William Shakespeare 1564-1616 Stratford-on-Avon - England

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<ul><li> Slide 1 </li> <li> William Shakespeare 1564-1616 Stratford-on-Avon - England </li> <li> Slide 2 </li> <li> Overview Who was he? Who was he? Why is he so famous? Why is he so famous? Life Life Works Works Tragedy Tragedy Comedy Comedy History History Poetry Poetry Chronology Chronology Elements of drama Elements of drama Dramatic technique Dramatic technique Poetic technique Poetic technique Elizabethan theatre Elizabethan theatre Sonnet XVIII Sonnet XVIII Macbeth Macbeth Hamlet Hamlet Julius Caesar Julius Caesar Romeo and Juliet Romeo and Juliet Much ado about nothing Much ado about nothing The Merchant of Venice The Merchant of Venice Links Links </li> <li> Slide 3 </li> <li> Who was he? Widely regarded as the greatest writer in English Literature Poet and dramatist Wrote 37 plays: comedies, histories, tragediescomedieshistories tragedies Composed about 154 sonnets and a few poemssonnets poems Started out as an actor </li> <li> Slide 4 </li> <li> Life Born around April 23, 1564; 3rd of 8 children Family lived in Stratford-on-Avon, a market town about 100 miles NW of LondonStratford-on-Avon Father (John) a shopkeeper. A man of considerable standing in Stratford. Served as Justice of the Peace and High Bailiff (mayor) Attended grammar school, where he studied Latin, grammar and literature, Rhetoric (the use of language). No further formal education known Marriage to Anne Hathaway, 8 years older than he, 3 children: Susanna (1583), Judith and Hamnet (twins, 1585) </li> <li> Slide 5 </li> <li> Later life 1594 - became shareholder in a company of actors called Lord Chamberlains Men 1599 - Lord Chamberlains Co. Built Globe Theater where most of S. Plays were performed 1599 - Actor for Lord Chamberlains Men and principal playwright for them 1603 James I became king of England; acting company renamed Kings Men 1610 Shakespeare retired to Stratford-on-Avon April 2 1616 died at the age of 52 </li> <li> Slide 6 </li> <li> Works Editions of works: First Quarto (1603), Second Quarto (1604), Folio (1623) </li> <li> Slide 7 </li> <li> Comedy A Midsummer Night's Dream All's Well That Ends Well As You Like It Cymbeline Loves Labours Lost Measure for Measure Much Ado About Nothing Much Ado About Nothing Pericles, Prince of Tyre The Comedy of Errors The Merchant of Venice The Merchant of Venice The Merry Wives of Windsor The Taming of the Shrew The Tempest Troilus and Cressida Twelfth Night Two Gentlemen of Verona Winter's Tale </li> <li> Slide 8 </li> <li> Tragedy Antony and Cleopatra Coriolanus Hamlet Hamlet Julius Caesar Julius Caesar King Lear Macbeth Macbeth Othello Romeo and Juliet Romeo and Juliet Timon of Athens Titus Andronicus </li> <li> Slide 9 </li> <li> History Henry IV, part 1 Henry IV, part 2 Henry V Henry VI, part 1 Henry VI, part 2 Henry VI, part 3 Henry VIII King John Richard II Richard III </li> <li> Slide 10 </li> <li> Poetry A Lover's Complaint Sonnets (about 154) Sonnets The Passionate Pilgrim The Phoenix and the turtle The Rape of Lucrece Venus and Adonis </li> <li> Slide 11 </li> <li> Why is he still so famous? His plays portray recognizable people in situations we experience in our lives: love, marriage, death, mourning, guilt, the need to make difficult choices, separation, reunion and reconciliation They do so with great humanity, tolerance, and wisdom They are constantly fresh and can be adapted to the place and time they are performed Their language is wonderfully expressive and powerfullanguage They help us to understand what it is to be human, and to cope with the problems of being so </li> <li> Slide 12 </li> <li> Chronology The problem with any timeline of Shakespeare's works is that most dates are subject to interpretation. While it is easy to say that The Comedy of Errors is an early work and The Tempest is quite later, exact dates are not - and may not ever be -proved. </li> <li> Slide 13 </li> <li> Title Date Written Date Range First Published The Comedy of Errors1590? - 15941623 Titus Andronicus1590? - 15941594 The Taming of the Shrew1591? - 15941623 2 Henry VI1591? - 15921594 3 Henry VI1591? - 15921595 1 Henry VI1592? - 15921623 Richard III15921592 - 15971597 Love's Labor's Lost1593? - 15971598 </li> <li> Slide 14 </li> <li> Two Gentlemen of Verona1593? - 15981623 A Midsummer Night's Dream15941594 - 15981600 Romeo and Juliet1595? - 15971597 Richard II15951595 - 15971597 King John1596? - 15981623 The Merchant of Venice15961594 - 15981600 Henry IV Part 115961595 - 15981598 Henry IV Part 215971596 - 15981600 The Merry Wives of Windsor15971597 - 16021602 As You Like It15981598 - 16001623 Much Ado About Nothing15981598 - 16001600 Henry V1599 1600 </li> <li> Slide 15 </li> <li> Julius Caesar15991598 - 15991623 Twelfth Night16001600 - 16021623 Hamlet16011599 - 16011603 Troilus and Cressida16021601 - 16031609 All's Well That Ends Well16031598 - ?1623 Measure For Measure16041598 - 16041623 Othello16041598 - 16041622 King Lear16051598 - 16061608 Macbeth16061603 - 16111623 Antony and Cleopatra16061598 - 16081623 Timon of Athens16061598 - ?1623 Pericles Prince of Tyre16071598 - 16081609 Coriolanus16081598 - ?1623 Cymbeline16091598 - 16111623 A Winter's Tale16101598 - 16111623 The Tempest16111610 - 16111623 Henry VIII16131612 - 16131623 </li> <li> Slide 16 </li> <li> Language Used over 20,000 words in his works The average writer uses 7,500 The English Dictionary of his time only had 500 words. Hes credited with creating 3,000 words in the English Oxford Dictionary He was by far the most important individual influence on the development of the modern English He invented lots of words that we use in our daily speech </li> <li> Slide 17 </li> <li> Words invented by the Bard accommodation amazement assassination baseless bloody bump castigate changeful control (noun) countless courtship critic eventful exposure frugal generous gloomy hurry impartial indistinguishable invulnerable laughable lonely majestic misplaced monumental obscene pious premeditated radiance reliance road sportive submerge suspicious </li> <li> Slide 18 </li> <li> Stratford-upon-Avon </li> <li> Slide 19 </li> <li> Elements of drama 5-part dramatic structure corresponds to a plays 5 acts Exposition (introduction) Establishes tone, setting, main characters, main conflict Fills in events previous to play Rising action Series of complications for the protagonist (main character) flowing from the main conflict </li> <li> Slide 20 </li> <li> Crisis or Climax Turning point in story Moment of choice for protagonist Forces of conflict come together Falling action Results of protagonists decision Maintains suspense Resolution or Denouement Conclusion of play Unraveling of plot May include characters deaths Elements of drama </li> <li> Slide 21 </li> <li> Dramatic technique Pun: play on words involving Word with more than one meaning Words with similar sounds Soliloquy Speech of moderate to long length Spoken by one actor alone on stage (or not heard by other actors) Aside Direct address by actor to audience Not supposed to be overheard by other characters </li> <li> Slide 22 </li> <li> Poetic technique Blank verse: unrhymed iambic pentameter Iambic pentameter 5 units of rhythm per line primary rhythm is iambic ( U / ) Shal compre The to a smmers dy </li> <li> Slide 23 </li> <li> Typical 16th century theatre Building: Building 3 stories Levels 1 &amp; 2, Backstage: dressing and storage areas Level 3, Upper Stage: could represent balcony, walls of a castle, bridge of a ship Resembled courtyard of an inn The Globe Theatre </li> <li> Slide 24 </li> <li> Elizabethan Theatre </li> <li> Slide 25 </li> <li> The Globe Theatre </li> <li> Slide 26 </li> <li> Proscenium stage A large platform without a curtain or a stage setting 2 ornate pillars supported canopy Stage roof (underpart of canopy) called the heavens elaborately painted to depict the sun, moon, stars, planets </li> <li> Slide 27 </li> <li> Trap doors: entrances and exits of ghosts; area under stage called Hell 2 large doors at back: actors made entrances and exits in full view of audience Inner stage: a recess with balcony area above Floor: ash mixed with hazelnut shells from snacks audience ate during performance Effect on performance: plays held in afternoon No roof No artificial lighting No scenery </li> <li> Slide 28 </li> <li> Acting companies Developed from the medieval trade guilds Were composed of Only boys and men Young boys performed female roles </li> <li> Slide 29 </li> <li> Audience 2000-3000 people from all walks of life Well-to-do spectators sat in covered galleries around stage Most stood in yard around platform stage groundlings </li> <li> Slide 30 </li> <li> The sonnets Containing some of the greatest lyric poems in English literature, Shakespeares Sonnets are not just the easy love sentiments of "Shall I compare thee to a summer's day." Many of the poems are bleak cries of emotional torment and spiritual exhaustion. They tell a story of the struggle of love and forgiveness against anguish and despair. It is this tragic portrait of human love that makes the sonnets immortal. </li> <li> Slide 31 </li> <li> Sonnet 18 Shall I compare thee to a summer's day? Thou art more lovely and more temperate: Rough winds do shake the darling buds of May, And summer's lease hath all too short a date: Sometime too hot the eye of heaven shines, And often is his gold complexion dimm'd; And every fair from fair sometime declines, By chance, or nature's changing course un-trimm'd; But thy eternal summer shall not fade, Nor lose possession of that fair thou ow'st, Nor shall death brag thou wander'st in his shade, When in eternal lines to time thou grow'st; So long as men can breathe, or eyes can see, So long lives this, and this gives life to thee </li> <li> Slide 32 </li> <li> Paraphrase of Sonnet 18 Shall I compare you to a summer's day? You are more lovely and more moderate: Harsh winds disturb the delicate buds of May, and summer doesn't last long enough. Sometimes the sun is too hot, and its golden face is often dimmed by clouds. All beautiful things eventually become less beautiful, either by the experiences of life or by the passing of time. But your eternal beauty won't fade, nor lose any of its quality. And you will never die, as you will live on in my enduring poetry. As long as there are people still alive to read poems this sonnet will live, and you will live in it. </li> <li> Slide 33 </li> <li> Sonnet 18 Commentary The gender of the addressee is not explicit The first two quatrains focus on the fair persons beauty The poet attempts to compare it to a summers day The timeless beauty far surpasses that of the fleeting, inconstant season. The theme of the ravages of time predominates The poet is eternalizing the fair persons beauty in his verse The poet describes summer as a season of extremes and disappointments These imperfections contrast sharply with the poets description of the fair person In line 12 we find the poets solution The poet plans to capture the fair personss beauty in his verse The poem will withstand the ravages of time Summer as a metaphor for youth, or perhaps beauty or both </li> <li> Slide 34 </li> <li> Figures of speeech Rhyming scheme: ABAB CDCD EFEF GG. Anaphora (the repetition of opening words) in lines 6-7, 10-11, and 13-14. Metaphor: summer for youth or beauty or both Initial Rethorical question Comparison Personification Imagery </li> <li> Slide 35 </li> <li> Sonnet 73 That time of year thou mayst in me behold When yellow leaves, or none, or few, do hang Upon those boughs which shake against the cold, Bare ruined choirs, where late the sweet birds sang. In me thou seest the twilight of such day As after sunset fadeth in the west, Which by and by black night doth take away, Death's second self, that seals up all in rest. In me thou see'st the glowing of such fire That on the ashes of his youth doth lie, As the death-bed whereon it must expire Consumed with that which it was nourish'd by. This thou perceivest, which makes thy love more strong, To love that well which thou must leave ere long. </li> <li> Slide 36 </li> <li> Paraphrase of Sonnet 73 In me you can see that time of year When a few yellow leaves or none at all hang On the branches, shaking against the cold, Bare ruins of church choirs where lately the sweet birds sang. In me you can see only the dim light that remains After the sun sets in the west, Which is soon extinguished by black night The image of death that envelops all in rest. In me you can see the glowing embers That lie upon the ashes remaining from the flame of my youth, As on a death bed where it (youth) must finally die Consumed by that which once fed it. This you sense, and it makes your love more determined To love more deeply that which you must give up before long. </li> <li> Slide 37 </li> <li> Sonnet 130 My mistress' eyes are nothing like the sun, Coral is far more red, than her lips red, If snow be white, why then her breasts are dun: If hairs be wires, black wires grow on her head: I have seen roses damasked, red and white, But no such roses see I in her cheeks, And in some perfumes is there more delight, Than in the breath that from my mistress reeks. I love to hear her speak, yet well I know, That music hath a far more pleasing sound: I grant I never saw a goddess go, My mistress when she walks treads on the ground. And yet by heaven I think my love as rare, As any she belied with false compare. </li> <li> Slide 38 </li> <li> Paraphrase of Sonnet 130 My mistress's eyes are not at all like the sun; Coral is much more red than her lips; If snow is white, then her breasts are certainly not white as snow; If hairs can be compared to wires, hers are black and not golden I have seen roses colored a combination of red and white But I do not see such colors in her cheeks; And some perfumes give more delight Than the breath of my mistress. I love to hear her speak, but I know That music has a more pleasing sound than her voice; I also never saw a goddess walk; But I know that my mistress walks only on the ground. And yet I think my love as rare.As any woman who has had poetic untruths told about her </li> <li> Slide 39 </li> <li> Sonnet 116 Let me not to the marriage of true minds Admit impediments, love is not love Which alters when it alteration finds, Or bends with the remover to remove. O no, it is an ever-fixed mark That looks on tempests and is never shaken; It is the star to every wand'ring bark, Whose worth's unknown, although his height be taken. Love's not Time's fool, though rosy lips and cheeks Within his bending sickle's compass come, Love alters not with his brief hours and weeks, But bears it out even to the edge of doom: If this be error and upon me proved, I never writ, nor no man ever loved. </li> <li> Slide 40 </li> <li> Sonnet 71 No longer mourn for me when I am dead, Than you shall hear th...</li></ul>

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