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Produced By: www.ccohs.ca Working Through the Risks of Manual Materials Handling Dhananjai Borwankar, Technical Specialist October 3rd, 2012

Working Through the Risks of Manual Materials Handling

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Discover the five major factors that contribute to musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) as a result of manual materials handling (MMH) activities. Focus will be placed upon quantifying these factors in order to understand how to identify which tasks are particularly harmful at a workplace, and what parts of the body are most at risk while performing these tasks. Specific, relevant case study materials will show participants how they can apply practical assessment processes in the workplace so that organizations can focus on reducing the physical demands associated with manual materials handling activities—one of the major causes of the majority of MSD claims in Canada.

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Page 1: Working Through the Risks of Manual Materials Handling

Produced By:

www.ccohs.ca

Working Through the Risks of Manual Materials Handling

Dhananjai Borwankar, Technical SpecialistOctober 3rd, 2012

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CCOHS © 2012

www.ccohs.ca

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Canadian Centre for Occupational Health & Safety (CCOHS)

Who we are:• A federal not-for-profit corporation • Governed by a council representing:

– Workers– Government– Employers

Our mandate:• Promotion of the total well-being of working

Canadians.

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CCOHS © 2012

www.ccohs.ca

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Canadian Centre for Occupational Health & Safety (CCOHS)

What we offer:

• Training and education• H&S management systems• Access to various databases (chemical and

legislative)• Guide books and publications• Podcasts• Other special projects

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CCOHS © 2012

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Overview

Introduction• Defining the term “Musculoskeletal Disorder”• The musculoskeletal system

Physical Demands• Criteria

How Do Injuries Occur • Tolerance vs Demands

Assessment Tools

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Introduction

Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSDs)

A musculoskeletal disorder (MSD) is when there is some sort of damage to a part of the musculoskeletal system.

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Introduction

The Musculoskeletal System Consists of:

BonesCartilageMusclesTendonsLigamentsNerves

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Introduction

The Musculoskeletal System Consists of:

BonesCartilageMusclesTendonsLigamentsNerves

Courtesy of http://kidshealth.org/parent/general/body_basics/bones_muscles_joints.html#

Cartilage

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Introduction

The Musculoskeletal System Consists of:

BonesCartilageMusclesTendonsLigamentsNerves

Courtesy of http://www.mybwmc.org/library/3/100225

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The Musculoskeletal System Consists of:

BonesCartilageMusclesTendonsLigamentsNerves

Introduction

Courtesy of http://kidshealth.org/parent/general/body_basics/bones_muscles_joints.html#

Tendon

Tendon

Muscle

Muscle

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Introduction

The Musculoskeletal System Consists of:

BonesCartilageMusclesTendonsLigamentsNerves

Courtesy of http://kidshealth.org/parent/general/body_basics/bones_muscles_joints.html#

Ligament

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Introduction

The Musculoskeletal System Consists of:

BonesCartilageMusclesLigamentsTendonsNerves

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Introduction

Now that we understand what our musculoskeletal system consists of, we need to know how work places demands on these parts of our bodies.

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Physical Demands

Main Criteria:

Force and Contact StressRepetitionFixed or awkward body positionsEnvironmental Factors

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Physical Demands

Force:

When you exert pressure on something, pressure is placed back onto your body.

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Physical Demands

Contact Stress

Contact between the body and hard or sharp work objects.

Stress intensifies with• Little padding• Small contact area• Long duration

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Physical Demands

Repetition:Repetition – using the same body parts without giving them a chance to rest

Repetition is defined using three variables:• Frequency• Duration• Intensity

Movements are bundled into cycles

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Physical Demands

Repetition:Cycle of movements• Reach for bottles• Grasp bottles• Move bottles to box• Place bottles in box

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Physical Demands

Posture:

Posture simply refers to body positions

Posture falls into two categories:• Good, or “ideal”• bad or “awkward”

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Physical Demands

Posture:

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Physical Demands

Posture:

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Physical Demands

Posture: Static Loading

Holding body positions for extended periods of time• Muscles are kept tense• Blood flow is restricted• Rate of local muscle fatigue

increases

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Physical Demands

Environmental Factors: Lighting, Temperature, Vibration

Lighting• Postures

Temperature• Lack of feeling

Vibration• Whole body• Hand-arm

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Physical Demands

Quantifying Physical Demands:

Force and Contact StressRepetitionFixed or awkward body positionsEnvironmental Factors

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How Injuries Occur

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How Injuries Occur

Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSDs)

Development• Cumulative Loading - slowly (weeks, months or

years).– Wear and tear over time

• Peak Loading – After a single particularly taxing event.– One time exertion

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How Injuries Occur

Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSDs) – Cumulative LoadingTi

ssue

Loa

d

Time

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How Injuries Occur

Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSDs) – Cumulative Loading

Loading PatternTiss

ue L

oad

Time

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How Injuries Occur

Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSDs) – Cumulative Loading

Loading PatternTiss

ue L

oad

Tolerance

Time

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How Injuries Occur

Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSDs) – Cumulative Loading

Loading PatternTiss

ue L

oad

Tolerance

Time

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How Injuries Occur

Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSDs) – Cumulative Loading

Loading PatternTiss

ue L

oad

Tolerance

Time

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How Injuries Occur

Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSDs) – Peak LoadingTi

ssue

Loa

d

Loading Pattern

Time

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How Injuries Occur

Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSDs) – Peak Loading

Tolerance

Tiss

ue L

oad

Loading Pattern

Time

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How Injuries Occur

Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSDs) – Peak Loading

Tolerance

Tiss

ue L

oad

Loading Pattern

Time

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Where to begin?

Now that we know the basic way in which physical demands are placed upon individuals, and how injuries occur, we just need a tool to help guide our assessments.

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Where to begin?

There are lots of options:RULA and REBA

• Designed for unpredictable postures in health care• http://personal.health.usf.edu/tbernard/HollowHills/REBA.pdf• http://personal.health.usf.edu/tbernard/HollowHills/RULA_r1.pdf

Rodgers Muscle Fatigue Index• Assessment of amount of fatigue in muscles during 5 min. of a work pattern.• http://personal.health.usf.edu/tbernard/HollowHills/Rodgers_MFA_M20.pdf

Washington State Tools• Hazard and Caution Zone Checklists and Lifting Calculator

http://www.lni.wa.gov/Safety/Topics/Ergonomics/ServicesResources/Tools/def ault.asp

• Cost calculator: http://www.pshfes.org/Resources/Documents/Ergonomics_cost_benefit_calcul ator_instructions.pdf

Liberty Mutual Manual Materials Handling Tables (Risk to the back)• http://libertymmhtables.libertymutual.com/CM_LMTablesWeb/taskSelection.do

?action=initTaskSelection

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Where to begin?

Tools continued…

NIOSH Lifting Equation (assessing who can lift)• http://www.ccohs.ca/oshanswers/ergonomics/niosh/assessing.html

Worksafe BC auto calculators (Lifting/lowering, pushing/pulling)• http://www2.worksafebc.com/calculator/llc/default.htm• http://www2.worksafebc.com/ppcc/default.htm

MAC and ART Tools (Lifting, Carrying, Team Lifting, Seated Work)• http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/indg383.pdf

European Agency for Safety and Health (Lifting, Carrying, Team Lifting, Seated Work)

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HSE’s Approach

Risk filters exist for various Manual Handling activities:

Lifting, Lowering, and Carrying

Pushing and Pulling• Guidance based on load weight being pushed• Should be altered for slope

Seated handling• Different guidance values for men and women

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HSE’s Approach

Step 1: Use of Risk Filters. This is the filter for lifting tasks.

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HSE’s Approach

Reduction of lifting lowering limits due to twisting and high frequency activities

Twisting:• reduce limits by 10% if

twisting 450 or more,

• reduce limits by 20% if twisting 900 or more

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HSE’s Approach

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HSE’s Approach

The use of risk filters should not be considered lifting/carrying/pushing/pulling limits!

These are only used to differentiate between high risk and low risk activities. This will help you use your time more wisely.

Once the high risk activities are taken care of, you should go back and try to improve the other activities.

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HSE’s Approach

Step 2: Complete a full assessment.

Part of the full assessment can be done with the MAC tool:Step 1: Load and FrequencyStep 2: Posture:

• Arm distance• Trunk twisting and asymmetry

Step 3: Room to moveStep 4: GripStep 5: Environment

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HSE’s Approach

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Example

Assume 2 hours per day.

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HSE’s Approach

a.) Load/Freq.

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HSE’s Approach

a.) Load/Freq.

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HSE’s Approach

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HSE’s Approach

b.) Horizontal arm distance.

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HSE’s Approach

b.) Horizontal arm distance.

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HSE’s Approach

c.) Vertical arm distance.

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HSE’s Approach

c.) Vertical arm distance.

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HSE’s Approach

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HSE’s Approach

d.) Trunk twisting and bendingTwisting or lateral bending only – amber with a #1Twisting and lateral bending – red with a #2

e.) Postural ConstraintsNo restriction – green and #0Restricted movement – amber and #1Severe restriction – red and #3

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HSE’s Approach

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HSE’s Approach

g.) Grip on load

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HSE’s Approach

g.) Grip on load

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HSE’s Approach

h.) Floor Surface

i.) EnvironmentalExtremes in temperature, strong air movement or poor lighting – score 1More than one risk factor – score 2

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HSE’s Approach

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HSE’s Approach

Summary of MAC tool results:

Overall score: 19

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European Agency for Safety and Health at Work’s Approach

What do they do?

Work with government, employers and workers to promote risk prevention culture.

Analyze scientific research and statistics on workplace risk

Anticipate new and emerging risks

Identify and share information, good practices, and advice.

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European Agency for Safety and Health at Work’s Approach

Assessment methodology similar to HSE’s approach

• Perform a screening assessment – observational prioritization.

• Perform a more in depth assessment for activities that are high risk in the screen assessment.

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European Agency for Safety and Health at Work’s Approach

Key-Indicator-Method (KIM)

Based on a dose model: duration multiplied by intensity. Takes biomechanical, metabolic and individual aspects into account.

Individual sheets available for • Lifting, holding, and carrying• pushing and pulling

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European Agency for Safety and Health at Work’s Approach

Key-Indicator-Method (KIM) – Lift, Hold, Carry

Step 1: Identify time risk ratingStep 2: Identify weight risk ratingStep 3: Identify posture risk ratingStep 4: Identify working conditionsStep 5: Evaluate total risk

• Worksheet

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European Agency for Safety and Health at Work’s Approach

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European Agency for Safety and Health at Work’s Approach

Time Rating Calculation

Calculation based upon 1 lift every 9 – 14 seconds• = average of 1 lift every 12 seconds.• = 5 lifts per minute • = 600 lifts in 2 hours.• Rating = 500 to 1000 pieces per day = “8”

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European Agency for Safety and Health at Work’s Approach

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European Agency for Safety and Health at Work’s Approach

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European Agency for Safety and Health at Work’s Approach

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European Agency for Safety and Health at Work’s Approach

Load RatingEach package is 25 kg.

The person in the video is a male, therefore use the male column.

The load score for 25 kg = “4”

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European Agency for Safety and Health at Work’s Approach

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European Agency for Safety and Health at Work’s Approach

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Working Conditions RatingBecause the individual is constricted, they are forced to twist while lifting.

Score = “1”

European Agency for Safety and Health at Work’s Approach

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European Agency for Safety and Health at Work’s Approach

Summary of KIM tool results:

Overall Score: (4 + 8 + 1) x 8 = 104Anything above 50 is a concern!

Specific Areas of concern: FrequencyLoad weightPostures used

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Comparison of Tools

MAC ToolAdvantages

• Visual• Includes grip• Detailed posture

Disadvantages• Long• Only for specific

activities

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Comparison of Tools

MAC ToolAdvantages

• Visual• Includes grip• Detailed posture

Disadvantages• Long• Only for specific

activities

KIM ToolAdvantages

• Visual• Threshold scores• One page

Disadvantages• Posture less

descriptive• No grip considered

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Comparison of Results

MAC ToolProblem areas:

• Weight• Frequency• Postures

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Comparison of Results

MAC ToolProblem areas:

• Weight• Frequency• Postures

KIM ToolProblem areas:

• Weight• Frequency• Postures

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Summary

There are a variety of methods available to assess manual material handling risk

The choice of the method depends on the activity being performed

Screening methods help to prioritize and focus resources.

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Questions?

Contact Information:

Dhananjai BorwankarTechnical Specialist

Canadian Center for Occupational Health and Safety

1-800-668-4284 (ext. 4541)

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Resources

1. http://kidshealth.org/parent/general/body_basics/bones_muscles_joints .html#

2. The Health and Safety Executive: Manual Handling Assessment Chart, http://www.hse.gov.uk/msd/mac/

3. The Health and Safety Executive. (2008). Manual Handling Assessment Charts. London, England.

4. The European Agency for Safety and Health at Work: The Kim Tool – Key Item Method. http://osha.europa.eu/en/topics/msds/slic/handlingloads/19.htm

5. European Agency for Safety and Health at Work. (2004). Risk Assessment by using Key Item Method in Practice Examples for Assessment and Answers to frequently asked Questions. Bilboa, Spain.

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Resources

6. Chengular, S.N., Rodgers, S.H., & Bernard, T.E. (2004). Kodak’s Ergonomic Design for People at Work. (2nd ed.). Hoboken New Jersey: John Wiley and Sons.

7. Hignett, S., McAtamaney, L. (2000) Applied Ergonomics, 31, 201 – 2005.