Defining Science: Science: knowledge gained from the careful, systematic investigation of the natural world Life Science: the knowledge gained when scientific investigation is applied to living things in the natural world.
Thinking Scientifically: NOT ALL THINKING IS SCIENTIFIC!!! To be scientific thinking, it must have these characteristics: Curiosity Caution Commitment to certain presuppositions
Terms to Know: Observation info gained from using one or more of the five senses Inference a logical conclusion Universal Negative a statement that excludes everything Value judgment determination of the worth of something
Terms to Know: Final answer an answer that is absolutely true and never needs to be rejected Scientism those who believe that science is the only way to learn about the world Worldview a perspective from which a person interprets life Presupposition an idea that a person takes for granted without having convincing proof Christian worldview belief that the Bible is the word of God and only reliable thing in the world (most important)
Main Teachings of a Christian Worldview: Creation God has created everything Fall man has fallen into a tragic state because of sin God is working to redeem the world to himself
Why study Life Science?
God made living things for HIS glory! Romans 11:36 Life science demonstrate Gods greatness more clearly Strengthens appreciation for Gods goodness Shows the Truth of Gods loving care in action
Dominion Mandate: Be fruitful and multiply, and replenish the earth, and subdue it: and have dominion over the fish of the seas, and over the fowl of the air, and over every living thing that moveth upon the earth Genesis 1:28 Mankind has a responsibility to govern Gods creation
Dominion Mandate: Life Science is important to the work of the Dominion Mandate This command however, does not give us permission to abuse what God has made
Living things are cursed because of SIN There are physical and mental effects of the fall Life is filled with painful struggle Wrong thinking
God is redeeming this world to Himself Relieving human suffering Proclaiming the Gospel Its time to reclaim Life Science for Gods Glory
What do scientists do?
So how do you DO science? Review: What is science? Scientific Method: an organized way of arriving at a workable solution In reality scientist do science in many ways!
One process followed in science Establish the problem Form a hypothesis Test the hypothesis Classify and analyze data Choose and verify the answer Predict outcomes
In order to solve problems must fall within limitations of science: Observable Measurable Repeatable
Hypothesis an educated guess - It helps you in designing an experiment or survey - Key Terms: - Data - Survey - Experiment - Experimental variable - Experimental group - Control group
Classify the data --- what does it all mean? Choose an answer! (must be verified) Predict outcomes!
Benefits to classifying living things Classify means to arrange things into groups Think about the shoes Good classification helps by: Learning about characteristics of individuals and whole group (generalization) Makes it easier to organize and find information about specific organisms
Benefits to classifying living things Classification today is based on physical characteristics The modern classification system (Carolus Linnaeus) Seven basic levels from largest to smallest Kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species
Why scientific names? Each scientific name given to one organism Two-name system First name Genus Second name species Genus names capitalized, species not Both italicized
Why scientific names? Scientific name usually latinized The first person to publish a description is usually the one to give its scientific name Note: Genesis 2:19 God directs Adam to name organisms
Problems of Classification Because we are human, mistakes can be made! Uncertainty in classifying lack of clear definition or understanding of what is what! False conclusions Get the term related misunderstood, assuming it means common ancestor
Problems of Classification Species and Biblical kinds Gen 1:11, 24 God commands all things to reproduce after their kind
Complete Section Review 2B and 2C Then begin to work on and complete Ideas 2B, C, D, E
3A Living Organisms
What is Life? Organism a complete living thing Organisms Have life spans Can reproduce Grow
What is Life? Organisms Are made of cells Cell tiny unit of living material surrounded by a thin membrane Made mostly of water and contain organic compounds Unicellular vs. multicellular Tissue a group of similar cells working together Colonial organisms organisms made of many cells that usually live together BUT could live by themselves!
What is Life? Organisms Require energy Energy the ability to do work Movement requires energy Respond to their environment Requires energy to respond to conditions
What is Life? Organisms also have a Physical Life and Spiritual Life Physical life is part of Gods creative process A complex organization of nonliving substances that is kept alive by using energy and has characteristics of living things Life is a condition of being alive (through our understanding of who God is and what He has done!)
What is Life? Spiritual Life God often describes spiritual life by comparing it to the physical life
Warm-up Open up your interactive notebook to the next two pages. Title the top of the LEFT page Bacteria what? reflection and the date Title the top of the RIGHT page Kingdoms Archaebacteria and Eubacteria and date Answer the following question on the LEFT page: What are bacteria? Why are they important?
11A Kingdoms Archaebacteria and Eubacteria
The two Bacteria Kingdom Archaebacteria make up the smaller kingdom Have cell walls that lack special compounds found only in the walls of eubacteria More likely to be found in extreme environments (springs, salty lakes, sewage, and the intestines of some animals)
The two Bacteria Kingdom Eubacteria contain more familiar organisms Responsible for decomposing most organic matter Kingdom also contains disease-causing organisms Examples: cyanobacteria (blue-green algae)
Rapid growth rates Tiny organisms whose average length is about 1 micrometer With proper conditions can grow and reproduce every twenty minutes! A large group of bacteria can be seen without the aid of a microscope To grow rapidly, bacteria need: Food Oxygen Space
Rapid growth rates Many die due to lack of oxygen or food, or due to the build up of wastes as a result of overcrowding
The Body Structure of Bacteria Three basic shapes: (draw the shapes in your interactive notebook) Spherical - Coccus Spiral - Spirillum Rod-shaped bacillus They may appear as individuals or as a group living together Staph bacteria arranged in a cluster Strep arranged in end to end long chains Thus Streptococcus (Strep throat) - chains of spherical bacteria
The Body Structure of Bacteria Some bacteria can move! Flagellum a long thread-like structure that spins like a propeller Others reproduce asexually by binary fission Importance of Bacteria They can make us sick (plague, leprosy, strep throat, food poisoning) BUT they are actually more helpful than harmful! Decomposers, food (yogurt, pickles, cheese), and antibiotics and other chemicals!
Warm-up Open up your interactive notebook to the next two pages. Title the top of the LEFT page Protists what? reflection and the date (8/31/10) Title the top of the RIGHT page Kingdom Protista and date (8/31/10) Fill out the self evaluation sheet on your desk about how you participated in your group project. Go ahead and finish Ideas 11A and section review 11A you have 15 minutes to finish and then we will grade it! THIS IS AN INDEPENDENT ASSIGNMENT!
11B Kingdom Protista
Protists A very diverse kingdom They can move, reproduce, get food All have nuclei and are un