Wildlife Management and Protection Policy. Text: Cubbage et al., 1992. Wildlife Policy in the US. From laissez faire (let things be) philosophy to recognition of dwindling resources to mgmt of individual species and populations to ecosystem mgmt - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
Wildlife Management and Protection PolicyText: Cubbage et al., 19921Wildlife Policy in the USFrom laissez faire (let things be) philosophy to recognition of dwindling resources to mgmt of individual species and populations to ecosystem mgmtBefore: wildlife policy aimed at conservation of sports game & fishNow: holistic, include other aspects (ecology, aesthetics, ethics)ESA of 1973: wildlife protection policy for ecological purposesScience - to guide wildlife policy: findings interpreted in many ways?Scientists (YOUR) important role in public debates2Ownership of Wildlife2 theories of assigning rights over wildlife:Rights assigned to individual private decision makers who manage the resources in societys best interest (under private property rights) Vs.Rights assigned to a govt agency who determine optimal harvest levels for each species, provide equality of access to users (not possible in #1)essence of American system of property rights in wildliferejects traditional private rights in English game law3Ownership of WildlifeSo, who owns wildlife?
4Ownership of WildlifeSo, who owns wildlife?
In reality, wildlife cannot be truly owned by any person, private or governmental!!(Hughes vs. Oklahoma, 1979)(a Supreme Court ruling)
5Ownership of WildlifeState regulates wildlife hunting, even on federal landsStates set hunting seasons, conditions, issue licensesNational Parks Service often ignore state hunting & fishing regs No hunting on national parksUS Fish & Wildlife Service can choose to manage wildlife refuges in ways inconsistent with state wildlife lawBLMs lands state wildlife law dominatesForest Service & BLMs wildlife responsibilities -- directed more toward habitat protection and enhancement6Ownership of WildlifeItems to ponder about:Landowners have ultimate control over wildlife. Why?What are the chances of private-public partnership on providing these wildlife access/hunting opportunities here in Iowa? (For. Reserve Law?)Since responsibility for wildlife is split between the stewards of resident wildlife populations (the state) and their habitat (the landowners), what issues can you think of relating to regulation and habitat management?7Wildlife Management Objectives4 major wildlife mgmt policy goals derived from English law:1. to provide for sustained periodic harvests2. to regulate human behavior (use of weapons, methods of taking wildlife)3. policy favors particular groups (special hunting privileges, licenses)4. to promote the rights of animals 8Wildlife Management ObjectivesSix common wildlife goals among the states:1. preserve all species and ecosystems2. provide non-game wildlife enjoyment opportunities3. provide hunting opportunities for state residents4. promote econ. development (attract out-of-state hunters)5. make wildlife mgmt self-supporting (user fees)6. use of appropriated funds, other sources to support wildlife mgmt programs9Wildlife Management ObjectivesFour categories of activities constituting wildlife mgmt:1. habitat management2. predator control3. species introduction4. regulation of wildlife consumers10Aldo LeopoldProfessor of Game Mgmt & ConservationistA Young Forester, A Game Manager, A Wildlife Ecologist11Aldo Leopold (1887 1948)Illustration compared Leopolds life and the evolution of wildlife mgmt & protection in the USBorn in 1887 in IowaStarted career as forester with Forest ServiceDevelop comprehensive way of thinking about relationship between humans and natural worldWrote first book on game mgmtHelped launched game mgmt as a profession at Univ. of WisconsinHelped establish first administratively protected wilderness area in AmericaHelped establish Wilderness Society1946 published A Sand County AlmanacLand Ethic12Aldo Leopold: Forester1906 Leopold enrolled at Yale University for a forestry career 1909 Leopold got MS degree, joined Forest Service, worked in SW USProblem in Southwest: Native wildlife stock was depleted; remaining game animals were on national forests. FS had no legislative mandate to administer its lands for wildlife or recreation (Organic Act of 1897 provides for timber and watershed only)Used forced rest period to think about game conservation and recreation. Forest Service took Leopolds idea of recreation compatible with other forest usesAs chief of recreation planning, Leopold did not favor some areas subdivided for recreation led to promotion of roadless wilderness areas13Aldo Leopold: Wildlife Manager1928 Leopold left the FS; conducted game surveys in the Lake States with funding from a trade associationGame mgmt survey appraisal of environmental factors affecting productivity policy measures to restore gameReplace kill restrictions with building up supply through habitat mgmtConsidered new policy stressing:idea of production in the wildencouraging game protection & habitat mgmt by landownerscooperation with the conservation movement14Aldo Leopold: Wildlife Manager1933 published first ever Game Management book1934 on Presidents Committee on Wildlife Restorationstates in better position than fed govt to encourage game mgmt practice by private landowners promote idea of research and program admin at state level1935 creation of Cooperative Wildlife Research Unit Program, establishing research units in 9 of the nations land grant colleges (Iowa State has one right here at NREM!)15Aldo Leopold: Wildlife EcologistStudied and found German forestry & wildlife mgmt methods to be highly artificial Started thinking about systems, not individual speciesObjective switched:Indiv. species protection preserve healthy functioning ecosystem The Land Ethic A thing is right when it tends to preserve the integrity, stability, and beauty of the biotic community. It is wrong when it tends otherwise.A Sand County Almanac Leopolds greatest legacy; reflections on interrelations of ecology, aesthetics, and ethics.16Monday March 29, 201017Wildlife Management and Protection Policy(continued)18State Wildlife PolicyControlling the TakeIncreasing Populations and Managing HabitatNon-game Concerns
19State Wildlife Policycolonial period to the late 19th century: principal goal of American wildlife policy was unrestricted taking. Animals were slaughtered for 3 Fs: Food, Furs, and Funspecial interest groups that carried through the call for real protection and enforcement of laws:1. sports hunters promoted the sporting values of wildlife2. nature lovers helped develop different attitudes about wildlife1880 all states enacted laws protecting fish & game and most had hired game protectors/wardensHunters joined forces with nature lovers & the ladies clubs in the 1980s to campaign against the slaughter of plume birdsLacey Act of 1900 first general federal wildlife statute. 20State Wildlife PolicyControlling the TakeKey considerations to early wildlife conservation: 1. policy eliminating killing for mass markets 2. control no. of sports takers licensing systemFunding from license revenues and federal excise taxesWildlife law enforcement significant portion of state wildlife agency personnel & budgets21State Wildlife PolicyPrincipal goal of wildlife mgmt maintain population at levels best for the animals and consistent with peoples cultural, economic, and social needs;Manage habitatNon-game ConcernsPolicies to protect wildlife have ethical, aesthetic and ecological dimensions, BUT nongame wildlife programs not funded well compared to traditional game programs22Federal Wildlife PolicyStarting 1900, Congress enacted a host of wildlife protection statutesFederal laws impressive but fragmented, incompleteFed laws preserve important roles for states, yet limits state mgmt discretionStates retain control over wildlife within their borders but may exercise power only within framework of federal constitutional lawPrincipal thrust of federal wildlife policy cooperate with states to facilitate sport goalsNew policies reflecting ecological concerns for species preservation are some of most controversial natural resource issues of 1990s.23US Fish & Wildlife ServiceAdministers many of the laws protecting wildlifeCharge: protection & restoration of migratory & endangered wildlife species1939: two agencies (USDA Biological Survey, and USDC Bureau of Fisheries) transferred to USDI1956: Congress renamed it to US F&W ServiceF&WS had 2 bureaus (Bu. of Sports Fisheries & Wildlife and the Bu. of Commercial Fisheries)Bu. of Comm. Fisheries transferred to Dept of Commerce (1970), and renamed as National Marine Fisheries Service. 24US Fish & Wildlife ServiceMission: to protect, conserve, and enhance fish & wildlife and their habitats for continuing benefit of the American people. The seven principal functions of the agency are: 1. manage national wildlife refuge system of 400 refuges (~ 89 million ac)2. protect endangered species3. protect habitat4. conduct research5. enforce fish & wildlife laws6. provide recreational fishing7. advise other agencies25Federal Wildlife PolicyLacey ActMigratory Bird Conservation Act & Duck Stamp ActAnimal Damage Control ActFish & Wildlife Coordination ActTaylor Grazing Act & Forest Wildlife Refuge ActFed. Aid in Wildlife Restoration ActBald Eagle ActFish Restoration and Mgmt. ActSikes ActLand and Water Conservation Fund ActAnadromous Fish Conserv. ActNational Wildlife Refuge System Administration ActWild Free-Roaming Horses and Burros Protection ActFed. Water Pollution Control LawsMarine Mammal Protection ActEndangered Species ActFishery Conservation & Mgmt ActFish and Wildlife Conservation ActPacific Northwest Power Planning Conservation ActFederal Land Management Principal Laws263 Other Federal LawsHow do the following affect wildlife management? NEPA of 1970NFMA of 1976 (FS)FLPMA of 1976 (BLM)272 Trends in Federal Wildlife LawThere are two trends in federal wildlife law that are worth noting.1st -- the requirement that agencies consult with US F&W S in planning the devt of land and water resources in order to consider wildlife needs (mandated by the Fish & Wildlife Coordination Act of 1934, as amended in 1946 and 1958, and the ESA of 1973)2nd combination of public participation and ecosystem mgmt in the planning process (concept of wildlife as a public trust resource and its use shall be accomplished with broadest possible public participation) (influenced by the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972 and ESA of 1973)28Managing Habitat and EcosystemsCongress allows some hunting & fishing on most federal land systems, including wilderness areasThe regulation of taking is left to the discretion of the statesNational parks closed to huntingNational monuments, reserves, preserves, & recreational areas some hunting allowedPublic land mgmt today is undergoing transformation into ecosystem-based mgmt. 293031Protecting Biological DiversityEndangered Species ActListingCritical HabitatProtection32Endangered Species ActPurposes:1. to provide a means whereby the ecosystems upon which endangered species depend may be conserved, 2. to provide a program for the conservation of such endangered species
Objective of FWS based on ESA: to improve the status of endangered or threatened species so that they can be delisted.2 main processes created by ESA:designation of species and their critical habitat through listing andprotectionListing process is needed before protection through ESA can be set in motion!33Endangered Species Act: ListingListing selecting species to be put on the endangered species list.Conservation: the use of all methods and procedures which are necessary to bring any endangered or threatened species to the point at which the measures are no longer necessary.Endangered species any species which is in danger of extinction throughout all or any significant portion of its range.Threatened species species likely to become endangered within the foreseeable future.5 criteria defined by law for this listing:the present or threatened destruction, modification, or curtailment of its habitat or range.overutilization for commercial, recreational, scientific, or educational purposes.disease or predation.the inadequacy of existing regulatory mechanisms.other natural or manmade factors affecting its continued existence.34Endangered Species Act: Critical HabitatCritical habitat the area occupied by the species at the time of listing and essential to its conservation.Critical habitat designation among most controversial aspects of FWS activities!Nonbiological factors, including economics, are to be used in determining critical habitat.35Endangered Species Act: ProtectionProtection involves three prohibitions and required consultation among agencies. Prohibitions are:Trade in endangered species without a permitNo person may take an endangered species.A federal agency may not act unless it insures that its action will neither jeopardize a species nor adversely affect designated its critical habitat.Term definitions:Take means to harass, harm pursue, hunt, shoot. Wound, kill, trap, capture, or collect, or to attempt to engage in any such conduct.Harm an act which actually kills of injures wildlife by significantly impairing essential behavior patterns, including breeding, feeding, or sheltering.Jeopardize to engage in an action that reasonably may be expected, directly or indirectly, to reduce the reproduction, numbers, or distribution of the species.36Endangered Species ActEconomics and the ESAESA now includes economic concerns (not until spotted owl listing)1978 amendments required economic concerns to be considered in the designation of critical habitat after a species has been listed. 1988 amendment requires FWS to report annually on a species-by-species basis all federal expenditures and grants to states for the conservation of species under the act.37Endangered Species ActThe God Committee or the God Squad (Endangered Species Committee)The 1978 amendment created the Endangered Species Committee (or the God Committee)Committee decides whether or not a particular species could be exempted from the ESACommittee may be convened when there are irreconcilable conflict between a development project and species conservation needsComposition: chair of the Council of Economic Advisors, USDA sec, USDI sec (committee chair), USDoD sec, EPA administrator, and administrator of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. President also appoints one individual from each affected state. 38Endangered Species ActAlways a controversial policy, much debates during re-authorization.So,Should the ESA be reauthorized?39