What tools do historians use?

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What tools do historians use?. Primary Sources Diaries Oral Accounts Photographs Maps, Art, Drawings Autobiographies Secondary Sources Textbooks Library books Biographies. Chapter One: The Peopling of the World. Human Origins In Africa. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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What tools do historians use?Primary SourcesDiariesOral AccountsPhotographsMaps, Art, DrawingsAutobiographiesSecondary SourcesTextbooksLibrary booksBiographiesChapter One: The Peopling of the World Human Origins In AfricaA. Understanding Important Terms in the Science of searching for Human Origins1. prehistory the time before humans began recording their events2. archaeologists scientists who learn about early humans by excavating and studying the traces of early human settlements.Please note: Archaeologists dont study the human skeletal remains, they study the remains humans left behind their settlements, their objects.ologyArchae- = the study of= old thingsCareers InSocial StudiesCan you break the word down?PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.Chapter One: The Peopling of the World Human Origins In AfricaA. Understanding Important Terms in the Science of searching for Human Origins1. prehistory the time before humans began recording their events2. archaeologists scientists who learn about early humans by excavating and studying the traces of early human settlements.Please note: Archaeologists dont study the human skeletal remains, they study the remains humans left behind their settlements, their objects.ology = the study ofArchae = old things The Leakey FamilyFamous ArchaeologistsMarys son, Richard Leakey Mary Leakey 1913-1996 was one of the world's most famous hunters of early human fossils, credited with many discoveries that have changed the way scientists view human evolution. She is considered the preeminent contributor to the field of human origins.Marys daughter Meave Leakey recently impressed the world with her 1999 discovery of a 3.5 million-year-old skull.Chapter One: The Peopling of the World Human Origins In AfricaA. Understanding Important Terms in the Science of searching for Human Origins1. prehistory the time before humans began recording their events2. archaeologists scientists who learn about early humans by excavating and studying the traces of early human settlements.Please note: Archaeologists dont study the human skeletal remains, they study the remains humans left behind their settlements, their objects.ology = the study ofArchae = old things PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.Chapter One: The Peopling of the World Human Origins In AfricaA. Understanding Important Terms in the Science of searching for Human Origins1. prehistory before humans began recording past events2. archaeologists scientists who learn about early humans by excavating and studying the traces of early human settlements.3. artifacts remains such as tools, jewelry, and other human-made objects.PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.Please note: Archaeologists dont study the human skeletal remains, they study the remains humans left behind their settlements, their objects.ology = the study ofArchae = old things Chapter One: The Peopling of the World Human Origins In AfricaA. Understanding Important Terms in the Science of searching for Human Origins1. prehistory before humans began recording past events2. archaeologists scientists who learn about early humans by excavating and studying the traces of early settlements.3. artifacts remains such as tools, jewelry, and other human-made objects.4. anthropologists scientists who study the cultural behaviors of humankind.-ology = Anthro- =the study ofmanAnthropology has many branches of study. physical anthropology, also known as biological anthropology, studies primate behavior, human evolution, and population genetics. cultural anthropology, also known as social anthropology, studies the social networks formed by our ancestors, their social behaviors, kinship patterns, politics, beliefs, patterns in production and consumption, and other ways they expressed their culture. linguistic anthropology studies variation in human languages across time and geographic regions, the uses of language, and the relationship between language and culture.- forensic anthropology analyzes skeletal remains in to determine how people might have lived or died.Careers InSocial StudiesPP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.Chapter One: The Peopling of the World Human Origins In AfricaA. Understanding Important Terms in the Science of searching for Human Origins1. prehistory before humans began recording past events2. archaeologists scientists who learn about early humans by excavating and studying the traces of early settlements.3. artifacts remains such as tools, jewelry, and other human-made objects.4. anthropologists scientists who study the cultural behaviors of humankind.5. culture a peoples unique way of life.CULTUREForms of ExpressionArt / MusicRelationshipsFamily / social lifeRitualsCustoms / Traditions / BeliefsForms of CommunicationLanguage / Symbols PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.Chapter One: The Peopling of the World Human Origins In AfricaA. Understanding Important Terms in the Science of searching for Human Origins1. prehistory before humans began recording past events2. archaeologists scientists who learn about early humans by excavating and studying the traces of early settlements.3. artifacts remains such as tools, jewelry, and other human-made objects.4. anthropologists scientists who study the cultural behaviors of humankind.5. culture a peoples unique way of life.6. paleontologist scientists who study how life developed on earth based on studies of fossils. -ology = the study of Paleo- = old periodCareers InSocial Studies Poop, anyone? Its not always fossilized bones! Some of you may not be cut out for this vocation! Besides bones, one of the things paleontologists examine quite often is .well, poop! Thats right, fossilized feces (coprolites) can be quite revealing about our ancestors diet and eating habits, what chemical elements they may have been exposed to, their health, diseases, and life spans. PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.Chapter One: The Peopling of the World I. Human Origins in Africa (continued)1. hominids humans and our human-like ancestors that walked upright. B. Discovery of early hominids The scientific evidence!All of the oldest hominid fossils those dating back farther than 3 million years have been found in only one place on earth the fossil-rich region known as the Great Rift Valley of Africa. Here is where man began.Check out these websites guaranteed to wow you!http://www.archaeologyinfo.com - Click on Human Ancestry amazing graphics and interactive opportunities for ya!http://www.becominghuman.org - the official website of archaeologist Donald Johanson and his Institute of Human Origins.PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.Both sites do a great job of explaining what we now know about humankinds evolution.How do we know all Humans originated in Africa?*Human Beings Almost Everywhere200,000 10,000 BCEPopulating the Planet*When did we appear?Creation MythsMesopotamiaAborigenes IndianChineseNative AmericanHebrewDarwinian *What happened before humans developed?The Universe popped up 13 billion years ago. (Thats where you are, right?) Stars and Galaxies popped up from about 12 billion years ago. Our Sun and Earth popped up about 4.6 billion years ago. Life popped up on Earth about 3.8 billion years ago.*What happened before humans developed?Complicated life-forms showed up after about 600 million years. Some organisms got onto the land from about 400 million years ago. Dinosaurs ruled the earth until about 67 million years ago. Then our hominid ancestors showed up.The Stone AgeStone Age split into three distinct periods:Paleolithic (Old Stone) Age roughly 2 million years ago until 12,000 B.C.E.Mesolithic (Middle Stone) Age about 12,000 to 8,000 B.C.E.Neolithic (New Stone) Age about 8,000 to 3,000 B.C.E.*Ice Age; Old Stone Age; Paleolithic AgeThe Paleolithic Age is the era that covers the period from 2.5 million yrs ago to 10,000 years ago.It wasfraught with change. Theories on prehistory and early man constantly change as new evidence comes to light. - Louis Leakey, British paleoanthropologistAustralopithecus southern ape Homo Habilis 3. Homo Erectus upright man 4. Homo Sapiens wise man-Neanderthal Man-Homo Sapiens Sapiens wise, wise man US! Paleolithic Age: ( Old Stone Age )2,500,000 BCE to 8,000 BCE Paleolithic --> Old Stone Age2,500,000 BCE 10,000 BCEhunting (men) & gathering (women) NOMADIC (moving from place to place)Made simple toolsTravelled in small groups based on bonds of kinship4,000,000 BCE 1,000,000 BCE Hominids --> any member of the family of two-legged primates that includes all humans. Australopithecines An Apposable Thumb one of the earliest human ancestors (hominids)Locking knee joint7m yrs agoDonald JohansonThe Missing Link?HOMO HABILIS 2.4 to 1.4 million years ago ( Man of Skills )Found in East Africa created stone toolsEarly Homo Habilis tools scrapers, bone points, etc.1,6000,000 BCE 30,000 BCE HOMO ERECTUS ( Upright Human Being ) Larger and more varied tools --> primitive technology First hominid to migrate and leave Africa for Europe and Asia. First to use fire ( 500,000 BCE ) BIPEDALISM*How, when, and where did we become human?One of our close ancestors, Homo erectus.Homo erectus was one of the hominid groups that was developing increasingly large brains in both Africa and Asia between about 500,000 and 200,000 years ago. This is a reconstructed Homo erectus skull, found in northern China. It dates to some time after 1.6 million years ago.Homo erectus*Homo erectus was a traveler!Homo erectus began migrating to southerly parts of Eurasia sometime after about 1.8 million years ago.Homo erectusAre we all Africans under the skin????200,000 BCE 10,000 BCE HOMO SAPIENS ( Wise Human Being )Neanderthals ( 200,000 BCE 30,000 BCE )Cro-Magnons ( 40,000 BCE 10,000 BCE )*Homo sapiens(thats us!) evolved from Homo erectusBy 200,000 years ago, people whose skeletons were like those of Homo sapiens were already living in Africa.Between that time and about 100,000 years ago, people who were both anatomically and genetically like us emerged in eastern and southern Africa. This is a reconstructed Homo sapiens skull, found in Israel. It has been dated to about 90,000 years ago. TodayBig Eras 3-910k years agoBig Era 2Big Era 1NEANDERTHALS: Neander Valley, Germany (1856) First humans to bury their dead. Made clothes from animal skins. Lived in caves and tents.Evidence leads historians to believe Neaderthals tried to control and explain the worldNEANDERTHALSEarly Hut/TentCRO-MAGNONs: Homo sapiens sapiens ( Wise, wise human ) By 30,000 BCE they replaced Neanderthals. WHY???Homo SapienCro-Magnon man identical to modern humanssuperior huntersadvanced skills in spoken language & art!They hunted mainly with spears, (bow and arrows came much later). Cro Magnon made tools from blades of Flint stone, used for preparing animal skins. They made innovations to pierced shells, tooth and bone pendants used for body ornamentation. Their art included figurines of Venus, small statuettes of bone, and they made outline cave wall drawings of woolly mammoths and other animals. Used mammoth fur and bones to construct dwellings and may have hunted the mammoth into extinction.AustralopithecineAfricanusLucyAustralopithecineAfarensisHomoHabilisHomoErectusHomoSapiensCHAPTER 1: Early Human Origins to The Neotlithic Revolution to the Birth of CivilizationMillionsof yearsago321BC 0 ADPP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.MAP OF ICE AGES*Homo sapiens traveled even further than Homo erectus. From their African homeland, Homo sapiens groups migrated toWhere?See the Map!*Migrations of Homo sapiensHow did geography shape the migration? How did the Austronesian migration differ from other early patterns of human movement? Map Activity*By the time humans appeared, our closest living relatives were probably the hominids known as Neandertals (or, Neanderthals).When Homo sapiens groups arrived in western Asia and Europe, Neandertals were already there. By 100,000 years ago Neandertals were living from Spain to Inner Eurasia. They had a long record of living successfully in both warm and cold environments. But they disappeared from the record about 28,000 years ago. Were other surviving hominids changing in the same way as Homo sapiens?*Did Homo sapiens meet Neandertals?*Members of the two species may have met in Southeast Asia.The last physical traces of Homo erectus, dating to about 28,000 years ago, were discovered in Java. By that time Homo sapiens was already living in that region.Range of last surviving Homo erectusDid Homo Sapiens meet Homo Erectus?*Homo sapiens and other speciesWere not sure what might have happened if Homo sapiens met Neandertals or Homo erectus, but we do know that these two hominid species died out.And so did many other large animals, called megafauna, which once roamed the earth.What might these extinctions tell us about our own species?*Would they have:Learned from each other?Fought? Traded?Eaten each other?Mated?What do you think might have happened when Homo sapiens met Neandertals or Homo erectus?*Humans appeared, and they started TALKING!Therefore, they could share new ideas and build up a store of ideas what we call culture.They learned to live in many different environments. And they migrated to all the worlds major landmasses and many of its islands, big and small.Before you answer that question, lets review *Thats amazing! Why were modern humans able to move into so many different environments?After all, no other large animals had spread so widely! So what was so special about us?*Language!Homo sapiens had languageso they could exchange complex ideas with each other.and they could store and add to the ideas of previous generations.Because they swapped ideas, they kept findingnew ways of doing things.new ways of living.*Language made collective learning possible.The stores of knowledge and skills humans built up are called culture.No other animal can store and accumulate knowledge and skills in this way.We call this ability collective learning.It is what human history is about!It is what makes us special!*Storing up and building on new skills and new knowledge is what set our species on the path of continuing cultural changes that led to the world we now live in.*At first, changes in technology were very slow.After about 100,000 years ago, the pace of change began to increase.Evidence appears from about that time of humans living in east, central, and southern Africa. They were:How did collective learning change human culture? Making more advanced and varied tools. Experimenting with body decoration and abstract symbols.What conditions drove human migration during the Paleolithic Age and how did Paleolithic people adapt their technology and cultures to new regions? How did hunting/gathering societies shape other aspects of Paleolithic society? The ways we were.S.P.I.C.E. Humans during this period found shelter in caves. Cave paintings left behind. Purpose??*Remains discovered at Blombos Cave are one example of the more complex culture some humans were developing as many as 90,000 years ago.View looking out of Blombos Cave to the Indian OceanBone points from the caveOchre piece with scrapemarks. A person may havescraped the ochre to get powder to use to makebody paint.The people who lived in this seaside camp:Made sharp stone spear points using methods that appeared in Eurasia only 50,000 or more years later. Made objects from bone, the earliest use of this material known.Scored bits of bone and ochre with marks that may have had symbolic meaning.*From about 40,000 years ago, archaeological evidence shows faster and faster cultural change and increasing complexity.Humans began to:Create both naturalistic and abstract art.Make more specialized tools.Weave and knot fiber.Decorate clothing.Make jewelry.Build semi-permanent structures.The engraved horse panel in the Cave of Chauvet-Pont-DArc in southern France. The image is about 31,000 years old. Venus of the Kostenki I site in Russia dated to about 23,000 years ago. This stone female head is wearing headgear of woven basketry. Acceleration!70,000 BCE 10,000 BCE*Ice Age; Old Stone Age; Paleolithic AgeThe Paleolithic Age is the era that covers the period from 2.5 million yrs ago to 10,000 years ago.It wasfraught with change. *Homo erectus doing lunchLife 200,000 years ago looked something like this.*Homo sapiens at home10,000 years ago at the close of Paleolithic Age, life looked more like this:*Homo erectus 200,000 years agoHomo sapiens 10,000 years agoNotice any changes?Would you say there were:(c) Lots of changes?(b) Some changes?(a) No changes?*Neolithic Age; New Stone AgeChanges that occurred by the end of the Paleolithic Age1.Homo sapiens appear.2.Language develops.3.Habitats expand.4.Technology multiplies.Wall painting and sculpture are created.Hunting/GatheringNomadicEnd of Paleolithic Age(Beginning of Neolithic Age)****Artifacts: Greek attica pottery, Venus of Laussel-Dordogne France 22,000 BC, Mayan, Inuit, N. American Mississippi, Egyptian*****Life during Paleolithic ageSimple tool use (stones of varying shapes and sizes, sticks)Nomads highly mobile people, move from place to place, typically in search of food/water sources Hunter-gatherers depend on hunting animals and collecting foodsPopulation growth was slow hunter-gatherer way of life cannot support large groups The first hominids had brains about the size of a modern chimps. Over time, new species developed ever-larger brains, and they began to make more and more complex tools. The Australopithecines likely used sharp sticks to dig for food...Let us now meet Donald Johanson, the discoverer of LucyFather of Evolution Theory Charles Darwin theorized that humans and apes must have shared a common ancestor that had both human and apelike physical characteristics in his book The Origin of Species (1859) For over 100 years scientists have sought to find the remains of such a missing link in our human family tree. When Lucy, the skeleton of an Australopithecine was discovered in the 1970s by archaeologist Donald Johanson, it was proclaimed to be the long-anticipated missing link.The Scientific Discovery of the Century! Johanson discovered a primate that was in every way ape-like except for one huge difference a locking knee joint! that enabled it to walk upright. This part ape / part human creature was the missing link. Footprints of one first found by Mary Leakey in Tanzania Leakeys discovery was also important.She discovered footprints (with arches!)at Laetoli in Tanzania. Only a creature who was a biped (walked upright) would have arches in his feet! These footprints were as old as Lucys skeleton, 3.5 million years old. Leaky and Johanson agreed to name their new find on the human family tree - the Australopithecine. ...while Homo habilis hominids, a later species, were able to make stone tools. They chipped flakes of stone from large rocks and used those flakes as knives. They also used the leftover core to scrape out hides and do other jobs.Homo erectus hominids, which lived on Earth for almost two million years, were probably the first ones who could control and use fire. They were alsothe first to leave Africa. Their fossils have been found as far away as China and Java (in modern Indonesia).Social relationships among our ancestors were complex. Like modern chimpanzees, early hominids must have been quite clever, with a great deal of social cooperation and group politics. They cared for each other, especially their childrenFirst to use fire (moved out of Africa into cooler regions as Ice Age receded fire provided warmth, cook food, frighten animals)First to have the beginnings of spoken language ( ?? theory lacks strong evidence)*PhotoFranz Weidenreich Reconstruction of Homo ErectusThe Smithsonian InstitutionHuman Origins Programhttp://www.mnh.si.edu/anthro/humanorigins/ha/erec.htmlWhy this name?Homo- = manSapien = wise This skull of the early archaic form of Homo Sapien shows their brain size increased and their skull encasing also became more rounded than the skull of the Homo erectus. They also had a much steeper forehead than previous species, which hints that the brain itself had more emphasis on the forebrain. This is a very interesting observation since this sector of the brain is responsible for planning and reasoning, movements of limbs, speech, as well as social conduct, which modern day humans are much more advanced in.*PhotoSkhul VThe Smithsonian InstitutionHuman Origins Programhttp://www.mnh.si.edu/anthro/humanorigins/ha/skhul.htmlWhy this name?Neander is a valleyin Germany where a firstfossil discovery of this species was accidentallyfound in the 1800s. Neanderthal were around during the end of the Ice Age, and were very adapted to living in this cold environment. They were short in stature averaging about 5'5" and had short arms and legs. This condensed body shape helped to conserve heat. They also had an amazing projection in their nasal cavity to warm the cold frigid air before entering their bodies. Their brain was larger than modern humans, but that doesnt mean they were smarter larger body frames usually have more brain mass, this does not imply intelligence. The bones of this species are large and they were thick-skinned, muscular again, evolving this way to survive their particular environment.From 200,000 30,000 B.C. not around very long! Found in Neander valley in Germany and SW Asia Lived in caves or sheltersWhy this name? Our closest ancestor, Cro-Magnon mans first fossil findings were found in 1868 in the cro-magnon cave of Dordogne, France. Cro-Magnon probably developed in SW Asia, migrated to Europe, co-existed with Neanderthal man for a time (eventually they drove the Neandertals into exctinction) and flourished in southern Europe during the last glacial age. They were anatomically identical to modern humans they were tall (avg. 59); skull had no brow ridges - was thin, rounded, with a high forehead; and had a projecting chin. TraitsIdentical skeleton to modern humansAchievementsStudied animals habitsPlanned their huntsAdvanced skill in spoken languageCreated art***Photos by Ross E.. Dunn*Photos: Arizona State University, College of Liberal Arts and Scienceshttp://clasdean.la.asu.edu/news/images/bone/*Horse panel photo (http://www.culture.gouv.fr/culture/arcnat/chauvet)Headgear photoNew York Times, Dec. 14, 1999. Photo: Bill Wiegand, University of Illinois.)*****

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