From science to routine operations Ceilometer and Lidar networks for cloud and aerosol detection
WMO TECO 201218. October 2012
W. ThomasDeutscher Wetterdienst (DWD) Met. Observatory Hohenpeissenberg
What is it all about ?
Lidar networks exist (EARLINET, MPlnet, AD-Net, others), with low spatio-temporal resolution, are typically operated by scientific entities, do not perform continuous operations.
(National) ceilometer networks exist (UKMO, DWD, Meteo-France, ), with a relatively high spatio-temporal resolution, are typically operational (24/7 operations), but are mostly dedicated to cloud base height/cloud layer measurements only
The recent volcano crises in Europe (2010 and 2011) showed however the potential of ceilometer measurements for aerosols in general and volcanic ash detection
There is obviously a need for a closer link between ceilometers and lidarsNot much exchange between these two worldsBe aware that Lidars are typically doing a much better job than ceilometers, especially with regard to aerosol retrievalsBe aware that Lidars are typically much more expensive than ceilometers, both in terms of running costs for the technics and the costs of staff needed for operations
Visions, Ideas, Plans
What do we have ?GALION = WMOs GAW Aerosol Lidar Observation NetworkGALION is a Lidar network of networks !National ceilometer networks, mainly for cloud detection
What do we need (because we dont have it now) ?International exchange of ceilometer (and lidar) dataAn operational aerosol (profile) measurement/warning/alert system
How to get there ?By stimulating the data exchange through COST actions, EUMETNET, WMOBy integrating national ceilometer networks into GALIONBy combining and harmonizing the national ceilometer networks
GALION workshop 2010Source: WMO
Aerosol informationClosing the gap between the current GALION world and the world of the operational met. servicesImproving the spatio-temporal resolution of GALIONProcuring and supporting a win-win-situation by improving the near-real-time capabilities of GALION and operational entities in case of emergencies
Cloud informationEnabling application (assimilation and validation) of ceilometer and lidar data in NWP models at regional and global scale
Who needs that ?
Met. Services and Aeronautics (now)support to aviation
WMOs SDS-WAS, Met. Services (next 5 years)Data assimilation, model validationPBL height, aerosol profile data
WMO/GAW + Research community (long-term)Tracing long-range transport phenomenaPerforming long-term observations (4D aerosol distribution)Modelling air quality (using profile data to constrain the mixing height)Eyjafjalla ash plumeSource: DLR
What has been done so far ?Survey of ceilometers and lidarsMostly within RA VI (EARLINET)US (MPLnet) + Asia (AD-Net) involvedAbout 15 different instrument types just in Europe !
Some corner stones933 ceilometer positions and120 lidar positions gathered on a google earth mapclickable map provides access to quick looks and stations (meta data): ~180 stations are linked nowcreated database containing data and meta data, Excel and MySQL
Web site: under development, hosted by DWDOpenlayers-based (free of charge), same functionalityShow cases (google-earth based) forSaharan dustVolcanic ash
What else has been done ?Paved the way for harmonizing/exchanging dataInvolvement of EG-CLIMET (COST ES0702) proposing a new COST action toprof (like winprof) ensuring continuation of these activities after 2012Expert workshop in September 2012 (Univ. Reading) discussed data format issues, ceilometer intercomparison and the absolute calibration of ceilometers Agreement on netcdf (scientific exchange) and BUFR (operational exchange and storage) format; UKMO is the leading entityInvolvement of EUMETNET: Take over in the long-term, meanwhile agreed. Proposal by UKMO and MeteoSwiss (E-Profile) submitted
CIMO/CBSStatus of Lidars and ceilometers regarding volcanic ash detection and monitoring presented and laid down in report of 2011 annual meetingProposal sent to CIMO management group for supporting a ceilometer intercomparison campaign
Even more under way at European level, all FP7 projectsWEZARDPerformed review of nowadays quality monitoring and status of data storage/data access w.r.t. volcanic ash products
ACTRIS/EARLINETCeilometer intercomparison campaign could be supportedEARLINET has accepted leading scientific role, thus engagement in the further developmentDevelopment of calibration and retrieval algorithms with EARLINETs help (funding problem !)
MACC-IIUse of ceilometer data in C-IFS (the ECMWF integrated chemistry forecast model); most likely using the forward operator approach
ConclusionImportant steps towards an integrated and operational use of ceilometer and lidar data have already been doneSeveral running and future projects deal with data exchange, harmonization of data and data formats, retrieval algorithms, calibration issues
These applications are served:Aviation security (volcanic ash, dust)NWP (data assimilation)Global Atmosphere Watch (long-term monitoring)
Even more international engagement required; the current drivers are mostly in Europe
Thanks !Questions ?Want to have the kml file ?
TOPROF = Towards Operational ground based PROFiling with ceilometers and microwave radiometers for improving weather forecasts