PO4)3-

Transition Metals, Charges, Stock names and Classical names

Element

Cations

Name of Cation (Stock System)

Name of Cation (Classical)

Antimony

Sb3+

Antimony (III)

Antimonous

Sb5+

Antimony (V)

Antimonic

Arsenic

As3+

Arsenic (III)

Arsenous

As5+

Arsenic (V)

Arsenic

Cobalt

Co2+

Cobalt (II)

Cobaltous

Co3+

Cobalt (III)

Cobaltic

Copper

Cu+

Copper (I)

Cuprous

Cu2+

Copper (II)

Cupric

Gold

Au+

Gold (I)

Aurous

Au3+

Gold (III)

Auric

Iron

Fe2+

Iron (II)

Ferrous

Fe3+

Iron (III)

Ferric

Lead

Pb2+

Lead (II)

Plumbous

Pb4+

Lead (IV)

Plumbic

Manganese

Mn2+

Manganese (II)

Manganous

Mn4+

Manganese (IV)

Manganic

Mercury

Hg+

Mercury (I)

Mercurous

Hg2+

Mercury (II)

Mercuric

Nickel

Ni2+

Nickel (II)

Nickelous

Ni3+

Nickel (III)

Nickelic

Tin

Sn2+

Tin (II)

Stannous

Sn4+

Tin (IV)

Stannic

Titanium

Ti3+

Titanium (III)

Titaniumous

Ti4+

Titanium (IV)

Titaniumic

Prefixes for Molecular Compounds

Prefix

Number it represents

Prefix

Number it represents

mono

1

hexa

6

di

2

hepta

7

tri

3

octa

8

tetra

4

nona

9

penta

5

deca

10

Handout 4 – Grade 11 Nomenclature

Hydrated Salts

Some solids are crystals that regularly associate with water

· SiO2 placed in shoes to absorb water to protect the leather

- when these compounds are associated with H2O we call them hydrated

- when water is removed we call them anhydrous

· to name hydrate compounds we use a prefix (same Greek prefixes from molecular

compound naming) followed by hydrate to indicate the number of H2O molecules

associated to each formula unit.

- i.e. MgSO4∙7H2O is the chemical formula for magnesium sulfate heptahydrate

- could also be called hydrated magnesium sulfate but the above name is better because

indicates number of water molecules.

- CuSO4∙5H2O could be copper (II) sulfate pentahydrate or cupric sulfate pentahydrate

Acids

There are two kinds of acids that you will learn to name Binary acids and Ternary Acids

Binary Acids

· the term binary indicates that a compound has only two types of atoms

· all acids must contain H. Therefore, there is only one other atom that can vary for each binary acid

· Binary acids commonly contain elements from the halogen group, but other examples include sulfur and selenium.

· HCl(aq) is a very common binary acid you have used. Remember all acids are aqueous because they dissolve in water

· HCl(aq) is called aqueous hydrogen chloride by the more modern IUPAC system, or more commonly, hydrochloric acid by the classical system.

· Two naming systems for acids

IUPAC (modern) very simple just put aqueous in front of regular chemical

name.

Classical system follows this general formula hydro ________ic acid

The blank is filled in with the associated anion name after

removing the “ide”

· an unusual acid is HCN(aq), which is named using binary acid rules

Chemical IUPAC Nomenclature Classical Nomenclature

Formula

HCl(aq) __________________________________________________

HF(aq) __________________________________________________

H2S(aq) __________________________________________________

H2Se(aq) __________________________________________________

HCN(aq) __________________________________________________

Ternary Acids

· Ternary means 3, therefore this is an acid containing three types of atoms

· After the H the rest of the atoms in the ternary acid are polyatomic ions that contain oxygen, or also called oxyanions. Therefore, ternary acids can also be called oxyacids.

· HNO2(aq) is called - aqueous hydrogen nitrite by the IUPAC system

-nitrous acid by the Classical system

Conversion from IUPAC to Classical for ternary acids

1) Replace the words “aqueous hydrogen” with the word “acid” at the end

2) Change the ending: - “ate” to “ic” or “ite” to “ous”

IUPAC

Classical

aqueous hydrogen hypo______ite ( hypo_______ous acid

aqueous hydrogen ______ite ( _______ous acid

aqueous hydrogen ______ate ( _______ic acid

aqueous hydrogen per ______ate ( per _______ic acid

Chemical

IUPAC Nomenclature Classical Nomenclature

Formula

HNO2(aq)

_________________________________________________

HBrO2(aq)

_________________________________________________

H3PO4(aq)

_________________________________________________

H2CO3(aq)

_________________________________________________

H2SO4(aq)

_________________________________________________

HClO4(aq)

_________________________________________________

· remember only do classical system rules for binary and ternary acids when you know it is an acid. For example “(aq)” symbols are a good indication the compound is an acid if it also contains an H at the beginning. There are some exceptions such as acetic acid CH3COOH, the last H being the acidic proton.

· example HBrO2(g) would be called hydrogen bromite gas

Handout 5 - Recognizing Patterns #1

Oxyanions (polyatomic ions containing oxygen) have a pattern in their names to indicate amount of oxygens. Look at the list of oxyanions that have chlorine in them and see if you notice the pattern.

- the base ion is the one with “ate” and no prefix

- when the suffix “ite” is used, subtract 1 oxygen atom from the base ion

- when the prefix “hypo” and the suffix “ite” is used, subtract 2 oxygen atoms

- when the prefix “per” and the suffix “ate” is used, add 1 oxygen atom to the

base ion

Use your polyatomic ions list to find the formulas for the following “base” ions: carbonate, nitrate, phosphate, sulfate, iodate, bromate.

Use the 6 base polyatomic ions above and fill in the boxes below with the 3 other polyatomic ions that can be known from the base ion.

Name

Formula

Name

Formula

Name

Formula

Name

Formula

Name

Formula

Name

Formula

Recognizing Patterns #2

Acid Anions

- an acid anion is created when one or more H+ ions covalently bond with an

oxyanion (i.e. HCO3-, HPO42-)

- when acid anions combine with cations, acid salts are created (i.e. CaHPO4)

- using the base polyatomic ions from Recognizing Patterns #1 (carbonate,

phosphate, sulfate) and the pattern below you can create the acid anions

Base Ion

Acid Anion

+H+

carbonate

hydrogen carbonate

CO32-

-2 + 1 = -1

HCO3-

+2H+

phosphate

dihydrogen phosphate

PO43-

-3 + 2 = -1

______