What is Naturalized Epistemology

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<p>WHAT IS NATURALIZED EPISTEMOLOGY? ?</p> <p>Jaegwon Kim: ( 3)</p> <p>1. Epistemology As a Normative Inquiry (1) - What propositions are worthy of belief? ? Meditations() - : (coming to terms with) . - (2) - justification / ? ( ) ? ( )1 * terms . * : , , (epistemic terms) . * , descriptive naturalistic 1</p> <p>P. 382 </p> <p> . * . (3) </p> <p> . .2 . . . .</p> <p>2. Foundational Strategy (1) Classical Epistemological Program 1) Descartes Foundationalism - : , (identify) inferentially 2) - - : (indubitable) , . - : deduction , , 2</p> <p> . , : A thinker S knows that p if and only if i) S believes p ii) S is justified in believing p iii) P is true.</p> <p> . 3) (indubitability) , , desideratum . (2) Empiricist Foundational Program 1) Mentalism - . - 20 .3</p> <p>2) ? ? (3) Logical Positivist Foudationalism 1) , . 2) - observation ( ) ( cognitive ) . 3. Quines Arguments - ( lost cause). - : , , . (1) Quine </p> <p>3</p> <p> . the Positivists .</p> <p>1) conceptual reduction : (terms)4 . doctrinal reduction : .5 (Question) () ? (Quine ) , , . ( ) , , . , . 2) Carnap Der Logische Aufbau der Welt conceptual reduction : . , . (point-to-point) , Quine . doctrinal reduction : ! Aufbau Hume . Humean predicament . ! (2) - , . translational phenomenalism . , . - . underdetermine. .</p> <p>4</p> <p>term , . , dissolve term , . term . 5 appropriateness ( , ) , .</p> <p>1) The moral of failure of the classical epistemological program - validating . . 2) : , , . : , . successor subject . 3) - (identifying), , . , , (descriptive), -(causalnomological) . - : / factual descriptive - normativity. . 4. Losing Knowledge from Epistemology (1) - , . . , . , . . (2) 1) : </p> <p>2) ? - Quine : . , . 3) : - : , . , . (3) - . 1) : , ? ? 2) - , , . 3) - . 4) - . - - , - . , . 5. Belief Attribution and Rationality - ; . (1) () </p> <p> , , . , (feasible) . (2) - : , , . 1) STEP 1-Set up , cognizer identify, individuate . 1 2 input: ( ) output: , - , . . 2) STEP 2-Argument , radical interpretation . , , interpretive theory . , . , , . , , cognizer, . , </p> <p> , ( ) . * principle of charity, , . . , . (3) 1) 1 () . . () . , . , . , . , . 2) 2 () , . , . . (- ) , . , , , , </p> <p> . 6. The Psychologistic Approach to Epistemology (1) (Russell, C.I. Lewis, Chisholm, Ayer) (2) : aprioristic , : , (3) 1) Kitcher - : -- ; p , p . . - : - - , , . - - reliable belief-forming process (A. Goldman). 2) Armstrongs naturalistic theory of justification - p S ( p S , P ) p (law-like) . - reliability theory . . 3) </p> <p>- , . (4) 1) : ! , , . , . 2) ( apsychologist) - , . , , , . - , . (5) (normative ethics) 1) conceptual reduction doctrinal reduction : good right definable. : . 2) ethical naturalism : : goodness simple nonnatural , (G. E. Moore ). 3) naturalism ambiguity - .</p> <p>- - , . . 7. Epistemic Supervenience-Or Why Normative Epistemology Is Possible - (1) - , . 1) - , , in virtue of (R.M. Hare). - : , , , , , , . (2) () , consistent . . () , rules norms . generalizable . (3) - , .</p>