William Shakespeare 1564-1616 Stratford-on-Avon - England

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Text of William Shakespeare 1564-1616 Stratford-on-Avon - England

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  • William Shakespeare 1564-1616 Stratford-on-Avon - England
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  • Overview Who was he? Who was he? Why is he so famous? Why is he so famous? Life Life Works Works Tragedy Tragedy Comedy Comedy History History Poetry Poetry Chronology Chronology Elements of drama Elements of drama Dramatic technique Dramatic technique Poetic technique Poetic technique Elizabethan theatre Elizabethan theatre Sonnet XVIII Sonnet XVIII Macbeth Macbeth Hamlet Hamlet Julius Caesar Julius Caesar Romeo and Juliet Romeo and Juliet Much ado about nothing Much ado about nothing The Merchant of Venice The Merchant of Venice Links Links
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  • Who was he? Widely regarded as the greatest writer in English Literature Poet and dramatist Wrote 37 plays: comedies, histories, tragediescomedieshistories tragedies Composed about 154 sonnets and a few poemssonnets poems Started out as an actor
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  • Life Born around April 23, 1564; 3rd of 8 children Family lived in Stratford-on-Avon, a market town about 100 miles NW of LondonStratford-on-Avon Father (John) a shopkeeper. A man of considerable standing in Stratford. Served as Justice of the Peace and High Bailiff (mayor) Attended grammar school, where he studied Latin, grammar and literature, Rhetoric (the use of language). No further formal education known Marriage to Anne Hathaway, 8 years older than he, 3 children: Susanna (1583), Judith and Hamnet (twins, 1585)
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  • Later life 1594 - became shareholder in a company of actors called Lord Chamberlains Men 1599 - Lord Chamberlains Co. Built Globe Theater where most of S. Plays were performed 1599 - Actor for Lord Chamberlains Men and principal playwright for them 1603 James I became king of England; acting company renamed Kings Men 1610 Shakespeare retired to Stratford-on-Avon April 2 1616 died at the age of 52
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  • Works Editions of works: First Quarto (1603), Second Quarto (1604), Folio (1623)
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  • Comedy A Midsummer Night's Dream All's Well That Ends Well As You Like It Cymbeline Loves Labours Lost Measure for Measure Much Ado About Nothing Much Ado About Nothing Pericles, Prince of Tyre The Comedy of Errors The Merchant of Venice The Merchant of Venice The Merry Wives of Windsor The Taming of the Shrew The Tempest Troilus and Cressida Twelfth Night Two Gentlemen of Verona Winter's Tale
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  • Tragedy Antony and Cleopatra Coriolanus Hamlet Hamlet Julius Caesar Julius Caesar King Lear Macbeth Macbeth Othello Romeo and Juliet Romeo and Juliet Timon of Athens Titus Andronicus
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  • History Henry IV, part 1 Henry IV, part 2 Henry V Henry VI, part 1 Henry VI, part 2 Henry VI, part 3 Henry VIII King John Richard II Richard III
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  • Poetry A Lover's Complaint Sonnets (about 154) Sonnets The Passionate Pilgrim The Phoenix and the turtle The Rape of Lucrece Venus and Adonis
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  • Why is he still so famous? His plays portray recognizable people in situations we experience in our lives: love, marriage, death, mourning, guilt, the need to make difficult choices, separation, reunion and reconciliation They do so with great humanity, tolerance, and wisdom They are constantly fresh and can be adapted to the place and time they are performed Their language is wonderfully expressive and powerfullanguage They help us to understand what it is to be human, and to cope with the problems of being so
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  • Chronology The problem with any timeline of Shakespeare's works is that most dates are subject to interpretation. While it is easy to say that The Comedy of Errors is an early work and The Tempest is quite later, exact dates are not - and may not ever be -proved.
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  • Title Date Written Date Range First Published The Comedy of Errors1590? - 15941623 Titus Andronicus1590? - 15941594 The Taming of the Shrew1591? - 15941623 2 Henry VI1591? - 15921594 3 Henry VI1591? - 15921595 1 Henry VI1592? - 15921623 Richard III15921592 - 15971597 Love's Labor's Lost1593? - 15971598
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  • Two Gentlemen of Verona1593? - 15981623 A Midsummer Night's Dream15941594 - 15981600 Romeo and Juliet1595? - 15971597 Richard II15951595 - 15971597 King John1596? - 15981623 The Merchant of Venice15961594 - 15981600 Henry IV Part 115961595 - 15981598 Henry IV Part 215971596 - 15981600 The Merry Wives of Windsor15971597 - 16021602 As You Like It15981598 - 16001623 Much Ado About Nothing15981598 - 16001600 Henry V1599 1600
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  • Julius Caesar15991598 - 15991623 Twelfth Night16001600 - 16021623 Hamlet16011599 - 16011603 Troilus and Cressida16021601 - 16031609 All's Well That Ends Well16031598 - ?1623 Measure For Measure16041598 - 16041623 Othello16041598 - 16041622 King Lear16051598 - 16061608 Macbeth16061603 - 16111623 Antony and Cleopatra16061598 - 16081623 Timon of Athens16061598 - ?1623 Pericles Prince of Tyre16071598 - 16081609 Coriolanus16081598 - ?1623 Cymbeline16091598 - 16111623 A Winter's Tale16101598 - 16111623 The Tempest16111610 - 16111623 Henry VIII16131612 - 16131623
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  • Language Used over 20,000 words in his works The average writer uses 7,500 The English Dictionary of his time only had 500 words. Hes credited with creating 3,000 words in the English Oxford Dictionary He was by far the most important individual influence on the development of the modern English He invented lots of words that we use in our daily speech
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  • Words invented by the Bard accommodation amazement assassination baseless bloody bump castigate changeful control (noun) countless courtship critic eventful exposure frugal generous gloomy hurry impartial indistinguishable invulnerable laughable lonely majestic misplaced monumental obscene pious premeditated radiance reliance road sportive submerge suspicious
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  • Stratford-upon-Avon
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  • Elements of drama 5-part dramatic structure corresponds to a plays 5 acts Exposition (introduction) Establishes tone, setting, main characters, main conflict Fills in events previous to play Rising action Series of complications for the protagonist (main character) flowing from the main conflict
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  • Crisis or Climax Turning point in story Moment of choice for protagonist Forces of conflict come together Falling action Results of protagonists decision Maintains suspense Resolution or Denouement Conclusion of play Unraveling of plot May include characters deaths Elements of drama
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  • Dramatic technique Pun: play on words involving Word with more than one meaning Words with similar sounds Soliloquy Speech of moderate to long length Spoken by one actor alone on stage (or not heard by other actors) Aside Direct address by actor to audience Not supposed to be overheard by other characters
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  • Poetic technique Blank verse: unrhymed iambic pentameter Iambic pentameter 5 units of rhythm per line primary rhythm is iambic ( U / ) Shal compre The to a smmers dy
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  • Typical 16th century theatre Building: Building 3 stories Levels 1 & 2, Backstage: dressing and storage areas Level 3, Upper Stage: could represent balcony, walls of a castle, bridge of a ship Resembled courtyard of an inn The Globe Theatre
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  • Elizabethan Theatre
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  • The Globe Theatre
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  • Proscenium stage A large platform without a curtain or a stage setting 2 ornate pillars supported canopy Stage roof (underpart of canopy) called the heavens elaborately painted to depict the sun, moon, stars, planets
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  • Trap doors: entrances and exits of ghosts; area under stage called Hell 2 large doors at back: actors made entrances and exits in full view of audience Inner stage: a recess with balcony area above Floor: ash mixed with hazelnut shells from snacks audience ate during performance Effect on performance: plays held in afternoon No roof No artificial lighting No scenery
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  • Acting companies Developed from the medieval trade guilds Were composed of Only boys and men Young boys performed female roles
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  • Audience 2000-3000 people from all walks of life Well-to-do spectators sat in covered galleries around stage Most stood in yard around platform stage groundlings
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  • The sonnets Containing some of the greatest lyric poems in English literature, Shakespeares Sonnets are not just the easy love sentiments of "Shall I compare thee to a summer's day." Many of the poems are bleak cries of emotional torment and spiritual exhaustion. They tell a story of the struggle of love and forgiveness against anguish and despair. It is this tragic portrait of human love that makes the sonnets immortal.
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  • Sonnet 18 Shall I compare thee to a summer's day? Thou art more lovely and more temperate: Rough winds do shake the darling buds of May, And summer's lease hath all too short a date: Sometime too hot the eye of heaven shines, And often is his gold complexion dimm'd; And every fair from fair sometime declines, By chance, or natu