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When someone uses When someone uses the term clone, the term clone, cloned, or cloning. cloned, or cloning. What typically What typically comes to your mind? comes to your mind?

When someone uses the term clone, cloned, or cloning. What typically comes to your mind?

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Page 1: When someone uses the term clone, cloned, or cloning. What typically comes to your mind?

When someone uses When someone uses the term clone, the term clone,

cloned, or cloning. cloned, or cloning.

What typically comes What typically comes to your mind?to your mind?

Page 2: When someone uses the term clone, cloned, or cloning. What typically comes to your mind?

Cloning:Cloning:is an umbrella term used by scientists is an umbrella term used by scientists

to describe different processes for to describe different processes for duplicatingduplicating biological material. biological material.

• Cloning started back in 1952 when scientist cloned the first animal, a tadpole

• The first successful clone was the famous sheep “Dolly” who was cloned in 1996

Page 3: When someone uses the term clone, cloned, or cloning. What typically comes to your mind?

Three types of cloningThree types of cloning

DNA cloningDNA cloning or or Recombinant DNA Recombinant DNA TechnologyTechnology: :

Reproductive CloningReproductive Cloning Therapeutic CloningTherapeutic Cloning

Page 4: When someone uses the term clone, cloned, or cloning. What typically comes to your mind?

Reproductive cloning is the type of Reproductive cloning is the type of cloning one thinks of, that is usually cloning one thinks of, that is usually in the media.in the media.

What are your views on cloning? What are your views on cloning? Is it Is it right to be against one but not the right to be against one but not the other? other?

Page 5: When someone uses the term clone, cloned, or cloning. What typically comes to your mind?

DNA cloningDNA cloning or or Recombinant Recombinant DNA TechnologyDNA Technology::

DNA cloning technology has been DNA cloning technology has been around since the early 1970’s around since the early 1970’s

This process involves taking DNA This process involves taking DNA fragments of interest from an fragments of interest from an organism and in turn place it into a organism and in turn place it into a host cell.host cell.

Scientist after studying a gene use Scientist after studying a gene use bacterial plasmids to generate bacterial plasmids to generate multiple copies of the same gene. multiple copies of the same gene.

Page 6: When someone uses the term clone, cloned, or cloning. What typically comes to your mind?

DNA cloning, cont.DNA cloning, cont.

Scientist are able to clone a gene by Scientist are able to clone a gene by isolating it from chromosomal DNA isolating it from chromosomal DNA using restriction enzymes.using restriction enzymes.

The purpose of this type of cloning is The purpose of this type of cloning is to isolate a certain gene or create to isolate a certain gene or create duplicates of a gene that seems to duplicates of a gene that seems to be perfect.be perfect.

Page 7: When someone uses the term clone, cloned, or cloning. What typically comes to your mind?

Some RadicalsSome Radicals

Rael claimed he was abducted by Rael claimed he was abducted by Aliens in the early 70’s who practiced Aliens in the early 70’s who practiced cloningcloning

Since 1973 he has preached cloning, Since 1973 he has preached cloning, and was able to get many followers and was able to get many followers called the Raellians.called the Raellians.

He formed a company in the Bahamas He formed a company in the Bahamas and started Clonaid, a project to clone and started Clonaid, a project to clone humans. humans.

Page 8: When someone uses the term clone, cloned, or cloning. What typically comes to your mind?

Radicals, cont.Radicals, cont.

One hundred couples signed up immediately, the One hundred couples signed up immediately, the first were couples who were unable to conceive first were couples who were unable to conceive

children together, some infertile, some gay.children together, some infertile, some gay. Parents that wanted to clone their dying childrenParents that wanted to clone their dying children Rael charged $200,000 per clone in addition to Rael charged $200,000 per clone in addition to

that the company would charge $50,000 for a that the company would charge $50,000 for a service called Insuraclone, just in case a child was service called Insuraclone, just in case a child was later lost to an incurable disease or accident.later lost to an incurable disease or accident.

Rael soon had over 20 million, enough to hire Rael soon had over 20 million, enough to hire scientists to begin developing the procedure. scientists to begin developing the procedure.

Scary!Scary!

Page 9: When someone uses the term clone, cloned, or cloning. What typically comes to your mind?

Radicals, cont.Radicals, cont. There was also There was also Randolfe Wicker who ran a incorporated Randolfe Wicker who ran a incorporated

clone’s rights center.clone’s rights center. Two days after the New York Times announced the cloning Two days after the New York Times announced the cloning

of “Dolly”, he began organizing a Clones Rights United of “Dolly”, he began organizing a Clones Rights United Front.Front.

Demonstrations were led, they were also known for Demonstrations were led, they were also known for carrying signs with slogans that read:carrying signs with slogans that read:

– ““DOLLY LAMA- OUR NEW SPIRITUAL LEADER”DOLLY LAMA- OUR NEW SPIRITUAL LEADER” – ““CLONING: REPRODUCTION WITHOUT COMPROMISE.”CLONING: REPRODUCTION WITHOUT COMPROMISE.” – ““CLONE DIANA! ONE GOOD LIFETIME CLONE DIANA! ONE GOOD LIFETIME

DESERVES ANOTHER!” DESERVES ANOTHER!”

Page 10: When someone uses the term clone, cloned, or cloning. What typically comes to your mind?

Reproductive CloningReproductive Cloning Reproductive cloning is a technology used to create Reproductive cloning is a technology used to create

an animal with the same nuclear DNA as another an animal with the same nuclear DNA as another currently or previously existing animal.currently or previously existing animal.

Dolly was created using this technology; the Dolly was created using this technology; the process is called somatic cell nuclear transfer or process is called somatic cell nuclear transfer or SCNT.SCNT.

The egg containing DNA from the donor cell must The egg containing DNA from the donor cell must then be treated with chemicals or electric current in then be treated with chemicals or electric current in order for the cells to split or stimulate cell division.order for the cells to split or stimulate cell division.

Once the embryo has reached the perfect stage it is Once the embryo has reached the perfect stage it is transferred to the uterus of a female host where it transferred to the uterus of a female host where it continues to develop until birth.continues to develop until birth.

Page 11: When someone uses the term clone, cloned, or cloning. What typically comes to your mind?

Repro. Cloning, cont.Repro. Cloning, cont.

Using this technology doesn’t mean that Using this technology doesn’t mean that you are going to get an identical clone of you are going to get an identical clone of the donor animal; only the clone’s the donor animal; only the clone’s chromosomal or nuclear DNA is the same chromosomal or nuclear DNA is the same as the donor. as the donor.

Dolly the first animal to ever be cloned Dolly the first animal to ever be cloned actually died at age 6, February 14, 2003actually died at age 6, February 14, 2003

Page 12: When someone uses the term clone, cloned, or cloning. What typically comes to your mind?

Reflections on reproductive Reflections on reproductive cloningcloning

Now can I see a show of hands? Now can I see a show of hands? How many people would choose How many people would choose

one of these two methods to one of these two methods to create the perfect baby? create the perfect baby?

How many wouldn’t?How many wouldn’t?

Page 13: When someone uses the term clone, cloned, or cloning. What typically comes to your mind?

Therapeutic CloningTherapeutic Cloning This type of cloning also known as This type of cloning also known as embryo cloningembryo cloning is is

the production of human embryos used for researchthe production of human embryos used for research Goal is to harvest stem cells acquired from embryos Goal is to harvest stem cells acquired from embryos These stem cells can be used to treat certain These stem cells can be used to treat certain

behaviors or research them and can also be used for behaviors or research them and can also be used for curing diseasescuring diseases

Stem cell research is important because maybe one Stem cell research is important because maybe one day it could be used to treat cells in the human body day it could be used to treat cells in the human body that cause cancer, heart disease, Alzheimer’s, and that cause cancer, heart disease, Alzheimer’s, and

other diseases.other diseases.

Page 14: When someone uses the term clone, cloned, or cloning. What typically comes to your mind?

Therapeutic Cloning, Therapeutic Cloning, cont.cont.

November 2001 in Massachusetts, November 2001 in Massachusetts, scientists were able to clone the first scientists were able to clone the first human embryos for the purpose of human embryos for the purpose of therapeutic cloning. They collected therapeutic cloning. They collected eight eggs from a woman’s ovaries, eight eggs from a woman’s ovaries, only three were able to divide and only three were able to divide and only one was able to divide into six only one was able to divide into six cells before it stoppedcells before it stopped..

Page 15: When someone uses the term clone, cloned, or cloning. What typically comes to your mind?

Positive aspects of Positive aspects of cloningcloning

Recombinant DNA technologyRecombinant DNA technology is very important is very important when it comes to learning about gene therapy, when it comes to learning about gene therapy, genetic engineering of organisms, and sequencing genetic engineering of organisms, and sequencing genomes. genomes.

Reproductive cloning technologyReproductive cloning technology can be used to can be used to clone animals with certain qualities to treat and clone animals with certain qualities to treat and study different diseases. It also can be used to study different diseases. It also can be used to repopulate certain endangered animals, even some repopulate certain endangered animals, even some animals that are almost extinct and some animals animals that are almost extinct and some animals that are hard to breedthat are hard to breed

Therapeutic cloning technologyTherapeutic cloning technology may some day be may some day be used on humans to produce whole organs from used on humans to produce whole organs from single cells, or to replace damaged cells in people single cells, or to replace damaged cells in people with Alzheimer’s or Parkinson’s disease. with Alzheimer’s or Parkinson’s disease.

Page 16: When someone uses the term clone, cloned, or cloning. What typically comes to your mind?

Negative aspects of Negative aspects of cloningcloning

Cloning can be very expensive and highly Cloning can be very expensive and highly inefficient inefficient

Cloning has a low success rate Cloning has a low success rate Cloned animals tend to have more Cloned animals tend to have more

compromised immune function and higher compromised immune function and higher rates of infection, tumor growth, and other rates of infection, tumor growth, and other disorders. disorders.

It took 276 attempts at cloning, “Dolly” It took 276 attempts at cloning, “Dolly” was the only success! was the only success!

Looking at these factors it would be totally Looking at these factors it would be totally and completely unethical to even make an and completely unethical to even make an attempt to clone a human being!attempt to clone a human being!