With your favorite host Vignesh Sridharan Guests on todays show K. Vaideesh Subbaraj Shivendra Upadhyay M. Vishwanath Analysis of Biomass and Biofuels

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With your favorite host Vignesh Sridharan Guests on todays show K. Vaideesh Subbaraj Shivendra Upadhyay M. Vishwanath Analysis of Biomass and Biofuels as source of energy Slide 2 Technology and Environmental Impact of Biomass & Biofuels Slide 3 Slide 4 Technology Biomass technology today serves many markets that were developed with fossil fuels and modestly reduces their use Uses - Industrial process heat and steam, Electrical power generation, Transportation fuels (ethanol and biodiesel) and other products. Primary focus of the Biomass Program development of advanced technologies. Slide 5 Current Focus Platform technologies Sugar Platform Technology Thermochemical Platform Technology Slide 6 Bio-refinery A facility that integrates biomass conversion processes and equipment to produce fuels, power, and chemicals from biomass. Analogous to today's petroleum refineries It is based on the Sugar Platform and the Thermochemical Platform Slide 7 Slide 8 Liquid Fuel Technology Slide 9 Bio-diesel Made by transforming animal fat or vegetable oil with alcohol. Fuel is made from rapeseed (canola) oil or soybean oil or recycled restaurant grease. Directly substituted for diesel either as neat fuel or as an oxygenate additive Slide 10 Modified Waste Vegetable Fat Designed for general use in most compression ignition engines. The production of MWVF can be achieved in a continuous flow additive process. It can be modified in various ways to make a 'greener' form of fuel Slide 11 E-Diesel Uses additives in order to allow blending of ethanol with diesel. Ethanol blends of 7.7% to 15% and up to 5% Additives that prevent the ethanol and diesel from separating at very low temperatures or if water contamination occurs. Slide 12 Jatropha Biodiesel from Jatropha Seeds of the Jatropha nut is crushed and oil is extracted The oil is processed and refined to form bio-diesel. Slide 13 Gaseous fuel Technology Slide 14 Gasification Technology Gobar gas Production Biogas Synthesis gas Slide 15 Gasification A process that uses heat, pressure, and steam to convert materials directly into a gas composed primarily of carbon monoxide and hydrogen. Gasification technologies rely four key engineering factors 1. Gasification reactor atmosphere (level of oxygen or air content). 2. Reactor design. 3. Internal and external heating. 4. Operating temperature. Slide 16 Gasification Typical raw materials - coal, petroleum-based materials, and organic materials. The feedstock is prepared and fed, in either dry or slurried form, into a sealed reactor chamber called a gasifier. The feedstock is subjected to high heat, pressure, and either an oxygen-rich or oxygen-starved environment within the gasifier. Slide 17 Raw Materials for Gasification Slide 18 Gasification Products of gasification : * Hydrocarbon gases (also called syngas). * Hydrocarbon liquids (oils). * Char (carbon black and ash). Syngas is primarily carbon monoxide and hydrogen (more than 85 percent by volume) and smaller quantities of carbon dioxide and methane Slide 19 Gasifier Plant Slide 20 Slide 21 Slide 22 Types of Gasifiers Updraft Gasifier Slide 23 Types of Gasifiers Downdraft Gasifier Slide 24 Types of Gasifiers Twin-fire Gasifier Slide 25 Types of Gasifiers Crossdraft gas producers Slide 26 Gobar gas Gobar gas production is an anaerobic process Fermentation is carried out in an air tight, closed cylindrical concrete tank called a digester Slide 27 Slide 28 Slide 29 Solid Fuel Slide 30 Wood Domestic heating with wood is still by far the largest market for bio-energy Dramatic improvements of technology in domestic heating equipment Improved tiled stoves, advanced logwood boilers, woodchip boilers, pellet boilers and pellet stoves. Pourable wood-based fuel is also available Slide 31 Tiled stoves Slide 32 Pellet Boilers and Stoves Slide 33 Logwood boiler Slide 34 Woodchip boilers Slide 35 Environmental Concerns Air Pollution Soil Deterioration Slide 36 Air Concerns Biomass processing technologies and biofuels use have the potential to increase emissions of ozone precursors o Increase in No x emissions Excessive inhalation of ethanol is harmful Combustion of ethanol would result in increased atmospheric concentrations of carcinogens Emission of relatively large sized particulate matter Slide 37 Soil Concerns Burning biomass deprives local eco-systems of nutrients Production of dedicated energy crops renders land fallow Reduced land availability for cattle grazing Increased use of pesticides and fertilizers to produce energy crops contaminate ground and surface water o Affects fish and wildlife Slide 38 Environmental Benefits Reduction of waste Extremely low emission of greenhouse gases compared to fossil fuels Ethanol is Carbon neutral and forms a part of the carbon cycle Growing variety of crops increases bio-diversity Slide 39 Socio-Economic Benefits Helps developing economies by promoting agrarian communities Increase in jobs Increase in trade balance (Indian perspective) due to lesser dependence on foreign resources Slide 40 BIO FUELS THE WORLD SCENARIO Slide 41 BRAZIL World leader in production and export of ethanol. Ethanol produced per day equivalent to 200,000 barrels of gasoline. 24% blend ethanol mandatory. Competitiveness Bio diesel initiatives underway Slide 42 U.S.A. Ethanol : a big boost to economy E85 sells cheaper than gasoline Currently production aimed at 4.5 Billion gallons/yr MTBE phased out in many states Soya bean main source of biodiesel Slide 43 E.U. Rapeseed main source of bio diesel 3-15% blended petrol France: Bio diesel exempted from domestic tax Germany: Sales of bio diesel 99 million US gallons Rise of SVO as domestic fuel Slide 44 The Significant Others China: 3 rd largest producer of ethanol producing 220,000 tons of ethanol, exporting 90,000 tons in 2000. In southeast Asia, the Jatropha tree is used as a significant fuel source Malaysia and Indonesia are starting pilot- scale production from palm oil. Slide 45 India Sources of ethanol: Sugarcane Molasses Agricultural waste Low average cost of Rs.18/litre projected Annual production capacity of 1.5 Billion litres Slide 46 Sources of biodiesel: Honge Jatropha High capital, broad scale production plan initiated Cost per liter projected at Rs. 27 India (Contd.) Slide 47 Slide 48 Bio Mass Biomass already supplies 14 % of the worlds primary energy consumption. On average, biomass produces 38 % of the primary energy in developing countries. USA: 4% of total energy from bio mass, around 9000 MW INDIA is short of 15,000 MW of energy and it costs about 25,000 crores annually for the government to import oil. Slide 49 Bio Mass from cattle manure, agricultural waste, forest residue and municipal waste. Anaerobic digestion of livestock wastes to give bio gas Digester consumes roughly one third the power its capable of producing. Fertilizers as by product. Average electricity generation of 5.5kWh per cow per day!! Slide 50 Thank You