Whitebook on Smart Grid ?· A White Book on Smart Grid ... Smart Grid Characteristics, Functionalities…

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<ul><li><p>A White Book on </p><p>Smart Grid </p><p>Faculty of Information Technology, Mathematics and </p><p>Electrical Engineering </p><p>Draft Version 2011 </p></li><li><p> 2 </p><p>Revision History Date Version Author Department </p><p>Sep 2011 Draft Mohsen Anvaari IDI Sep 2011 Draft Tosin Daniel Oyetoyan IDI </p></li><li><p> 3 </p><p>Table of Contents </p><p> 1. Introduction ............................................................................................................................ 4 </p><p>2. Definition of Smart Grid ........................................................................................................ 5 </p><p>3. Smart Grid Structure .............................................................................................................. 6 </p><p>4. Smart Grid Characteristics, Functionalities and Services ...................................................... 7 </p><p>5. Quality Attributes in Smart Grid ............................................................................................ 9 </p><p>6. Challenges and Research Directions in Smart Grid ............................................................. 10 </p><p>7. NTNU Smart Grid Project ................................................................................................... 11 </p><p>7.1. Research Projects .......................................................................................................... 11 </p><p>7.2. Positions ........................................................................................................................ 13 </p><p>7.3. Courses involving Smart Grid ....................................................................................... 13 </p><p>7.4. Smart Grid Participants ................................................................................................. 14 </p><p>8. References ............................................................................................................................ 15 </p></li><li><p> 4 </p><p>1. Introduction </p><p>The increasing demands for energy, the need for carbon footprint reduction and the push for more energy management are driving governments, utilities and consumers to seek for a smarter way of managing the current electricity grid [7, 8]. The result is the introduction of Smart Grid as the evolutionary approach that can bring the smartness to the traditional power grid in order to achieve the mentioned objectives. Different countries have commenced several projects to implement the Smart Grid. Main aspects have been the injection of new and green energy resources into the grid (such as wind, solar and biomass), introduction of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) and development of several software and automation systems including communication infrastructures that will allow efficient and bi-directional customers participations in the system. The benefits of such evolution would be a reliable, secure, efficient, economic, environmental friendly and safe electricity grid. </p><p>NTNU has initiated a multidisciplinary research project in Smart Grid to study the current state of power grid in Norway and develop new approaches to make the grid smarter. This white book summarizes some facts about Smart Grid and also introduces the Smart Grid project in NTNU. The remainder of the document is organized as follows: Section two introduces the Smart Grid concept, section three presents the structure of Smart Grid, in section four the functionalities and services of Smart Grid are discussed, section five presents the quality attributes in Smart Grid, section six discusses the research challenges in Smart Grid, and section seven introduces the Smart Grid project in NTNU. </p></li><li><p> 5 </p><p>2. Definition of Smart Grid </p><p>There are several definitions for Smart Grid from different organizations such as European Technology Platform on Smart Grid (SmartGrids ETP), International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), US Department of Energy (DOE), etc. DNV in Norway has a definition inspired by IEC and SmartGrids ETP: A Smart Grid is an electric power network that utilizes two-way communication and control-technologies to cost efficiently integrate the behavior and actions of all users connected to it in order to ensure an economically efficient and sustainable power system with low losses and high levels of quality, security of supply and safety[1]. Smart Grid is enhanced version of todays electricity grids and as a result doesnt look significantly different from what we have today that is made from copper and iron lines or cables [1]. What it actually does is adding intelligence to the traditional power grid in an evolutionary process. Figure 1. shows this evolution. </p><p>Figure 1. Evolutionary process of smartening the electricity grid[2] </p><p>There are some misconceptions for Smart Grid as well. The main one is considering smart meters as Smart Grid. Even though smart metering enables some features and functionalities of Smart Grid, Smart Grid encompass a much wider area of technologies and solutions and is by no means restricted or strictly delimited by the introduction of smart metering [3]. The other mistake is considering Smart Grid as a revolution in power electricity grids. As mentioned earlier, Smart Grid will be an evolution [1]. </p><p>In the following section the structure of Smart Grid will be discussed to see what are its domains, which components are included in the domains and how they are connected. </p><p>! !"#$%&amp;'&amp;()*+&amp;,-.,/0! 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Smart Grid Structure </p><p>Like other systems Smart Grid as a structure includes constituent components and their relationship. Since there is not a worldwide-defined structure for Smart Grid yet, different authors and organizations have considered different structures for it. Even though, the difference is in their different point of view, otherwise a common structure can be found among them. IEEE has defined a layered architecture for Smart Grid that divides the Smart Grid into three foundational layers: Information Technology Layer, Communication Layer, Power and Energy System Layer [4]. Shargal and Houseman have the same idea. In their conceptual architecture Grid Hardware corresponds to Power and Energy System Layer and Communication Backbone can be considered as Communication Layer. The correspondent layer for Information Technology is divided into three other layers in their model: Data Standards, Data Management and Knowledge Continuum [5]. SmartGrids ETP considers a similar architecture for any active distributed network: copper based energy infrastructure, communication layer and software layer [6]. </p><p>Besides the mentioned layered architecture, NIST considers seven domains for Smart Grid: Bulk Generation, Transmission, Distribution, Operations, Service Providers, Markets and Customers [7]. For each domain the aforementioned three layers can be applied. As a result Figure 2. shows the domains and layers of Smart Grid and the included components. It is actually a mixture of Smart Grid architecture from IEEE and Smart Grid domains from NIST. </p><p>Figure 2. Smart Grid Structure </p></li><li><p> 7 </p><p>4. Smart Grid Characteristics, Functionalities and Services </p><p>The Smart Grid as defined [7] incorporates the electricity grid and communication technologies. It is envisioned to provide modern electrical services that transcends from Generation domain to the consumer end. The Smart Grid characteristics and functionalities can thus be summed up as follows [7, 8, 15]: </p><p>1) Integration of all generation and storage options: The Smart Grid will incorporate several smaller distributed and renewable sources of energy such as wind, solar, biomass etc. and traditional large central power plants. </p><p>2) Enabling active participation by consumers: With dynamic energy information available to consumers, it becomes possible for consumers to engage in several control options of their household equipments, respond to demand by adjusting their energy usage and engage in electricity markets. </p><p>3) Enabling new products, services and markets: Examples include linking of energy buyers to sellers, brokers, integrators and aggregator services and also Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV) and Vehicle to Grid services. </p><p>4) Provision of power quality for the digital economy: Because of monitoring and diagnosis capabilities the Smart Grid will be able to respond to power quality issues. It will be possible also to supply various grades of power quality at corresponding pricing levels. </p><p>5) Optimization of asset utilization: The Smart Grid will give knowledge about what is needed, allow more power through existing assets and lead to improved maintenance processes. </p><p>6) Anticipating and responding to system disturbances: The Smart Grid will be able to perform continuous self assessment, it will detect, analyze, respond to and restore grid components and network sections. </p><p>7) Operating resiliently against attack and natural disasters: The Smart Grid will be able to provide system wide solution to both physical and cyber security. </p><p>Figure 3 Smart Grid key functions [15] </p></li><li><p> 8 </p><p>Thus, the Smart Grid components and their services equally can be categorized as represented in Table I [7, 13]. </p><p>Table I: Smart Grid components and services </p><p>Smart Grid Components Services </p><p>Advanced Metering Infrastructure Interval measurement, load control, pre-payment, tariff flexibility, communication and data security. </p><p>Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA) </p><p>Automated control of transmission and distribution, Substation automation, </p><p>Demand Response Load adjustment, dynamic pricing </p><p>Plug-In Hybrid Vehicle (PHEV) Alternative energy source for vehicles, Peak load leveling (Valley filling and Peak shaving) </p></li><li><p> 9 </p><p>5. Quality Attributes in Smart Grid </p><p>The Smart Grid quality attributes cut across the hardware, firmware and software at the various Smart Grid domains (Generation, Transmission, Distribution and Consumption). Here, few examples are given to explain this topic. </p><p>The two-way communication paradigm in Smart Grid allows the customer to actively participate in the Smart Grid market via the Internet thereby exposing the system to cyber attacks. Thus, there is significant focus on the cyber security property in the Smart Grid [7]. There is a need also for the Smart Grid system to fulfill the CIA (Confidentiality, Integrity and Availability) security criteria [14]. It is therefore imperative to analyze the vulnerabilities and make risk assessments at each Smart Grid components and layers in order to evolve a secured system [13, 14]. For example: confidentiality or privacy of data is an important quality or security feature for the Smart Grid household unit. A compromised meter data could lead to theft, revelation about who is using what, when it is being used and where it is being used. </p><p>As a System of System (SoS) [7, 9, 10], many potential sources of Software quality consideration can be exploited. These sources can be explained by the associated risk in such Smart Grid system. These include [9]: </p><p>a) Potential for change in the system(s) from any direction (that is, from stakeholders or constituent system as well as from evolving business requirements). </p><p>b) Less predictability regarding stakeholders needs, technology advances and component behaviour which is typical in an environment with no central control. </p><p>c) Failures with causes or impact beyond the individual system boundary. An example is the August 14, 2003 blackout in the US [11]. </p><p>d) Constrains in terms of new development and evolution because of existing collection of design choices. </p><p>e) Limited knowledge of individual system state and behaviour. </p><p>The above risks can strongly compromise the safety, reliability and availability of the system. Thus, we can summarize the Smart Grid quality attributes to be based on its safety, reliability, availability, integrity and confidentiality. </p></li><li><p> 10 </p><p>6. Challenges and Research Directions in Smart Grid </p><p>The growing Smart Grid behind todays electricity supply introduces many challenges and opportunities for research. Based on the Smart Grid functions, we discuss below some areas of research in Smart Grid presented in [15]. </p><p>Renewable Energy Integration: This is an important research area in the Smart Grid. Below are few of the research topics within this context. </p><p>(1) Wind forecast. The challenge in this topic is that the generation profile has to be predicted over a period of time. To achieve this, the wind speed and direction need to be accurately predicted, however, the wind is intermittent in nature and thus it is not easy to have such an accurate prediction on a long term. </p><p>(2) Wind generation dispatch (3) Power flow optimization (4) Power system stability </p><p>Self- Healing and Cyber Security: This means that the grid has the ability to respond to failure and take action. To achieve this, automation and communication infrastructures have to be put in place. These components introduce security and reliability challenges. Security challenges because automated equipments and systems are connected to the communication network thereby exposing the grid to cyber attacks. </p><p>Energy Storage System: It is important to be able to store renewable energy; however, there are challenges that need to be addressed to make this available. Some of these are: </p><p>1) Cost: Energy storage systems are very expensive. Further research is needed to develop cost efficient storage systems. </p><p>2) Complexity: Integrating new storage systems introduce additional and complex analysis of the power systems. </p><p>3) Non-flexibility: There is need for research on how to make the storage technology more flexible and adaptable to various systems. </p><p>Software Management: The Smart Grid software is diverse and distributed in nature running at different nodes of a highly heterogeneous system. How then can these software be better evolved and managed in a way that guarantee a consistent and safe system? More research is needed in this topic. </p><p>In addition, other important area of research in Smart Grid includes power quality, consumer motivation and reliability. </p></li><li><p> 11 </p><p>7. NTNU Smart Grid Project </p><p>As an important contributor to renewable energy sources, a Norwegian national center for Smart Grid is under development. The initiative includes participation from universities, research...</p></li></ul>

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