Wildlife governance and mitigation of conflicts

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  • 1. WILDLIFE GOVERNANCE & MITIGATION OF CONFLICTS DR SUBRAT MUKHERJEE,IFS FIELD DIRECTOR SUNDARBAN TIGER RESERVE

2. INDIAN SUNDARBANS (4265 SQ KM approx) BANGLADESH SUNDARBANS (6000 SQ KM approx) STR (2585 SQ KM) SOUTH 24 PGS (1680 SQ KM) BUFFER AREA NP OF STR = WHS (1330 SQ KM) 3. THE HUMAN-TIGER INTERFACE

  • CIVIL BLOCKS
  • BLOCKs 29
  • GRAM PANCHAYATs 312
  • TOTAL AREA 8165.05 SQ KM
  • POPULATION DENSITY 846 / SQ KM
  • TOTAL FRINGE POPULATION 4.2 MILLION
  • MAJOR OCCUPATION
  • AGRICULTURE AND FISHING
  • FOREST BLOCKS

SOUTH 24 PGS DIST WEST BENGAL, INDIA SUNDARBANS TOTAL MANGROVER.F. 4265 SQ.KMS.SUNDARBAN TIGER RESERVE 2585 SQ.KMS S. 24 PGS FOREST DIVISION 1680 SQ.KMS PROTECTED AREAS AREA OF SUNDARBAN N.P. 1330 SQ.KMS AREA OF SWLS 362 SQ.KMS AREA OF LOTHIAN WLS 38 SQ.KMS AREA OF HALIDAY WLS 6 SQ.KMS 4. ADMINISTRATIVE STRUCTURE OF SBR DIRECTOR SBR( CCF RANK) ADFOs( ACF RANK) FOREST RANGERS AND DEPUTY RANGERS AND FRONTLINE STAFF S T R S 24 PG DIVN N24PG DIVN JT. DIRECTOR ( CF RANK) FIELD DIRECTOR ( CF RANK) DFO/S.24 PGS DIVN DFO/N.24 PGS. DIVN ( DCF RANK) DFD/SUNDARBAN TIGER RESERVE ( DCF RANK) DIVN TERRITORIAL RANGEBEAT STR 4 17 S.24 PGS 8 23 N.24 PGS 5 12 5. WILDLIFE GOVERNANCE

  • INTENSIVE PROTECTION OF FLORA & FAUNA
  • MITIGATION OF CONFLICTS
  • ECODEVELOPMENT WORKS
  • ECO-TOURISM
  • RESEARCH, MONITORING & EVALUATION

6. Target Population There areseven CD( out of 19 in total )Blocksharbouring 51 FPCs and 14 EDCs comprising of46 proximal villages( out of 65 in total )accounting for over210302 people( out of 3.5 million in total as per 2001 census and projected as 4.2 million in total in 2011 ) who make particularly high demand of the ecosystem and thus form thebasic target population. STR has a very small interfacewhereas24 Parganas (S) Divisionhas large interface 7.

  • ALP TO REDUCE DEPENDENCE ON FOREST WHYSO IMPORTANT ???
  • bcoz all seasonal occupations are forest dependent EXCEPT AGRICULTURE FROM APRIL-JUNE

April June July October Nov March 8. ECODEVELOPMENTWORKS&TRUSTBUILDINGACTIVITIES J oint Forest management has won the trust of people to a reasonablygood level and needs to be consolidated S. .N. ECO-DEVELOPMENT WORKS QUANTUM 1 Ponds 83 2 Smokeless Chullah 13900 3 Irrigation Channel (In Km.) 70 4 Medical Camps 142 5 Awareness & Training Camps 73 6 Deep Tube Wells 107 7 Nursery( In Ha. = 2500 Seedlings) 725 8 Fuel wood Plantation (Ha.) 1145 9 Fruit Plants 62000 10 Brick Path (Km.) 73 11 Solar Lights165 12 Solar Lanterns 610 13 Micro-Planning Trainings19 14 Study Tours 21 15 Community Centers 17 16 Jetty61 17 Vocational Trainings 27 9. INPUT PER INDIVIDUAL YEAR FUNDING(IN INR) IPI(IN $) 1998-99 4400016.00 10.44 1999-00 2965000.00 7.04 2000-01 4592930.00 10.90 2001-02 2706397.00 6.42 2002-03 3685781.00 8.75 2003-04 6275000.00 14.89 2004-05 7855000.00 18.65 2005-06 4154000.00 9.86 2006-07 2200000.00 5.22 2007-08 8200000.00 19.47 2008-09 12800000.00 20.21 2009-10 14600000.00 21.22 2010-11 16700000.00 23.67 10. HUMAN-TIGER CONFLICT IN THE UNDIVIDED SUNDERBANS

  • A REWARD OF RS 200/- WAS ANNOUNCED FOR EACH TIGER KILL IN 1910 AND CONTINUED TILL INDEPENDENCE
  • TILL POST INDEPENDENCE, TIGER WAS CONSIDERED AS PEST

YEAR No. of Men Carried Away No. of Tigers Killed 1881-82 161 3 1883-84 168 8 1907-08 120 9 1911-12 112 61 1914-15 79 36 1915-16 60 33 Source: A.C. Gupta, West Bengal Forests (Centenary Commemoration Volume,1964) 11. HUMAN TIGER CONFLICTS CLASSIFIED CONFLICT INSIDE FOREST DUE TO BIOTIC INTERFERENCE CAUSED BY FISHERMEN, HONEY COLLECTORS, WOOD COLLECTORS ETC CONFLICT OUTSIDE FOREST WHEN TIGER STRAYS IN A VILLAGE AND KILLS/INJURES LIVESTOCK ANDHUMAN BEINGS 12.

  • TIGER STARYING - CLASSIFIED
  • TEMPORARY STRAYING
  • STRAY TO THE VILLAGE AND RETURN TO JUNGLE OF ITS OWN
  • MANAGEMENT OPTIONS DRIVING / TRAPPING
  • PERMANENT STRAYING
  • ENTRY DEEP INSIDE VILLAGE AND LOSS OF DIRECTION ,
  • MANAGEMENT OPTIONS - TRANQUILIZATION, TRANSLOCATION AND RELEASE

13.

  • MAJOR CAUSES OF TIGER STARYING
  • TERRITORIALFIGHT
  • BREEDING / LITTERING TIME
  • INTERMINGLEDFORESTAND VILLAGE
  • IN SEARCH OF EASY PREY
  • INJURYANDOLD AGE

14. 1 STGENERATION MANAGEMENT[ 1973(PT DECLARATION) 1988(NFP) ]

  • STATUS
  • PEOPLE KILLED MAINLY FISHERMEN, HONEY COLLECTORS, COUPE OPERATORS
  • TIGERS KILLED BY POACHERS, RETALIATORY KILLING
  • TOTAL STRAYING CASES 303 NOS
  • MITIGATION METHODS
  • USE OF MASKS
  • USE OF ELECTRIC DUMMIES
  • EXCAVATION OF SWEET WATER PONDS

USE OF MASK ELECTRIC DUMMY SWEET WATER POND 15. 2 NDGENERATION MANAGEMENT[ 1988(NFP) 2001 ]

  • MITIGATION METHODS
  • EMPHASIS ON REDUCING STRAYING
  • USE OF GORAN ( Ceriops ) - GEWA ( Excoecaria ) CHITTA FENCING ALONG FRINGE
  • INITIATION OF TRAINED TRANQUILIZATION SQUAD
  • INTRODUCTION OF NYLON NET FENCING
  • EMPHASIS ON REDUCING NUMBER OF PEOPLE ENTRY
  • ECODEVELOPMENT PROGRAM IN VILLAGES
  • EMPHASIS ON FARM BASED ACTIVITIES FROM FOREST ACTIVITIES
  • COUPE OPERATION STOPPED
  • NUMBER OF HONEY COLLECTORS REDUCED

GORAN CHITA FENCING AGRICULTURE INPUT TRANQUILIZATION 16. 2 NDGENERATION MANAGEMENT[ 1988(NFP) 2001 ]

  • STATUS OF CONFLICT
  • TOTAL TIGER STRAYING CASES 280
  • HUMAN DEATH REDUCED

17. 3 RDGENERATION MANAGEMENT[ 2002 TILL DATE(REASONING,ANALYSIS) ]

  • MITIGATION METHODS
  • USE OF NYLON NET FENCING ( 48 KM OUT OF 65 KM INTERFACE )
  • REDUCED REACTION TIME
  • 6 EQUIPPED TSCF
  • LARGE SCALE ECODEVELOPMENT WORKS
  • HRD & CAPACITY BUILDING

NYLON NET FENCE ALONG FOREST TSCF WITH TIGER GUARD 8-10 FT MESH 4X4 METAL RUNNER

  • STATUS OF CONFLICT
  • 2 STRAYED TIGER WERE KILLED BY PEOPLE (2001)
  • HUMAN DEATHS REDUCED
  • STRAYING REDUCED

18. (A) (B) RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT (A)EARLIER THESTRAYED OUTCAPTURED TIGER WASRELEASED ON LANDTILL 2001 (B)NOW THE TIGER IS BEING RELEASED FROM BOAT 19.

  • REASEARCH & DEVELOPMENT
  • CRITICAL EVALUATION OF ALP FOR FUTURE PLANING OFPARTICIPATORY FOREST MANAGEMENT -AN IUCN-MFF SMALL GRANT PROJECT
  • EAR-TAGGING AND MICROCHIPPING
  • TILL DATE 2 FEMALES AND 2 MALES TIGER HAVE BEEN EAR-TAGGED AND MICROCHIPPED TO STUDY THEIRSTRAYING BEHAVIOUR-ONLYONE FEMALESHOWED SUCH REPEATED STRAYING TENDENCY

20. 1 STCAPTUTE 1 STRELEASE 2 ND CAPTUTE 2 NDRELEASE 1 3 0 K M 1 1 0 K M 1 5 0 K M JHILLA-1 BAGMARA-7 PIRKHALI-1 DULIBHASANI-3 CAPTURE& RELOCATIONOF A SAME TIGRESS (WLWB/0001) (30 THJUNE09) (3 RDJULY09) (31 STJULY09) (2 NDAUGUST09) 21.

  • REASEARCH & DEVELOPMENT
  • TREATMENT OF INJURED TIGER
  • TILL DATE 3 MALE TIGERS AND 1 FEMALE TIGER HAVE BEEN FOUND STRAYING DUE HUNTING INCAPABILITY AND THEY WERE TREATED AT KOLKATA ZOO AND2 (TWO)OF THEM TRANSLOCATED BACK TO THE WILD
  • BEHAVIOURAL STUDY
  • STUDIES HAVE SHOWN THAT SUNDARBAN TIGERS ARE LESS IN BODY WEIGHT & SMALLER IN SIZE COMPARED TO MAIN LAND TIGERS

13.03.2009 22.07.2009 ANIMALSEX DATE ACTUAL WEIGHT LENGTH (Cm.) NECKGIRTH (cm.) CHEST GIRTH (cm.) SHOULDER HEIGHT (cm.) Nose tip to Head Head to Anus Tail length Total Tiger Male 22.05.10 97 kg 32.5 137 83 252.5 53 89 89 Tiger Male 22.05.10 115 kg 35 133 84 252.0 56 92 94 Tiger Female 27.06.10 72 kg 30 127 82 239.0 48 87 67 Tiger Male 22.10.10 98 kg 33 148 80 261 57 89 94 22. THE WAY AHEAD

  • RESEARCH ON TIGERETHOLOGY & STRAYING BEHAVIOUR
  • PROVISION OFALPTO REDUCE DEPENDENCY ON NATURAL RESOURCES
  • COVERING THE ENTIRE68 KMFRINGE BY NYLON NET FENCING
  • RESTOCKINGOF PREY BASE
  • CONSTRUCTION OFRELOCATION CENTERFOR TIGER AT JHARKHALI
  • INSTALLATION OFSOLAR LIGHTALONG THE FRINGE EMBANKMENT
  • COMMUNITY PATROLLINGON VOLUNTARY BASIS
  • AWARENESS GENERATION &OUTREACHPROGRAM

23. PROPOSEDINDO BANGLACOLLABORATIVE PROGRAMS

  • TRANSFER OF GOOD MANAGEMENT PRACTICES
  • SHARING OF INTELLIGENCE INFORMATION