What can teachers / learners do? Chapter Overview

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What can teachers / learners do? Chapter Overview. 1. Learner characteristics 2. Learner styles 3. Learner strategies 4. Learner motivation. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • What can teachers / learners do?Chapter Overview1. Learner characteristics

    2. Learner styles

    3. Learner strategies

    4. Learner motivation Cohen, Andrew D. 2010. Focus on the Language Learner: Styles, Strategies and Motivation. Second Language Acquisition. In Norbert Schmitt, editor. An Introduction to Applied Linguistics, 2nd edition, Chapter 10, pp. 161-178. London: Hodder Education.

  • Successful L2 LearningSuccess in learning a foreign or second language (L2) depends on a variety of factors such as duration and intensity of the language course characteristics and abilities of the teacher appropriateness of the teaching methodology quality of the textbook size and composition of the learner group amount of natural L2 practice opportunities the characteristics of the language learner Cohen, Andrew D. 2010. Focus on the Language Learner: Styles, Strategies and Motivation. Second Language Acquisition. In Norbert Schmitt, editor. An Introduction to Applied Linguistics, 2nd edition, Chapter 10, pp. 161-178. London: Hodder Education, p. 161.

  • Characteristics Outside the Teacher's Control Age

    Gender

    Language Aptitude

    Learning Styles Cohen, Andrew D. 2010. Focus on the Language Learner: Styles, Strategies and Motivation. Second Language Acquisition. In Norbert Schmitt, editor. An Introduction to Applied Linguistics, 2nd edition, Chapter 10, pp. 161-178. London: Hodder Education, pp. 161-162.

  • Age and L2 Acquisition recent research shows that 'the younger the better' principle is only valid in environments where there is a constant and natural exposure to the L2 (for example, learning French in France); in typical classroom environments where the amount of exposure is relatively small, older learners seem to have the advantage over their younger peers, that is, here, older is better. Cohen, Andrew D. 2010. Focus on the Language Learner: Styles, Strategies and Motivation. Second Language Acquisition. In Norbert Schmitt, editor. An Introduction to Applied Linguistics, 2nd edition, Chapter 10, pp. 161-178. London: Hodder Education, pp. 161-162.

  • Language AptitudeIt is best seen as the language-related aspect of intelligence, and it determines the rate of learning and the amount of energy the progress is likely to require of the learner.

    it is important to note that language aptitude does not determine whether or not someone can learner a language.this can be compensated for by various other factors. Cohen, Andrew D. 2010. Focus on the Language Learner: Styles, Strategies and Motivation. Second Language Acquisition. In Norbert Schmitt, editor. An Introduction to Applied Linguistics, 2nd edition, Chapter 10, pp. 161-178. London: Hodder Education, p. 162.

  • Learning Styles Preferences Sensory / perceptual style preferences

    Cognitive style preferences

    Personality-related style preferences Cohen, Andrew D. 2010. Focus on the Language Learner: Styles, Strategies and Motivation. Second Language Acquisition. In Norbert Schmitt, editor. An Introduction to Applied Linguistics, 2nd edition, Chapter 10, pp. 161-178. London: Hodder Education, p. 163.

  • Sensory / Perceptual Style PreferencesBeing more Visual Auditory Tactile / kinesthetic (hands-on)Cohen, Andrew D. 2010. Focus on the Language Learner: Styles, Strategies and Motivation. Second Language Acquisition. In Norbert Schmitt, editor. An Introduction to Applied Linguistics, 2nd edition, Chapter 10, pp. 161-178. London: Hodder Education, p. 163.

  • Cognitive Style PreferencesBeing more Global or particular / detail-oriented A synthesizer and/or being analytic Deductive or inductiveCohen, Andrew D. 2010. Focus on the Language Learner: Styles, Strategies and Motivation. Second Language Acquisition. In Norbert Schmitt, editor. An Introduction to Applied Linguistics, 2nd edition, Chapter 10, pp. 161-178. London: Hodder Education, p. 163.

  • Personality-Related Style PreferencesBeing more Extroverted or introverted Abstract/intuitive or concrete/sequential Open or closure-oriented Cohen, Andrew D. 2010. Focus on the Language Learner: Styles, Strategies and Motivation. Second Language Acquisition. In Norbert Schmitt, editor. An Introduction to Applied Linguistics, 2nd edition, Chapter 10, pp. 161-178. London: Hodder Education, p. 163.

  • How can knowing learning styles help you?AS A LEARNER: Play to your own strengths AS A TEACHER: Try to provide activities that will cater to different learner styles Try to help students stretch their style muscles (if NOT more)

  • Factors that the Teacher Might be able to Influence Learner Strategies

    Motivation

    Stretching of Individual Learners Style

    Teaching and Practicing of Learner / Communication Strategies Cohen, Andrew D. 2010. Focus on the Language Learner: Styles, Strategies and Motivation. Second Language Acquisition. In Norbert Schmitt, editor. An Introduction to Applied Linguistics, 2nd edition, Chapter 10, pp. 161-178. London: Hodder Education, p. 163ff.

  • Strategy Types1. Language Learning Strategies

    2. Language Use/Communication Strategies

    3. Self-Motivating StrategiesCohen, Andrew D. 2010. Focus on the Language Learner: Styles, Strategies and Motivation. Second Language Acquisition. In Norbert Schmitt, editor. An Introduction to Applied Linguistics, 2nd edition, Chapter 10, pp. 161-178. London: Hodder Education, p. 164ff.

  • Language Use Strategies1. Retrieval Strategies

    2. Rehearsal Strategies

    3. Communication Strategies

    4. Cover StrategiesCohen, Andrew D. 2010. Focus on the Language Learner: Styles, Strategies and Motivation. Second Language Acquisition. In Norbert Schmitt, editor. An Introduction to Applied Linguistics, 2nd edition, Chapter 10, pp. 161-178. London: Hodder Education, p. 164.

  • Communication Strategiesthe verbal (or non-verbal) first aid devices which may be used to deal with problems or breakdowns in communication. These devices enable learners to stay active partners in communication even when things do not go well. [My emphasis added] Cohen, Andrew D. 2010. Focus on the Language Learner: Styles, Strategies and Motivation. Second Language Acquisition. In Norbert Schmitt, editor. An Introduction to Applied Linguistics, 2nd edition, Chapter 10, pp. 161-178. London: Hodder Education, p. 165.

  • MotivationMotivation can be promoted consciously, which is good news for L2 teachers: it means that by employing certain methods it is possible to change learners' motivation in a positive direction. For this reason, skills in motivating learners are an important aspect of any teacher's methodological repertoire. Cohen, Andrew D. 2010. Focus on the Language Learner: Styles, Strategies and Motivation. Second Language Acquisition. In Norbert Schmitt, editor. An Introduction to Applied Linguistics, 2nd edition, Chapter 10, pp. 161-178. London: Hodder Education, p. 169.

  • L2 Language / Culture The learning of a foreign language involves far more than simply learning skills, or a system of rules, or a grammar; it involves an alteration in self-image, the adoption of new social and cultural behaviours and ways of being, and therefore has a significant impact on the social nature of the learner. Williams, M. 1994. Motivation in foreign and second language learning: An interactive perspective. Educational and Child Psychology 11: 77-84 (page 77). Cited in Cohen, Andrew D. 2010. Focus on the Language Learner: Styles, Strategies and Motivation. Second Language Acquisition. In Norbert Schmitt, editor. An Introduction to Applied Linguistics, 2nd edition, Chapter 10, pp. 161-178. London: Hodder Education, pp. 169-170.

  • Motivation as a Dynamic Process1. Choice motivation

    2. Executive motivation

    3. Motivational retrospectionCohen, Andrew D. 2010. Focus on the Language Learner: Styles, Strategies and Motivation. Second Language Acquisition. In Norbert Schmitt, editor. An Introduction to Applied Linguistics, 2nd edition, Chapter 10, pp. 161-178. London: Hodder Education, p. 170.

  • Choice Motivation or Orientation Integrative orientation: reflects a positive disposition toward the L2 group and the desire to interact with and even become similar to valued members of that community. Instrumental orientation: language learning is primarily associated with the potential pragmatic gains of L2 proficiency, such as getting a better job or a higher salary. Integrative motive Cohen, Andrew D. 2010. Focus on the Language Learner: Styles, Strategies and Motivation. Second Language Acquisition. In Norbert Schmitt, editor. An Introduction to Applied Linguistics, 2nd edition, Chapter 10, pp. 161-178. London: Hodder Education, p. 171.

  • Motivational Roles Teachers: group conscience, reference, standard rapport with students how present tasks, feedback, praise Parents:long recognized Learner Group: how classmates react to youCohen, Andrew D. 2010. Focus on the Language Learner: Styles, Strategies and Motivation. Second Language Acquisition. In Norbert Schmitt, editor. An Introduction to Applied Linguistics, 2nd edition, Chapter 10, pp. 161-178. London: Hodder Education, pp. 171-172.

  • Teaching StrategiesResearch has found that it is possible to teach learners to enhance their strategy use, that is, to help them to be more conscious and systematic about the strategies that they already use and to add new strategies to their repertoire [and cites several studies.

    Cohen, Andrew D. 2010. Focus on the Language Learner: Styles, Strategies and Motivation. Second Language Acquisition. In Norbert Schmitt, editor. An Introduction to Applied Linguistics, 2nd edition, Chapter 10, pp. 161-178. London: Hodder Education, p. 173.

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